Marlboro is an American brand of cigarettes owned and manufactured by Philip Morris USA within the United States, by Philip Morris International outside the United States. Richmond, Virginia, is the location of the largest Marlboro cigarette manufacturing plant. Marlboro is the global best-selling cigarette brand since 1972. Philip Morris cigarette maker, opened a New York subsidiary in 1902 to sell many of its cigarette brands; the mark "Marlboro" was registered in the United States in 1908 although no cigarette was marketed under this name until 1923. In 1924, the brand was launched, they are first marketed as "America's luxury cigarette" and were sold in hotels and resorts. Around the 1930s, it was starting to be advertised as a women's cigarette, based on the slogan "Mild As May"; the name was taken from a street in London. However, as early as 1885, a brand called "Marlborough" was being marketed as a "ladies' favorite" by Philip Morris & Co. In the 1930s, advertising for the cigarette was based on how ladylike the filter cigarette was, in an attempt to appeal to the mass market.
To this end, the filter had a printed red band around it to hide lipstick stains, calling it "Beauty Tips to Keep the Paper from Your Lips". Shortly before World War II, the brand's sales stagnated at less than 1% of tobacco sales in the US and was withdrawn from the market. After the war, Lucky Strike, Chesterfield were the only common cigarettes. After scientists published a major study linking smoking to lung cancer in the 1950s, Philip Morris repositioned Marlboro as a men's cigarette in order to fit a market niche of men who were concerned about lung cancer. At the time, filtered cigarettes were considered safer than unfiltered cigarettes, but had been until that time only marketed to women. Men at the time indicated that while they would consider switching to a filtered cigarette, they were concerned about being seen smoking a cigarette marketed to women; the red and white package was designed by the designer Frank Gianninoto. The emblem is placed on top of the pack and has the popular Latin expression Veni, vici, authored by Julius Caesar.
The repositioning of Marlboro as a men's cigarette was handled by Chicago advertiser Leo Burnett. The proposed campaign was to present a lineup of manly figures: sea captains, war correspondents, construction workers, etc; the cowboy was to have been the first in this series. While Philip Morris was concerned about the campaign, they gave the green light. Marlboro's market share rose from less than one percent to the fourth best-selling brand; this convinced Philip Morris to drop the lineup of manly figures and stick with the cowboy known as the Marlboro Man. From 1963, the television advertisements used Elmer Bernstein's theme from The Magnificent Seven. In the late 1960s, Marlboro "Longhorn 100's" were introduced. Although colour-coded with gold, they were full flavor cigarettes, not lights. In 1972, Marlboro became the best-selling brand of tobacco in the world. In order to comply with a 2006 court ruling in United States v. Philip Morris USA, Inc. et al. Philip Morris is now prevented from using words such as "Lights", "Ultra-Lights", "Medium", "Mild", or any similar designation that yields a false impression that they are safer than regular full flavour cigarettes.
Thus Marlboro and other cigarette companies must use only color-coding instead. Philip Morris responded to the popularity of Pall Mall, the number three brand, by pushing Marlboro Special Blends, a lower-priced cigarette. In 2013, Philip Morris International introduced "Marlboro 2.0". The pack design was changed; the Marlboro 2.0 packs are available in Europe and some parts of Africa and Latin America, but not in the United States, Canada and New Zealand. In 2015, Philip Morris announced they would introduce a "Firm Filter" to their Marlboro Red, Silver Blue, Ice Blast and White Menthol variants. Philip Morris managing director for the United Kingdom and Ireland, Martin Inkster, said that the Firm Filter technique was added to "offer quality you can feel, it is a cleaner way to stub out your cigarette". In the 1920s, advertising for the cigarette was based on how ladylike the filter cigarette was, in an attempt to appeal to the mass market. To this end, the filter had a printed red band around it to hide lipstick stains, calling it "Beauty Tips to Keep the Paper from Your Lips".
