A mandolin is a stringed musical instrument in the lute family and is plucked with a plectrum or "pick". It has four courses of doubled metal strings tuned in unison, although five and six course versions exist; the courses are tuned in a succession of perfect fifths. It is the soprano member of a family that includes the mandola, octave mandolin and mandobass. There are many styles of mandolin, but three are common, the Neapolitan or round-backed mandolin, the carved-top mandolin and the flat-backed mandolin; the round-back has a deep bottom, constructed of strips of wood, glued together into a bowl. The carved-top or arch-top mandolin has a much shallower, arched back, an arched top—both carved out of wood; the flat-backed mandolin uses thin sheets of wood for the body, braced on the inside for strength in a similar manner to a guitar. Each style of instrument is associated with particular forms of music. Neapolitan mandolins feature prominently in traditional music. Carved-top instruments are common in American folk music and bluegrass music.
Flat-backed instruments are used in Irish and Brazilian folk music. Some modern Brazilian instruments feature an extra fifth course tuned a fifth lower than the standard fourth course. Other mandolin varieties differ in the number of strings and include four-string models such as the Brescian and Cremonese, six-string types such as the Milanese and the Sicilian and 6 course instruments of 12 strings such as the Genoese. There has been a twelve-string type and an instrument with sixteen-strings. Much of mandolin development revolved around the soundboard. Pre-mandolin instruments were quiet instruments, strung with as many as six courses of gut strings, were plucked with the fingers or with a quill. However, modern instruments are louder—using four courses of metal strings, which exert more pressure than the gut strings; the modern soundboard is designed to withstand the pressure of metal strings that would break earlier instruments. The soundboard comes in many shapes—but round or teardrop-shaped, sometimes with scrolls or other projections.
There is one or more sound holes in the soundboard, either round, oval, or shaped like a calligraphic f. A round or oval sound hole may be bordered with decorative rosettes or purfling. Mandolins evolved from the lute family in Italy during the 17th and 18th centuries, the deep bowled mandolin, produced in Naples, became common in the 19th century. Dating to c. 13,000 BC, a cave painting in the Trois Frères cave in France depicts what some believe is a musical bow, a hunting bow used as a single-stringed musical instrument. From the musical bow, families of stringed instruments developed. In turn, this led to being able to play chords. Another innovation occurred when the bow harp was straightened out and a bridge used to lift the strings off the stick-neck, creating the lute; this picture of musical bow to harp bow has been contested. In 1965 Franz Jahnel wrote his criticism stating that the early ancestors of plucked instruments are not known, he felt that the harp bow was a long cry from the sophistication of the 4th-century BC civilization that took the primitive technology and created "technically and artistically well made harps, lyres and lutes."
Musicologists have put forth examples of that 4th-century BC technology, looking at engraved images that have survived. The earliest image showing a lute-like instrument came from Mesopotamia prior to 3000 BC. A cylinder seal from c. 3100 BC or earlier shows. From the surviving images, theororists have categorized the Mesopotamian lutes, showing that they developed into a long variety and a short; the line of long lutes may have developed into pandura. The line of short lutes was further developed to the east of Mesopotamia, in Bactria and Northwest India, shown in sculpture from the 2nd century BC through the 4th or 5th centuries AD. Bactria and Gandhara became part of the Sasanian Empire. Under the Sasanians, a short almond shaped lute from Bactria came to be called the barbat or barbud, developed into the Islamic world's oud or ud; when the Moors conquered Andalusia in 711 AD, they brought their ud along, into a country that had known a lute tradition under the Romans, the pandura. During the 8th and 9th centuries, many musicians and artists from across the Islamic world flocked to Iberia.
