In American football, a bootleg play is a play in which the quarterback runs with the ball in the direction of either sideline behind the line of scrimmage. This can be accompanied by a play action, or fake hand off of the ball to a running back running the opposite direction; the quarterback can be accompanied by an offensive lineman to block for him, or run without a blocker, known as a naked bootleg or waggle. More complex versions involve multiple offensive linemen moving with the quarterback to block and multiple false hand offs. After escaping the area behind the offensive line, the quarterback may either throw a pass downfield or run with the ball himself to gain yardage. A bootleg is called to confuse the defense, by moving the quarterback away from where they expect him to be, directly behind the center; the quarterback's motion may attract the attention of the defensive backs, allowing one of the receivers to become uncovered. The play is used by teams with mobile quarterbacks, such as Steve Young, Randall Cunningham and Russell Wilson.
Additional variations can be combined with bootleg plays. In the West Coast offense variant designed around quarterback Michael Vick, counter techniques combined with play action bootleg plays served to provide several types of simultaneous misdirection which caused defensive players to freeze after misjudging the intended direction of the play; these techniques, along with Vick's unusual athleticism, slow down and isolate defenders and provide extra space and time for the quarterback to survey the field and/or run the ball. The bootleg and its variants have become more common in recent years as the rules have been changed to permit a quarterback to avoid a sack by throwing the ball away once he is outside the "tackle box". Since the quarterback in a bootleg sets up to throw well outside the tackles, if he is in danger of taking a sack he can throw the ball safely out of bounds without risking an intentional grounding penalty; the name comes from the fact that on a play action the quarterback hides the ball from the defense by his thigh to make the run look more convincing.
This is similar to the way. Pop Warner is given credit for inventing the bootleg play. Glossary of American football Sally Rand
The place kick is a type of kicking play used in American football, association football, Canadian football, rugby league, rugby union. Place kicks are used in American football and Canadian football for kickoffs, extra points, field goals; the place kick is one of the two most common forms of kick in gridiron-based football codes, along with the punt. The punt, cannot score points; the place kick is the nearly exclusive method of kicking in arena football as well as most other indoor football leagues, since punting is not legal in arena football. It involves placing the ball on the ground. To keep the ball in position, a mound of sand, a hole in the turf, or a plastic tee is sometimes used. A holder is required to hold a ball upright during field goal and extra point attempts. In most forms of gridiron football, a place kick that travels through the uprights is a field goal worth three points; some indoor football leagues award one point for kicking a kickoff through the uprights, a feature not available in most other leagues.
In the comic strip Peanuts, Lucy holds the football to allow Charlie Brown to place kick but invariably pulls it away at the last second, causing Charlie to fall on his back. Place kicks in association football are the corner kick, free kick, goal kick, kick-off and penalty kick; the technique was once used in Australian rules football when kicking for goal, but fell out of favour in the mid-20th Century in favour of the drop punt. The place kick is used in rugby league for kick offs and most kicks at goal; the lack of a successful place kicker in a team can be detrimental to a team. Anybody on the team can take a penalty or conversion kick although there is a regular kicker. Sometimes teams will use different players to kick depending on what side of the field the kick is to be taken from. Kick offs are taken from the centre of the halfway line. A kick at goal from a penalty kick can be taken at any point along an imaginary line parallel to the touchline between the place the offence was marked by the referee and the kicker's goal line.
Conversion attempts may be taken at any point along an imaginary line parallel to the touchline from where the try was scored. Most kickers use some form of aid to allow them to strike a preferred part of the ball. Popular aids used include kicking mounds of sand on which to place the ball. Players might use their boot to mould the ground where the ball will be placed, making a divot behind the ball to allow greater access to the kicking foot. Kickers attempt to position the ball in a way that allows them to kick the ball's "sweet spot". Kicking the sweet spot will result in the ball travelling further and is located about a third of the way up the ball; the most common kicking style is the round-the-corner kick, which tends to hook the ball to the left for a right footed kicker. Kickers pace out their kick before taking it; this begins with the kicker standing over the ball with their feet in kicking positions. They measure out a run up; when the ball is kicked with the instep of the foot, the kicker will follow through with their swing.