The red and white package was designed by the designer Frank Gianninoto. The repositioning of Marlboro as a men's cigarette was handled by Chicago advertiser Leo Burnett; the proposed campaign was to present a lineup of manly figures: sea captains, war correspondents, construction workers, etc. The cowboy was to have been the first in this series. While Philip Morris was concerned about the campaign, they gave the green light. Marlboro's market share rose from less than one percent to the fourth best-selling brand; this convinced Philip Morris to drop the lineup of manly figures and stick with the cowboy known as the Marlboro Man. From 1963, the television advertisements used Elmer Bernstein's theme from The Magnificent Seven. Over the years, Philip Morris has made many billboard and magazine adverts. Philip Morris made various sports-related billboards, s
Ferrari is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 out of Alfa Romeo's race division as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940. However, the company's inception as an auto manufacturer is recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. In 2014, Ferrari was rated the world's most powerful brand by Brand Finance. In June 2018, the 1964 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, setting an all-time record selling price of $70 million. Fiat S.p. A. acquired 50% of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90% in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N. V. announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S.p. A. from FCA. The separation began in October 2015 with a restructuring that established Ferrari N. V. as the new holding company of the Ferrari group and the subsequent sale by FCA of 10% of the shares in an IPO and concurrent listing of common shares on the New York Stock Exchange. Through the remaining steps of the separation, FCA's interest in Ferrari's business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10% continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari.
The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016. Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing in Formula One, where it is the oldest and most successful racing team, holding the most constructors championships and having produced the highest number of drivers' championship wins. Ferrari road cars are seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, with headquarters in Modena. Scuderia Ferrari means "Ferrari Stable" and is used to mean "Team Ferrari." Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentleman drivers, functioning as the racing division of Alfa Romeo. In 1933, Alfa Romeo withdrew its in-house racing team and Scuderia Ferrari took over as its works team: the Scuderia received Alfa's Grand Prix cars of the latest specifications and fielded many famous drivers such as Tazio Nuvolari and Achille Varzi. In 1938, Alfa Romeo brought its racing operation again in-house, forming Alfa Corse in Milan and hired Enzo Ferrari as manager of the new racing department.
In September 1939, Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari; the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940, Ferrari produced a race car – the Tipo 815, based on a Fiat platform, it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943, the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained since; the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947 125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine. The Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams. In 1960 the company was restructured as a public corporation under the name SEFAC S.p.
A.. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50% stake in Ferrari. An immediate result was an increase in available investment funds, work started at once on a factory extension intended to transfer production from Fiat's Turin plant of the Ferrari engined Fiat Dino. New model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari launched before his death that year. In 1989, the company was renamed Ferrari S.p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time, introduced and named in honor of the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari, it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was offered to loyal and recurring customers, each of the 399 made had a price tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012, 964 Ferrari cars attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit and paraded round the Silverstone Circuit setting a world record.
Ferrari's former CEO and Chairman, Luca di Montezemolo, resigned from the company after 23 years, succeeded by Amedeo Felisa and on 3 May 2016 Amedeo resigned and was succeeded by Sergio Marchionne, CEO and Chairman of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Ferrari's parent company. In July 2018, Marchionne was replaced by board member Louis Camilleri as CEO and by John Elkann as chairman. On 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari; the aim is to turn Ferrari into an independent brand which 10% of stake will be sold in an IPO in 2015. Ferrari priced its initial public offering at $52 a share after the market close on 20 October 2015. Since the company's beginnings, Ferrari has been involved in motorsport, competing in a range of categories including Formula One and sports car racing through its Scuderia Ferrari sporting division as well as supplying cars and engines to other t
The Circuit Bremgarten was a 7.28 km motorsport race track in Bern, Switzerland which hosted the Swiss Grand Prix from 1933 to 1954 and the Swiss motorcycle Grand Prix. Bremgarten was built as a motorcycle racing track in 1931 in the Bremgartenwald in the north of Bern; the circuit itself had no true straight, instead being a collection of high-speed corners. It hosted its first automobile race in 1934. In 1948 it claimed the life of Italian racer Achille Varzi. From the outset, Bremgarten's tree-lined roads poor light conditions and changes in road surface made for what was acknowledged to be a dangerous circuit in the wet. Bremgarten has not hosted an official motorsport event since 1955, when spectator racing sports, with the exception of hillclimbing and rallying, were banned in Switzerland following the 1955 Le Mans disaster. Although there was a 1982 Swiss Grand Prix, it took place in France. On June 6, 2007 an amendment to lift the ban was passed by the lower house of the Swiss parliament, 97 in favour and 77 opposed.