Among them was Abu l-Hasan ‘Ali Ibn Nafi‘, a prominent musician who had trained under Ishaq al-Mawsili in Baghdad and was exiled to Andalusia before 833 AD. He taught and has been credited with adding a fifth string to his oud and with establishing one of the first schools of music in Córdoba. By the 11th century, Muslim Iberia had become a center for the manufacture of instruments; these goods spread to Provence, influencing French troubadours and trouvères and reaching the rest of Europe. Beside the introduction of the lute to Spain by the Moors, another important point of transfer of the lute from Arabian to European culture was Sicily, where it was brought either by Byzantine or by Muslim musicians. There were singer-lutenists at the court in Palermo following the N
A salpinx was a trumpet-like instrument of the ancient Greeks. The salpinx consisted of a straight, narrow bronze tube with a mouthpiece of bone and a bell of variable shape and size; each type of bell may have had a unique effect on the sound made by the instrument. The instrument has been depicted in some classical era vases as employing the use of a phorbeia, similar to those used by aulos players of the era. Though similar to the Roman tuba, the salpinx was shorter than the 1.5 meter long Roman tuba. A rare example of a salpinx, held at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, is unique in that it is constructed from thirteen sections of bone connected using tenons and sockets rather than the long, bronze tube described elsewhere; this salpinx is over 1.57 m long dwarfing the common salpinx, estimated to have been around 0.8 – 1.20 m long. The trumpet is found in many early civilizations and therefore makes it difficult to discern when and where the long, straight trumpet design found in the salpinx originated.
References to the salpinx are found in Greek literature and art. Early descriptions of the sound of the salpinx can be found in Homer’s Iliad, this Archaic reference is exceptional and frequent references are not found until the Classical period. Similar instruments can be found in Anatolia and Egypt, though the salpinx is most related to the Egyptian version. References to the salpinx in classical literature include mention of the instrument as tyrrhene a derivative of Tyrrhenoi, an exonym employed by the Greeks as an allusion to the Etruscan people. Bronze instruments were important among the Etruscans and as a people they were held in high regard by the Greeks for their musical contributions; the salpinx as an Etruscan invention is thus supported by the Greeks and various descriptions can be found among the authors Aeschylus and Sophocles. It is that the salpinx was introduced to the Greeks in some way through the Etruscans, scattered references to the salpinx prior to Greek contact with the Etruscans, as well as the myriad salpinx type instruments described by Eustathius of Thessalonia, suggests some small level of uncertainty in regard to whether or not the instrument came to the Greeks directly from the Etruscans or through some intermediary source.
When encountered in Greek art and literature, the salpinx is depicted as being played by a soldier. Fifth century authors associated its "piercing sound" with war; this is supported in the writing of Aristotle who, in De Audibilibus, explained that salpinges were used as "...instruments of summons in war, at the games, so on, not to make music." Aristides Quintilianus described the necessity of the salpinx and salpingtis in battle in his treatise, On Music. He explains that each command to troops was given using specific tones or "melodies" played on the salpinx; this action allowed for an entire army to receive a command at once as well as provide a level of secrecy as these salpinx calls were specific to a group and would be unknown to an opponent. Yet despite its distinctive sound, the shrill blasts of the salpinx would have had a difficult time overcoming the clashing of metal, the cries of the wounded, the roars of aggression from rows of soldiers; this is why the salpinx was used before battle to summon men to prepare for battle and to sound the charge.
Andrew Barker, describes a possible exception to the utilitarian usage of the salpinx referencing Aristotle, who wrote, "...that is why everyone, when engaging in revelry, relaxes the tension of the breath in playing the salpinx, so as to make the sound as gentle as possible." It is suggested here. This notion is corroborated by Nikos Xanthoulis in his article "The Salpinx in Greek Antiquity". Here, he draws particular attention to Aristotle's statement that "...participants of a komos unbend the tension of the exhaling air in the salpinx, in order to make the sound smoother." The komos, a street festival with music and dance, would require an "unbending of tension" in order to create a more pleasing tone thus indicating a usage for the instrument outside of the military. Another more universal function of the salpinx was to use it as a means of bringing silence to a rambunctious crowd or at a large gathering; this was both useful in a societal setting in places such as large assemblies and as a tool to quiet soldiers while a general addressed his men.