Most of the top kickers can kick a goal from 55m, or just inside their own half. In rugby union, the most common position for a goal kicker to play is fly-half as that position requires good kicking skills from hand. Less the fullback will kick. If the goal kicker is neither of those two positions, the remaining three-quarter backs and scrum-half might kick. Goal kicking forwards are rare, but not unknown, the most notable in recent years having been the Australian second row John Eales. BBC: Rugby league - Skills - Kicking skills - Place kick Placekicker, a position in American football. Drop kick punt RLIF. "The International Laws of the Game and Notes on the Laws". Rugby League International Federation. Archived from the original on 2010-01-05. Retrieved 2008-07-30. How To Goal and Place Kick
Eight-man football is a form of gridiron football played by high schools with smaller enrollments. Eight-man football differs from the traditional 11-man game with the reduction of three players on each side of the ball and a field width that can be reduced to 40 yards, 13 1/3 yards narrower than the 53 1/3-yard 11-man field. Most states continue to play on a 100-yard length field, whereas a few states opt for 80-yard lengths. Reduced-player football, which consists of eight-man, six-man, nine-man football has gained popularity across the United States; as of 2015, 1,561 schools in 30 states sponsor reduced-player football, with 1,161 of those teams participating in eight-man leagues, whereas 284 teams play six-man football and 116 teams play nine-man football. Eight-man football shares the same rules and structure as the traditional 11-man game, with a few minor differences. Eight-man football is played with eight players on offense and defense, three fewer than the 11-man game, it depends on the type of formation used, but the eliminated players are two offensive tackles and a skill position player on offense and two defensive backs and a defensive lineman on defense.
The size of the playing field is smaller in eight-man football than in 11-man. To accommodate six fewer players on the field, the width of the field is 40-yard-wide, 13 1/3-yards narrower than the 53 1/3-yard eleven-man field. Most eight-man leagues mandate 100-yard length fields, where few choose the 80-yard-long field length option. There are several professional eight-man football leagues in the United States, due to the eight-man format being adopted by most indoor football leagues; these leagues use a 50-yard by 25-yard field, as professional eight-man football is played indoors. There are some eight-man leagues. In recent years, organizations that played six-man football have been converting to eight-man football, leading to the expansion of the eight-man game. Eight-man football is prominent in the Midwestern United States, with Nebraska and Oklahoma being three of the four states with more than 80 eight-man teams. A write-up on 8-man football in Kansas appeared in Sports Illustrated's tribute to the state.
Note: States with limited eight-man teams may be affiliated with out-of-state leagues Of the 30 states that sponsor the 1,161 eight-man teams in the nation, teams are categorized by "class", "division", or "districts" with sub-conferences within each. States elect to use an either playoff system, a "bowl game" format, or for states with few eight-man teams, no official postseason is organized, instead electing for "Conference Champions". Playoff format States that elect a playoff format will seed teams based on regular season records and conference standings. Depending on the sizes of each class, division, or district, the playoff bracket is adjusted accordingly. Teams will advance through the bracket. Bowl Game format States that elect a bowl game format known as a Jamboree, will seed teams based on regular season records and pair them against like-seeded opponents. In this format, teams play one postseason game as there is no advancement through levels as in a playoff format. Wisconsin uses this format for postseason eight-man games.
Eight-man football consists of fast-paced games with higher scoring than the traditional game. Eight-man scores vary depending on the offensive and defensive strategies, but scores fall in the 40-60 point range, with "high scoring" games reaching the 70s and "low scoring" games falling below 30. Eight-man football is noted for producing multi-skilled players that are responsible for playing several positions, which require speed and strength. A variety of offensive formations can be used in eight-man football, most of which are converted from traditional eleven-man formations. Eight-man football rules require five players to be on the line of scrimmage with players on each end remaining pass eligible; the interior of the line consists of a center. Most the line players on the edges of the formation are tight ends, or are split wide as wide receivers. Due to reduced sized teams requiring players to know different positions, players' jersey numbers do not affect pass eligibility, most teams follow the general guidelines set forth by the eleven-man game.