The legislation failed to pass the upper house, was withdrawn in 2009 after being rejected twice. The Grand Prix of Bern took place at Bremgarten from 1931 to 1937 and in 1947 and 1948. In August 1931 the Bern Grand Prix took place and the Irish motorcyclist Stanley Woods won the 500cc event on a Norton, he won three more events here. Jimmie Guthrie won the 350cc and 500cc races in 1937; the Bremgarten Circuit was one of the original rounds of the Grand Prix motorcycle World Championship during the inaugural season of 1949 and from 1951 to 1954. Famous riders who raced here included: Hans Stärkle, Freddie Frith and Geoff Duke. Italian racer Omobono Tenni was killed at Bremgarten during practice for the 1948 event. Circuit Bremgarten on Google Maps
A stunt double is a cross between a body double and a stunt performer a skilled replacement used for dangerous film or video sequences, in movies and television, for other sophisticated stunts. Stunt doubles may be used in cases where an actor's physical condition precludes much activity, or when an actor is contractually prohibited from taking certain risks. Stunt doubles are sometimes referred to as "stunties"; the terms stunt double and body double may be used interchangeably for cases where special skills are needed, such as dancing, playing the piano, or competitive skiing. Stunt doubles should be distinguished from daredevils, who perform stunts for the sake of the stunt alone as a career. Sequences do not place stunt doubles in the same mortal peril as the characters: for example and wires can be digitally edited out of the final film. Many stunt doubles have long production careers as part of a star actor's contractual "support crew" along with the star's cooks, trainers and assistants.
Stunt doubles have to look like their respective actors, in order to keep the character's appearance. Stunt doubles for Eddie Murphy, John Wayne, Harrison Ford, Steve Martin, Salman Khan and Michael Landon have been associated with their lead actors for decades. Non-humans are known to have "stunt doubles". For example, Enzo was the stunt double for his aging sire Moose on the sitcom Frasier. Soccer, the Jack Russell terrier on Wishbone hated swimming and therefore had stunt doubles; some actors are known to have performed their own stunts. Jackie Chan is famous for doing most of his own stunts, as are fellow martial arts star and movie partners Yuen Biao and Sammo Hung. Indian actor Jayan was well known for performing dangerous stunts by himself and was killed while performing a helicopter stunt. Akshay Kumar is famous for doing all of his own stunts and has done several dangerous stunts. Thai martial artist and actor Tony Jaa performs his own stunts, likewise; some actors started out as stunt doubles, such as Dyri Kristjansson, the second actor of LazyTown's Sportacus, who started out as original actor Magnús Scheving's stunt double, voice actress Chantal Strand, best known for voicing Dragon Tales' Cassie, who started off doing stunts on Look Who's Talking Now with her twin sister Michelle.
The work of stunt doubles in American film productions is overwhelmingly taken by white men. When they are made up to look like a woman, thus depriving a female stunt double of work, the practice is called "wigging"; when they are made up to look like another race, thus denying work to someone, not Caucasian, the practice is called a "paint down". Experienced stunt performers equate it in 2018 with blackface minstrelsy; the Fall Guy Q&A with stuntman/stunt coordinator Matt Anderson
1950 British Grand Prix
The 1950 British Grand Prix, formally known as The Royal Automobile Club Grand Prix d'Europe Incorporating The British Grand Prix, was a Formula One motor race held on 13 May 1950 at the Silverstone Circuit in Silverstone, England. It was the first World Championship Formula One race, as well as the fifth British Grand Prix, the third to be held at Silverstone after motor racing resumed after World War II, it was the first race of seven in the 1950 World Championship of Drivers. The 70-lap race was won by Giuseppe Farina for the Alfa Romeo team, after starting from pole position, with a race time of 2:13:23.6 and an average speed of 146.378 km/h. Luigi Fagioli finished second in another Alfa Romeo, Reg Parnell third in a third Alfa Romeo; the race followed the non-championship Pau Grand Prix and San Remo Grand Prix, the Richmond Trophy and the Paris Grand Prix. Held on 13 May at Silverstone Circuit, designated as the Grand Prix of Europe for 1950, this first World Championship round was attended by George VI, Queen Elizabeth, Princess Margaret, the Earl & Countess Mountbatten of Burma.