The sound of the salpinx was being digitally recreated by the Ancient Instruments Sound/Timbre Reconstruction Application project which uses physical modeling synthesis to simulate the sound of the salpinx. Due to the complexity of this process, the ASTRA project uses grid computing on hundreds of computers throughout Europe to model the sounds; the Salpinx is part of the Lost Sounds Orchestra, alongside other ancient instruments whose sounds have been recreated by ASTRA, including the epigonion, the aulos, the barbiton and the syrinx. History of primitive and non-Western trumpets http://www.tapsbugler.com/HistoryoftheBugle/HistoryoftheBugle2.html
It seems that Byzantine music is the music of the Byzantine Empire, but political history is rather complicated and the heritage of Byzantine music developed and continued outside its territory. It consisted of songs and hymns composed to Greek texts used for courtly ceremonials, during festivals, or as paraliturgical and liturgical music; the ecclesiastical forms of Byzantine music are the best known forms today, because different Orthodox traditions still identify with the heritage of Byzantine music, when their cantors sing monodic chant out of the traditional chant books such as sticherarion, which in fact consisted of five books, the heirmologion. Byzantine music did not disappear after the fall of Constantinople, its traditions continued under the Patriarchate of Constantinople, which after the Ottoman conquest in 1453 was granted administrative responsibilities over all Orthodox Christians. During the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century, burgeoning splinter nations in the Balkans declared autonomy or "autocephaly" against the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
The new self-declared patriarchates were independent nations defined by their religion. In this context, Christian religious chant practiced in the Ottoman empire, Bulgaria and Greece among other nations, was based on the historical roots of the art tracing back to the Byzantine Empire, while the music of the Patriarchate created during the Ottoman period was regarded as "post-Byzantine"; this explains why Byzantine music refers to several Orthodox Christian chant traditions of the Mediterranean and of the Caucasus practiced in recent history and today, this article cannot be limited to the music culture of the Byzantine past. The tradition of eastern liturgical chant, encompassing the Greek-speaking world, developed in the Byzantine Empire from the establishment of its capital, Constantinople, in 330 until its fall in 1453, it is undeniably of composite origin, drawing on the artistic and technical productions of the classical Greek age and inspired by the monophonic vocal music that evolved in the early Greek Christian cities of Alexandria, Jerusalem and Ephesus.
It was imitated by musicians of the 7th century to create Arab music as a synthesis of Byzantine and Persian music, these exchanges were continued through the Ottoman Empire until Istanbul today. The term Byzantine music is sometimes associated with the medieval sacred chant of Christian Churches following the Constantinopolitan Rite. There is an identification of "Byzantine music" with "Eastern Christian liturgical chant", due to certain monastic reforms, such as the Octoechos reform of the Quinisext Council and the reforms of the Stoudios Monastery under its abbots Sabas and Theodore; the triodion created during the reform of Theodore was soon translated into Slavonic, which required the adaption of melodic models to the prosody of the language. After the Patriarchate and Court had returned to Constantinople in 1261, the former cathedral rite was not continued, but replaced by a mixed rite, which used the Byzantine Round notation to integrate the former notations of the former chant books.
This notation had developed within the book sticherarion created by the Stoudios Monastery, but it was used for the books of the cathedral rites written in a period after the fourth crusade, when the cathedral rite was abandoned at Constantinople. It is being discussed that in the Narthex of the Hagia Sophia an organ was placed for use in processions of the Emperor’s entourage. According to the chant manual "Hagiopolites", the earliest that has survived until today, chanters of the Hagia Sophia used a system 16 church tones, while the author of this treatise introduces to a tonal system of 10 echoi. Both schools have in common a set of 4 octaves, each of them had a kyrios echos with the finalis on the degree V of the mode, a plagios echos with the final note on the degree I. According to Latin theory, the resulting eight tones had been identified with the seven modes and tropes; the names of the tropes like “Dorian” etc. had been used in Greek chant manuals, but the names Lydian and Phrygian for the octaves of devteros and tritos had been sometimes exchanged.
The Ancient Greek harmonikai was a Hellenist reception of the Pythagorean education programme defined as mathemata. Harmonikai was one of them. Today, chanters of the Christian Orthodox churches identify with the heritage of Byzantine music whose earliest composers are remembered by name since the 5th century. Compositions had been related to them, but they must be reconstructed by notated sources which date centuries later; the melodic neume notation of Byzantine music developed late since the 10th century, with the exception of an earlier ekphonetic notation, interpunction signs used in lectionaries, but modal signatures for the eight echoi can be found in fragments of monastic hymn books dating back to the 6th century. Amid the rise of Christian civilization within Hellenism, many concepts of knowledge and education survived during the imperial age, when Christianity became the official religion; the Pythagorean sect and music as part of the four "cyclical exercises" that preceded the Latin quadrivium and science today based on mathematics, established among Greeks in southern Italy.