Attempting the extra point kick after a touchdown is less common in eight-man, due to the lack of specialized kickers and holders and the inability to block defenders from interfering with the kick. For this reason, teams attempt a two-point conversion instead. General defensive alignments in eight-man football consist of defensive linemen and defensive backs. Common formations include a 3-3-2, 3-2-3, 4-3-1, 3-4-1, 4-2-2, 5-3, a 6-2 goal-line defense; the 3-2-3 defense has gained popularity due to the increase of passing-oriented offense in the eight-man game. It substitutes a defensive back with a third linebacker. Eight-man football includes special teams units similar to the traditional format. One notable difference is fewer teams using field goal or extra point units, instead electing to go for a fourth down conversion or a two-point conversion. Additionally, many teams opt to onside kick instead of kick deep; this saves players' energy since there are few backups. Every year, eight-man football players, as well as other reduced-player football players, receive scholarship
Hail Mary pass
A Hail Mary pass known as a shot play, is a long forward pass in American football made in desperation, with only a small chance of success and/or time running out on the clock. The term became widespread after a December 28, 1975 NFL playoff game between the Dallas Cowboys and the Minnesota Vikings, when Cowboys quarterback Roger Staubach said about his game-winning touchdown pass to wide receiver Drew Pearson, "I closed my eyes and said a Hail Mary."The expression goes back at least to the 1930s, in which decade it was used publicly by two former members of Notre Dame's Four Horsemen, Elmer Layden and Jim Crowley. Meaning any sort of desperation play, a "Hail Mary" came to denote a long, low-probability pass of the "alley-oop" variety, attempted at the end of a half when a team is too far from the end zone to execute a more conventional play, implying that it would take divine intervention for the play to succeed. For more than 40 years, use of the term was confined to Notre Dame and other Catholic universities.
Crowley told the story of an October 28, 1922, game between Notre Dame and Georgia Tech in which the Fighting Irish players said Hail Mary prayers together before scoring each of the touchdowns, before winning the game 13–3. According to Crowley, it was one of the team’s linemen, Noble Kizer, who suggested praying before the first touchdown, which occurred on a fourth and goal play at the Tech 6-yard line during the second quarter. Quarterback Harry Stuhldreher, another of the Horsemen, threw a quick pass over the middle to Paul Castner for the score; the ritual was repeated before a third and goal play, again at Tech’s six, in the fourth quarter. This time Stuhldreher ran for a touchdown. After the game, Kizer exclaimed to Crowley, "Say, that Hail Mary is the best play we've got." Crowley related this story many times in public speeches beginning in the 1930s. On November 2, 1935, with 32 seconds left in the so-called "Game of the Century" between Ohio State and Notre Dame, Irish halfback Bill Shakespeare found receiver Wayne Millner for a 19-yard, game-winning touchdown.
Notre Dame head coach Elmer Layden afterwards called it a "Hail Mary" play. An early appearance of the term was in an Associated Press story about the upcoming 1941 Orange Bowl between the Mississippi State Bulldogs and the Georgetown Hoyas; the piece appeared in several newspapers including the December 31, 1940 Daytona Beach Morning Journal under the headline, "Orange Bowl: Hoyas Put Faith in'Hail Mary' Pass"). As the article explained, "A'hail Mary' pass, in the talk of the Washington eleven, is one, thrown with a prayer because the odds against completion are big." During an NBC broadcast in 1963, Staubach a Navy quarterback, described a pass play during his team's victory over Michigan that year as a "Hail Mary play". He scrambled to escape a pass rush, nearly getting sacked 20 yards behind the line of scrimmage before completing a desperation pass for a one-yard gain. Arguably the most memorable and replayed Hail Mary pass came on November 23, 1984 in a game now known as "Hail Flutie".