In all, there were 22 competing, 21 qualified for the race, 11 classified. Numbers 7 and 13 were not assigned; the Alfa Romeo factory team arrived at the circuit with four 158s for Fangio, Fagioli & domestic driver Reg Parnell. Ferrari decided not to take part but there were a handful of Maseratis, one of them a factory car for Monegasque driver Louis Chiron. Scuderia Ambrosiana prepared two cars for David Hampshire and David Murray, Enrico Platé entered two drivers of aristocratic origin, Prince Bira of Siam and Baron Toulo de Graffenried. Joe Fry entered a private Maserati and Scuderia Milano entered Felice Bonetto, but he did not arrive; these cars were raced in Italian Rosso Corsa livery. Talbot-Lago sent over two factory cars in the traditional French pale blue colour to be driven by Yves Giraud-Cabantous and Eugène Martin. Other private Talbots were entered by Louis Rosier, Philippe Etancelin and Belgian Johnny Claes, in a yellow car; the rest of the field was made up of local machinery, which included four E.
R. A.s and two Altas, in British racing green. Farina was fastest in qualifying and the other three Alfas were alongside him on the front row; the second row consisted of "B. Bira" in a Maserati and the two factory Talbots. In accordance with the standard at the time, the rest of the grid consisted of rows of four and three alternating, up to the sixth row. Felice Bonetto was the only driver who did not take part in qualifying and would not take part in the race. On 13 May, 21 drivers from 9 countries were represented at the old Silverstone airport, 4 from France, 2 from Italy, 1 each from Belgium, Monaco, Argentina and Switzerland; the UK was represented by 9 drivers. The race drew 200,000 spectators. At the start of the race, Farina took the lead with Fangio in pursuit. In the early laps they switched around between themselves several times to keep everyone amused. Fangio retired with engine troubles and so Farina led Fagioli home by 2.5 seconds with Parnell a distant third despite hitting a hare during the race.
The nearest challenger was Giraud-Cabantous two laps down. Crossley and Murray duelled at the back before retiring, de Graffenried had done so on lap 34, while Chiron was demoted to the role of viewer 10 laps earlier. Giuseppe Farina led for 63 laps. Luigi Fagioli led for 6 laps. Juan Manuel Fangio led for 1 lap. Joe Fry drove car #10 for the first 45 laps Brian Shawe-Taylor took over for 19 laps for a total 64 laps, distance 297.536 km. Peter Walker drove car #9 for 2 laps Tony Rolt drove for and additional 3 laps, totaling 5 laps, a distance of 23.245 km. ^1 — Luigi Fagioli qualified and drove all 70 laps of the race in the #3 Alfa Romeo. Gianbattista Guidotti, named substitute driver for the car, was not used at the Grand Prix. ^2 — Peter Walker qualified and drove 2 laps of the race in the #9 ERA. Tony Rolt took over the car for 3 laps of the race. ^3 — Joe Fry qualified and drove 45 laps of the race in the #10 Maserati. Brian Shawe-Taylor took over the car for 19 laps of the race. ^4 — Entry cancelled prior to event.
Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lap Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are listed. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship
Canton of Vaud
The canton of Vaud is the third largest of the Swiss cantons by population and fourth by size. It is located in the French-speaking western part of the country; the capital and biggest city is Lausanne designated "Olympic Capital" by the International Olympic Committee and hosts many international sports organizations. Other main cities are Montreux; as of 2017 the canton has a population of 793,129. Along the lakes, Vaud was inhabited in prehistoric times; the Celtic tribe of the Helvetii inhabited the area. The tribe was defeated by Caesar's troops in 58 BC and as a consequence the Romans settled the area; the towns of Vevey and Lausanne are two of the many towns established by the Romans. In 27 BC the state of Civitas Helvetiorum was established around the capital of Avenches. There are still many. Between the 2nd and the 4th century the area was invaded by Alemannic tribes, in the 5th century the Burgundians occupied the area; the Merovingian Franks replaced the Burgundians. Their occupancy did not last long either, in 888 the area of the canton of Vaud was made part of the Carolingian Empire.
In 1032 the Zähringens of Germany defeated the Burgundians. The Zähringens themselves were succeeded in 1218 by the counts of Savoy, it was only under the counts of Savoy that the area was given political unity, establishing the Barony of Vaud. A part stretching from Attalens to the River Sarine, in the north, was absorbed by the canton of Fribourg; as the power of the Savoys declined at the beginning of the 15th century the land was occupied by troops from Bern. By 1536 the area was annexed. Reformation was started by co-workers of John Calvin like Pierre Viret, including a famous debate at the cathedral of Lausanne; the Bernese occupiers were not popular amongst the population. In 1723, Major Abraham Davel led a revolt against Bern, in protest at what he saw as the denial of political rights of the French-speaking Vaudois by the German-speaking Bernese, was subsequently beheaded. Inspired by the French Revolution, the Vaudois drove out the Bernese governor in 1798 and declared the Lemanic Republic.
Vaud nationalists like Frédéric-César de La Harpe had called for French intervention in liberating the area and French Revolutionary troops moved in, taking over the whole of Switzerland itself in the process and setting up the Helvetic Republic. Under Napoleon I, it became the canton of Léman. Unrest about the abolition of feudal rights and taxes led to increased discontent, which culminated in the revolt of the Bourla-papey in Spring 1802 followed by the Stecklikrieg that brought the end of the entire Helvetic Republic. In 1803, Vaud joined the re-installed Swiss confederation. In spite of Bernese attempts to reclaim Vaud, it has remained a sovereign canton since. In the 19th century, the canton of Vaud was an outspoken opponent of the Sonderbund Catholic separatist movement, which led to intervention in 1847 by 99,000 Swiss Federal troops under General Henri Dufour against 79,000 separatists, in what is called the Sonderbund War. Separation was prevented at the cost of few lives; the current constitution dates from 14 April 2003, replacing the one from 1885.
The canton stretches from Lake Neuchâtel in the north, where it borders the canton of Neuchâtel, to Lake Geneva in the south, where it borders the canton of Geneva, the French department of Haute-Savoie and the canton of Valais. In the Jura mountains in the west, the canton borders the French departments of Ain and Doubs. In the east, it borders the cantons of Bern; the total area is 3,212 square kilometres. Along with the canton of Berne, Vaud is one of the two cantons whose territory extends from the Jura to the Alps, through the three distinct geographic regions of Switzerland; the areas in the south east are mountainous. This region is named the Vaud Alps; the Diablerets massif, peaking at 3,210 metres, is the highest mountain of the canton. Other summits such as the Grand Muveran and the Tour d'Aï are visible from most of the canton; the area hosts several popular skiing destinations such as Villars, Les Diablerets and Leysin. The central area of the canton, in contrast, is hilly. There are plains along the lakes.
In the north, Avenches is in an exclave of the canton surrounded by the canton of Fribourg and Lake Neuchâtel. On the other hand, there are three enclaves of the canton of Fribourg, as well as two enclaves of the canton of Geneva, that are surrounded by the canton of Vaud; the north-western part of the canton is mountainous but in a more modest way with mountains not above 1,500 metres. The Vallée de Joux is one of the most popular destinations in the region and a centre of luxury mechanical Swiss watch manufacturing. Source: Source: ^a FDP before 2009, FDP; the Liberals after 2009 ^ b" *" indicates. ^c Part of the FDP for this election The canton of Vaud is divided into 10 districts: Aigle with capital Aigle Broye-Vully with capital Payerne Gros-de-Vaud with capital Échallens Jura-Nord vaudois with capital Yverdon