Greek anachoretes of the early Middle Ages did still follow this education. The Calabrian Cassiodorus founded Vivarium where he translated Greek texts, John of Damascus who learnt Greek from a Ca
The chelys, was a stringed musical instrument, the common lyre of the ancient Greeks, which had a convex back of tortoiseshell or of wood shaped like the shell. The word chelys was used in allusion to the oldest lyre of the Greeks, said to have been invented by Hermes. According to the Homeric Hymn to Hermes, he came across a tortoise near the threshold of his mother's home and decided to hollow out the shell to make the soundbox of an instrument with seven strings; the word has been applied arbitrarily since classic times to various stringed instruments, some bowed and some plucked owing to the back being much vaulted. Athanasius Kircher applied the name of chelys to a kind of viol with eight strings. Numerous representations of the chelys lyre or testudo occur on Greek vases, in which the actual tortoiseshell is depicted. A good illustration is given in Le Antichità di Ercolano. Propertius calls the instrument the lyra testudinea. Joseph Justus Scaliger was the first writer to draw attention to the difference between the chelys and the kithara.
The acoustics of an authentically reconstructed ancient Greek tortoise-shell lyre, known as chelys, was investigated recently. Modern experimental methods were employed, such as electronic speckle pattern laser interferometry and impulse response, to extract the vibrational behavior of the instrument and its main parts. Additionally, the emitted sound from the instrument was recorded, under controlled conditions, spectrally analyzed. Major findings include the concentration of the emitted sound between 400 Hz and 800 Hz, with an amplitude modified in a manner consistent with the experimentally measured vibrational characteristics of the instrument’s sound box and bridge; the experimental results validate the historical evidence that chelys was used in Greek antiquity as an accompaniment instrument to the human voice. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Kathleen. "Chelys". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. Cambridge University Press. P. 26. Chelys-Lyra, Greece, 400 BCE
An aerophone is any musical instrument that produces sound by causing a body of air to vibrate, without the use of strings or membranes, without the vibration of the instrument itself adding to the sound. Aerophones categorically comprise "the largest and most complex group of instruments in the Americas". Aerophones are one of the four main classes of instruments in the original Hornbostel–Sachs system of musical instrument classification, which further classifies aerophones by whether or not the vibrating air is contained within the instrument; the first class includes instruments. The bullroarer is one example; these are called free aerophones. This class includes free reed instruments, such as the harmonica, but many instruments unlikely to be called wind instruments at all by most people, such as sirens and whips; the second class includes instruments. This class includes all instruments called wind instruments — including the didgeridoo, brass instruments, woodwind instruments. Additionally loud sounds can be made by explosions directed into, or being detonated inside of resonant cavities.
Detonations inside the calliope, as well as the pyrophone might thus be considered as class 42 instruments, despite the fact that the "wind" or "air" may be steam or an air-fuel mixture. According to Ardal Powell, the flute is a simple instrument found in numerous ancient cultures. There are three legendary and archeologically verifiable birthplace sites of flutes: Egypt and India. Of these, the transverse flute appeared only in ancient India, while the fipple flutes are found in all three, it is states Powell, that the modern Indian bansuri has not changed much since the early medieval era. Identifying the origin of the aerophone is difficult, though it is believed that Americans and their descendants developed the largest diversity of aerophones, they are understood to have been the major non-vocal, melodic instruments of Native America. Archaeological studies have found examples of globular flutes in ancient Mexico and Peru, multiple tubular flutes were common among the Maya and Aztec; the use of shells of Conches as an aerophone have been found to be prevalent in areas such as Central America and Peru.
Examples of aerophone type instruments in China can be dated back to the Neolithic period. Fragments of bone flutes can be found at the burial sites of the Jiahu settlements of ancient China, they represent some of the earliest known examples of playable instruments; the instruments were carved from the wing bone of the red-crowned crane, had five to eight holes. The flutes were efficient enough to produce sound in a nearly accurate octave, are thought to have been used ceremonially or for ritualistic purposes. Examples of flutes made out of bamboo in China date back to 2nd Century BC; these flutes were known as Dizi's or Di and had 6 holes for playing melodies that were framed by scale-modes. Flutes including the famous Bansuri, have been an integral part of Indian classical music since 1500 BC. A major deity of Hinduism, has been associated with the flute; some early flutes were made out of tibias. The flute has always been an essential part of Indian culture and mythology, the cross flute is believed, by several accounts, to originate in India as Indian literature from 1500 BCE has made vague references to the cross flute.