Boston College was losing to Miami with six seconds left on the clock when their quarterback Doug Flutie threw a 52-yard touchdown pass to Gerard Phelan, succeeding because Miami's secondary stood on the goal line to keep the receivers in front of them without covering a post route behind them. Miami's defense was based on the assumption that Flutie couldn't throw the ball as far as the end zone, but Flutie hit Phelan in stride against a flatfooted defense a yard deep in the end zone. To commemorate the play, a statue of Flutie in his Hail Mary passing pose was unveiled outside Alumni Stadium at Boston College on November 7, 2008. Other noteworthy examples include: December 19, 1980: Known as "The Miracle Bowl", BYU quarterback Jim McMahon threw a 41-yard touchdown pass to tight end Clay Brown to defeat SMU in the 1980 Holiday Bowl 46–45, which completed BYU's comeback from a 45–25 deficit which the Cougars faced with four minutes remaining. September 24, 1994: Known as the "Miracle at Michigan", Colorado quarterback Kordell Stewart threw a 64-yard touchdown pass to wide receiver Michael Westbrook to beat Michigan 27–26.
October 31, 1999: The Cleveland Browns's first win after returning as an expansion team came on a Hail Mary against the New Orleans Saints, when Browns quarterback Tim Couch avoided the Saints pass rush and launched a 56 yard pass, tipped up in the air and caught by receiver Kevin Johnson near the pylon for a 21–16 Browns victory. November 9, 2002: Known as the "Bluegrass Miracle", LSU quarterback Marcus Randall threw a 74-yard touchdown pass to wide receiver Devery Henderson in the game to defeat Kentucky 33–30. December 8, 2002: Three years after his first Hail Mary, Tim Couch won another game with a game-ender against the Jacksonville Jaguars. Couch launched a 50 yard Hail Mary, caught by Quincy Morgan, the ensuing extra point gave the Browns a 21–20 win. Although he remains a hotly debated player due to being picked #1 overall in the 1999 NFL Draft and his injury-plagued career, Tim Couch remains the only NFL player to win two games on a game-ending Hail Mary. October 22, 2011: Known as "Rocket", Michigan State quarterback Kirk Cousins threw a 44-yard touchdown pass to wide receiver Keith Nichol to beat Wisconsin 37–31.
November 16, 2013: Known as the "Prayer at Jordan–Hare", A
Punt (gridiron football)
In American and Canadian football, a punt is a kick performed by dropping the ball from the hands and kicking the ball before it hits the ground. The most common use of this tactic is to punt the ball downfield to the opposing team on the final down, with the hope of giving the receiving team a field position, more advantageous to the kicking team when possession changes; the result of a typical punt, barring any penalties or extraordinary circumstances, is a first down for the receiving team. A punt is not to be confused with a drop kick, a kick after the ball hits the ground, now rare in both American and Canadian football; the type of punt leads to different motion of the football. Alex Moffat invented the now-common spiral punt. A punt in gridiron football is a kick performed by dropping the ball from the hands and kicking the ball before it hits the ground. In football, the offense has a limited number of downs, or plays, in which to move the ball at least ten yards; the team in possession of the ball will punt the ball to the opposing team when they are on their final down, do not want to risk a turnover on downs by not gaining enough yardage to make a first down, do not believe they are in range for a successful field goal.
The purpose of the punt is for the team in possession, or "kicking team", to move the ball as far as possible towards the opponent's end zone. Thus, the most common use of this tactic is to punt the ball downfield to the opposing team on the final down, with the hope of giving the receiving team a field position, more advantageous to the kicking team when possession changes. A punt play involves the kicking team lining up at the line of scrimmage with the kicker, or punter lined up about 15 yards behind the center; the receiving team lines up with two players downfield to catch the ball. The center makes a long snap to the kicker who drops the ball and kicks it before it hits the ground; the player who catches the ball is entitled to attempt to advance the ball. The result of a typical punt, barring any penalties or extraordinary circumstances, is a first down for the receiving team at the spot where: the receiver or subsequent receiving team ball carrier is downed or goes out of bounds. Other possible results include the punt being blocked behind the line of scrimmage, the ball being touched, but not caught or possessed, downfield by the receiving team.