Free aerophones are instruments. The air-stream meets a sharp edge; the air-stream is interrupted periodically. Called "percussive aerophones", plosive aerophones are sounded by percussion caused by a single compression and release of air. An example of a plosive aerophone is the "scraper flute" which has tubes with ridged or serrated edges so that they can be scraped with a rod to produce sound. Non-free aerophones are instruments. Called wind instruments, they are divided into two categories, it is accepted that wind instruments are not classified on the material from which they are made, as a woodwind instrument does not need to be made of wood, nor a brass instrument made of brass. Woodwind instruments are made with wood, glass or ivory and include the flute, bassoon, clarinet and the saxophone. Brass instruments are made with silver, ivory, horn, or wood and include the trumpet, horn and the tuba. A flute is a type of aerophone, as is the Eunuch flute referred to as a mirliton. A flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening.
According to the instrument classification of Hornbostel–Sachs, flutes are categorized as edge-blown aerophones. Aside from the voice, flutes are the earliest known musical instruments. A number of flutes dating to about 43,000 to 35,000 years ago have been found in the Swabian Alb region of Germany; these flutes demonstrate that a developed musical tradition existed from the earliest period of modern human presence in Europe. Flute aerophone examples A reed aerophone is a musical instrument that produces sound by the player's breath being directed against a lamella or pair of lamellae which periodically interrupt the airflow and cause the air to be set in motion. Reed aerophone examples A brass aerophone is a musical instrument that produces sound by s
The Byzantine lyra or lira was a medieval bowed string musical instrument in the Byzantine Empire. In its popular form the lyra was a pear-shaped instrument with three to five strings, held upright and played by stopping the strings from the side with fingernails. Remains of two actual examples of Byzantine lyras from the Middle ages have been found in excavations at Novgorod; the first known depiction of the instrument is on a Byzantine ivory casket, preserved in the Bargello in Florence. Versions of the Byzantine lyra are still played throughout the former lands of the Byzantine Empire: Greece, Albania, Serbia, North Macedonia, Croatia and Turkey; the first recorded reference to the bowed lyra was in the 9th century by the Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih. The lyra has roots in the ancestor of all European bowed instruments; the lyra spread via the Byzantine trade routes that linked the three continents. In the meantime, the rabāb, the bowed string instrument of the Arabic world, was introduced to Western Europe through the Iberian Peninsula and both instruments spread throughout Europe giving birth to various European bowed instruments such as the medieval rebec, the Scandinavian and Icelandic talharpa.
A notable example is the Italian lira da braccio, a 15th-century bowed string instrument, considered by many as the predecessor of the contemporary violin. From the organological point of view, the Byzantine lyra is in fact an instrument belonging to the family of bowed lutes; the use of the term lyra for a bowed instrument was first recorded in the 9th century as an application of the term lyre of the stringed musical instrument of classical antiquity to the new bowed string instrument. The Byzantine lyra is sometimes informally called a medieval fiddle, or a pear-shaped rebec, or a kemanche, terms that may be used today to refer to a general category of similar stringed instruments played with a horsehair bow; the Byzantine lyra had rear tuning pegs set in a flat peg to the medieval fiddle and unlike the rabāb and rebec. However, the strings were touched by the nails laterally and not pressed from above with the flesh of the finger such as in the violin; the lyra depicted on the Byzantine ivory casket of Museo Nazionale, Florence has two strings and pear-shaped body with long and narrow neck.
The soundboard is depicted without soundholes and as a distinct and attached piece, however this might be due to stylistic abstraction. The lyras of Novgorod are closer morphologically to the present bowed lyras: they were pear-shaped and 40 cm long; the middle string served as a drone while fingering the others by finger or fingernail alone, downwards or sidewards against the string, for there was no fingerboard to press them against: a method which gives the notes as as the violin and remains normal in lyras both in Asia as well as on present bowed instruments in post-Byzantine regions such as the Cretan lyra. The lyra of the Byzantine empire survives in many post-Byzantine regions until the present day closely to its archetype form. Examples are the Politiki lyra known as the Classical Kemenche from Constantinople, used in today's Turkey and Greece, the Cretan lyra and the one used in the Greek islands of the Dodecanese, the gadulka in Bulgaria, the gusle in Serbia and Montenegro, the Calabrian lira in Italy, the Pontic lyra in the Pontic Greek communities, that existed around the shores of the Black Sea.
The gudok, a historical Russian instrument that survived until the 19th century, is a variant of the Byzantine lyra. To the lyras found at Novgorod, the Cretan lyra, the Gadulka, the Calabrian Lira and the Greek lyras of Karpathos, Macedonia and Mount Olympus are manufactured from a single wood block, sculpted into a pear-shaped body; the rounded body of the lyra is prolonged by a neck ending on the top in a block, pear-shaped or spherical. In that, are set the pegs facing and extending forward; the soundboard is carved with a shallower arch and has two small semi-circular, D-shaped soundholes. The Cretan lyra is the most used surviving form of the Byzantine lyra, except that in Crete instrument-making has been influenced by that of the violin. Numerous models tend to integrate the shape of the scroll, the finger board and other morphology of some secondary characteristics of the violin; the modern variants of the lyra are tuned in various ways: LA–RE–SO on the Cretan lyra.
The classical kemenche or Armudî kemençe or Politiki lyra is a pear-shaped bowed instrument. It used by Greek immigrants from Asia Minor and in classical Ottoman music; the instrument was used earlier for popular music, such as early "Smyrna-Style" Rebetiko and played till nowadays. It has become the main bowed instrument of Ottoman classical music since the mid 19th century; the name Kemençe derives from the Persian Kamancheh, means "small bow". The name lyra derives from the name of the ancient Greek lyre and was used in medieval times, see Byzantine lyra, it is played in the downright position, by resting it between both knees or on one knee when sitting. It is always played "braccio", that is, with the tuning head uppermost; the kemenche bow is called the Greek term for bow. The strings are stopped by touching them by the side with the nails, like for many folk fiddles from Southeastern Europe to the Indian sub-continent, including the Indian sarangi, its pear-shaped body, elliptical pegbox and neck are fashioned from a single piece of wood.
Its sound-board has two D-shaped soundholes of some 4x3 cm 25 mm apart, the rounded side facing outwards. The bridge is placed between, one side resting on the face of the instrument and the other on the sound post. A small hole 3–4 mm in diameter is bored in the back, directly below the bridge, a ‘back channel’ begins from a triangular raised area, an extension of the neck, widens in the middle, ends in a point near the tailpiece to which the gut or metal strings are attached. There is no nut to equalize the vibrating lengths of the strings; the pegs, which are 14–15 cm long, form a triangle on the head, the middle string being 37–40 mm longer than the strings to either side of it. The vibrating lengths of the short strings are 25.5–26 cm. All the strings are of gut but the yegâh string is silver-wound. Today players may use synthetic racquet strings, aluminium-wound gut, synthetic silk or chromed steel violin strings; the head and back channel might be inlaid with ivory, mother-of-pearl or tortoise shell.
Some kemençes made for the palace or mansions by great makers such as Büyük İzmitli or Baron had their backs and the edges of the sound holes covered with such inlays with engraved and inlaid motifs. The Byzantine lyra was a pear-shaped bowed string instrument; the Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih was the first to describe the Byzantine lyra as a typical Byzantine instrument. Variations of the instrument exist through a vast area of the Mediterranean and the Balkans. Examples are the Bulgarian Gadulka, the Calabrian Lira in Italy, the lyra of Crete and the Dodecanese, the Lijerica of the Croatian Adriatic. Tamburi Cemil Bey Derya Türkan Sokratis Sinopoulos Labros Leontaridis İhsan Özgen Byzantine lyra Cretan lyra Gadulka Gudok Ghaychak Gusle Rebab Kamancheh Kobyz Rebec igil Byzaanchy Huqin Violin family Margaret J. Kartomi: On Concepts and Classifications of Musical Instruments. Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology, University of Chicago Press, 1990 The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments: Londra, 1984.
M. Nazmi Özalp: Türk Sanat Mûsikîsi Sazlarından Kemençe, tarihsiz. Laurence Picken: Folk Musical Instruments of Turkey, Londra, 1975. Rauf Yekta: Türk Musikisi, İstanbul, 1986. Kemençe Classical kemençe video