In both cases the ball is "free" and "live" and will belong to whichever team recovers it. If the kicked ball is blocked and fails to cross the line of scrimmage, it may be picked up and advanced by either team. However, if it is picked up by the kicking team, the play is treated as any other play from scrimmage; the official rules regulate when and how the receiving team may hit the kicker before and after the kick. If the receiving team drops the ball or touches the ball beyond the line of scrimmage without catching it it is considered a live ball and may be recovered by either team. If the receiving team never had full possession, it is considered to be a muffed punt rather than a fumble. However, the receiving player must be pursuing the ball. If the receiving player is blocked into the ball, it is not considered "touching" the ball. A field goal cannot be scored on a punt kick. By contrast, the now rarely attempted drop kick can be used to score either field goals or extra points in both American and Canadian football.
The player attempting to catch the kicked ball may attempt a fair catch. If caught, the ball becomes dead and the receiving team gets the ball at the spot of the catch. A touchback may be called if any of the following occur: The kicked ball lands in the receiving team's end zone without first touching any player, whether as a direct result of the kick or a bounce; the receiving team catches the ball in its own end zone and downs it before advancing the ball out of the end zone. The ball enters exits the end zone behind the goal line. After a touchback, the receiving team gets the ball at its own 20-yard line If a player from the kicking team is the first to touch the ball after it crosses the line of scrimmage, "illegal touching" is called and the receiving team gains possession at the spot where the illegal touching occurred; this is not considered to be detrimental to the kicking team. Since there is no further yardage penalty awarded, the kicking team is said to have "downed the ball" when this occurs.
While the ball is not automatically dead upon an illegal touch, can be advanced by t
In gridiron football, an onside kick is a kickoff deliberately kicked short. On most kickoffs, the kicking team concedes possession of the ball and tries to kick it as far as possible from its own goal. In an onside kick, the kicking team kicks short in hopes of regaining possession of the ball before the receiving team can control it; the onside kick is a low-percentage play only seen late in a game when the kicking team is trailing in the score and must retain possession of the ball in order to score before time expires. However, its chances of success increase in a situation. Gridiron football originates in rugby football, so does the onside kick. In rugby, while the forward pass is prohibited, a team in possession may kick the ball downfield and recapture possession, provided that the receiver of the kick was onside when the kick was made This form of onside kick is still legal in Canadian football, just as in rugby. A player of the kicking team, "onside" may recover the ball and retain possession for his team.
This includes the kicker himself and anyone else behind the ball at the time it was kicked, other than the holder for a place kick. The form of onside kick available at a free kick in American football is available in Canadian football for a kickoff as well, although it is referred to as a short-kick, as all players are onside for a kickoff. Starting in 1923, the following additional constraints in most forms of American football are relevant to the onside kick: The kick must be a free kick; the kick must cross the receiving team's restraining line, unless the receiving team touches the ball before that line. The kicking team may only retain possession of the kicked ball, but not advance it; the kicking team must not interfere with an attempt by a player of the receiving side to catch the ball on the fly. Unlike during a punt — where if the kicking team catches or recovers the ball, it is "downed" and the receiving team possesses the ball — during a free kick, a ball that has crossed the receiving team's restraining line is a live ball, such that if the kicking team catches or recovers the ball it retains possession.
"Onside" is therefore now a misnomer in American football. The kicking team attempts to make the ball bounce early and be available around 20 yards in front of the spot of the kick. One technique, useful on a hard or artificial surface, is to kick the ball in a way that it spins end-over-end near the ground and makes a sudden bounce high in the air; the oblong shape of an American football makes it bounce unpredictably, increasing the possibility that the receiving team will muff the catch. An alternative is to kick the ball with a great deal of force directly at an opposing player. If the ball touches the player, but he cannot secure it, it becomes live regardless of whether it has traveled 10 yards; when the receiving team expects an onside kick, it fields a "hands team" of players skilled at catching or otherwise securing the ball. Traditionally, the onside kick had its own formation, in which the other ten players of the kicking team would line up on one side of the kicker, in an effort to get as many people as possible into one area of the field.
This is still popular in high school football. To combat this, some teams developed a "cluster formation" in which all of the players line up behind and next to the kicker in what is a moving huddle; the NFL banned this, with a 2009 rule change that states that "the kicking team cannot have more than five players bunched together". Effective with the 2018 season, the NFL requires that the kicking team line up with five players on each side of the ball. An onside kick is a desperation technique used when the kicking team trails in the score with little time left in the game, in order to regain the ball and score again; the trade-off is that, in the usual case that the receiving team does get possession of the ball, it will have better field position and will need to advance the ball fewer yards in order to score. However, in the desperation situation, initial field position becomes less relevant, as the receiving team may focus on running the clock out and ending the game. If the kicking team succeeds in retaining possession the clock does not automatically stop as it would if the ball were transferred between teams.
Football coaches attempt surprise onside kicks to catch their opponent's players off guard and without the "hands team" on the field. Notab
Sweep (American football)
A sweep is a running play in American football where a running back takes a pitch or handoff from the quarterback and starts running parallel to the line of scrimmage, allowing for the offensive linemen and fullback to get in front of him to block defenders before he turns upfield. The play is run farther outside than an off tackle play. Variants of the sweep involve the quarterback or a wide receiver running with the ball, rather than a running back. A toss sweep is a play, run out of the I formation or single set back formation; the quarterback takes the snap, reverses out tosses the ball to the tailback. When run from the I formation, it allows the fullback to pick up any defenders who have penetrated into the backfield. Blocking from the offensive line ranges from straight zone blocking to pulling the playside guard. While this sweep doesn't have as many playfake combinations as the buck sweep, it tends to be more powerful and allows the running back to turn upfield faster; the buck sweep is run from a Wing T formation that includes a variety of play fakes.
The quarterback takes the snap and fakes trap to the fullback. He hands off to a halfback or wingback, who runs to the outside; the buck sweep is blocked by pulling the playside guard to kickout the force defender, the backside guard pulling and turning up on the playsided linebacker. This allows for the other linemen to downblock on the other defenders, giving the offense an advantage when it comes to blocking angles; the buck sweep provides an advantage in the possibilities available from its action, with the fullback trap before the sweep, a "waggle" pass, or bootleg after it, the sweep itself. Vince Lombardi, head coach of the Green Bay Packers, was fond of the sweep. In the 1960s, he utilized the Packers sweep play—also known as the Lombardi sweep—in which guards Jerry Kramer and Fuzzy Thurston pulled out from their normal positions and led blocking for the running back going around the end, it was an integral part of an offense. Known as the jet sweep or fly sweep, this sweep is a running play, run from a set with a wide receiver split out to the side away from the play run with the receiver in motion.
The quarterback receives the snap and turns or runs toward the receiver, as the receiver makes a deep arc into the backfield behind the quarterback, where there is an exchange either by handoff or by pitching the ball to the receiver. This play resembles Student Body Right, in that every available blocker blocks to the playside; the variant that became popular in the National Football League in 2018 is run with the quarterback in a shotgun formation and the receiver crossing in front of him to receive the ball. The quarterback sweep is a running play where the quarterback takes the snap from center in a shotgun formation, runs to the outside; this play can best be run by a athletic quarterback. Sweeps involve pulling of offensive linemen one or both guards, to provide extra blockers at the point of attack. Teams such as the Arkansas Razorbacks have had success running this play by lining up the halfback as the quarterback in a wildcat formation