War of the Breton Succession
The War of the Breton Succession was a conflict between the Counts of Blois and the Montforts of Brittany for control of the Duchy of Brittany. It was fought between 1341 and 12 April 1365; the war formed an integral part of the early Hundred Years' War due to the involvement of the French and English governments in the conflict. The rival kings supported the duke of the principle opposite to their own claims to the French throne—the Plantagenet having claimed it by female succession, the Valois by male succession. Montfort was successful following the Battle of Auray in 1364; the dukes had both a historical and ancestral connection to England and were Earls of Richmond in Yorkshire. Duke Arthur II of Dreux married twice, first to Mary of Limoges to Yolande of Dreux, countess of Montfort and widow of king Alexander III of Scotland. From his first marriage, he had three sons, including his heir John III and Guy, count of Penthièvre. From Yolande, Arthur had another son named John, who became count of Montfort.
John III disliked the children of his father's second marriage. He spent the first years of his reign attempting to have this marriage annulled and his half-siblings bastardized; when this failed, he tried to ensure. Since John III was childless, his heir of choice became Joan of Penthièvre, la Boiteuse, daughter of his younger brother Guy. In 1337 she married Charles of Blois, the second son of a powerful French noble house and son of the sister of King Philip VI of France, but in 1340, John III reconciled himself with his half-brother, made a will that appointed John of Montfort the heir of Brittany. On 30 April 1341, John III died, his last words on the succession, uttered on his deathbed, were, "For God's sake leave me alone and do not trouble my spirit with such things". Most of the nobility supported Charles of Blois, so if John of Montfort was to have any chance, he was dependent upon swift action before organized resistance could be made. John took possession of the ducal capital Nantes and seized the ducal treasury at Limoges.
By the middle of August, John of Montfort was in possession of most of the duchy, including the three principal cities of Nantes and Vannes. Up to this point, the succession crisis had been a purely internal affair, but to complicate things further, the Hundred Years' War between England and France had broken out four years earlier, in 1337. In 1341, there was truce between the two countries, but there was little doubt that hostilities would be renewed when the truce ended in June 1342. Thus, when rumours reached Philip VI of France that John of Montfort had received English agents, the French Crown took a more direct interest in the situation. Charles of Blois became the official French candidate. Whatever had been his original intentions, John of Montfort was now forced to support Edward III of England as King of France. Edward III was bound by the truce not to take any offensive action in France. Nothing in it, hindered France from subduing rebellious vassals. In November, after a short siege and defeat at the Battle of Champtoceaux, John of Montfort was forced to surrender at Nantes by the citizens.
He was offered safe conduct to negotiate a settlement with Charles of Blois, but when this led nowhere he was thrown in prison. It now fell upon Joanna of Flanders, to lead the Montfortist cause. Deeming her possessions in the east undefendable, she set up headquarters at Hennebont in western Brittany but was driven into Brest and besieged, the siege being broken by the arrival of an English army under the Earl of Northampton at the naval battle of Brest. In Paris it was feared; the major part of the French army was therefore withdrawn, Charles of Blois was left to pursue his claim on his own. Charles soon proved himself to be an able soldier: Rennes and Vannes were taken and many of the Montfortist captains defected. In late November, Edward III arrived with his army at Brest, he at once marched against Vannes. The siege dragged on and a French army was assembled to meet him, but on 19 January 1343, before any major engagements could be fought, the two kings agreed upon a new truce. Vannes was taken into papal custody.
With John of Montfort in prison, his son an infant, his wife gone mad, the places under Montfortist control were in practice administered from London, with a large permanent English garrison at Brest. The truce was to last until 29 September 1346 with the hopes that in the meantime the disputes between the two kingdoms could be permanently settled, but in Brittany it made little difference; the truce bound the two kings and their followers, but Charles of Blois claimed to be fighting his own separate war and was therefore not bound by any truce. The brutal small-scale fighting continued at the same pace. In Paris, John of Montfort was released from prison 1 September 1343 in return for a huge bond and a promise to stay on his estates in the east; the English coastal garrisons held firm. They had some successes, such as the expulsion of the papal custodians from Vannes, but with no unifying leadership they were reduced to pleading for men and money from London. To hamper communication between Brest and Vannes, Charles of Blois laid siege to Quimper in early March 1344.
The city fell by assault on 1 May and, as usual at that time, this meant the slaughter of civilians in huge numbers, estimated between 1400 and 2000. The English prisoners were held for ransom, but the Breton and Norman captives
Chinoiserie is the European interpretation and imitation of Chinese and East Asian artistic traditions in the decorative arts, garden design, literature and music. The aesthetic of Chinoiserie has been expressed in different ways depending on the region, its acknowledgement derives from the current of Orientalism, which studied Far East cultures from a historical, anthropological and religious point of view. First appearing in the 17th century, this trend was popularized in the 18th century due to the rise in trade with China and East Asia; as a style, chinoiserie is related to the Rococo style. Both styles are characterized by exuberant decoration, asymmetry, a focus on materials, stylized nature and subject matter that focuses on leisure and pleasure. Chinoiserie focuses on subjects that were thought by colonial-era Europeans to be typical of Chinese culture. Chinoiserie entered European decoration in the mid-to-late 17th century; the popularity of chinoiserie peaked around the middle of the 18th century when it was associated with the rococo style and with works by François Boucher, Thomas Chippendale, Jean-Baptist Pillement.
It was popularized by the influx of Chinese and Indian goods brought annually to Europe aboard English, Dutch and Swedish East India Companies. Though chinoiserie never went out of fashion, it declined in Europe by the 1760s when the neoclassical style gained popularity, though remained popular in the newly formed United States through the early 19th century. There was a revival of popularity for chinoiserie in Europe and the United States from the mid-19th century through the 1920s, today in elite interior design and fashion. Though understood as a European style, chinoiserie was a global phenomenon. Local versions of chinoiserie were developed in India, Japan and Latin America. Through the Manila Galleon Trade, Spanish traders brought large amounts of Chinese porcelain, lacquer and spices from Chinese merchants based in Manila to New Spanish markets in Acapulco and Lima; those products inspired local artists and artisans such as ceramicists making Talavera pottery at Puebla de Los Angeles.
There were many reasons. Europeans had a fascination with the exotic East due to their increased, but still restricted, access to new cultures through expanded trade with East Asia China; the limited number of European first-hand experiences of East Asia and their restricted circulation created a level of mystification and misinformation that contributed to the mystification of East Asian cultures. The'China' indicated in the term'Chinoiserie' represented in European people's mind a wider region of the globe that could embrace China itself, but Japan, South-East Asia, India or Persia. In art, the style of the Orient was considered a source of inspiration. For this reason the style of Chinoiserie is to be regarded as an important result of the exchange between the West and the East. During the 19th century, in its latter period, the style of Chinoiserie was assimilated under the generic definition of exoticism. Though the root of the word'Chinoiserie' is'Chine', the Europeans of the 17th and 18th centuries didn't have a clear conceptualization of how China was in reality.
Terms like'Orient','Far East' or'China' were all used to signify the region of Eastern Asia that had proper Chinese culture as a major representative, but the meaning of the term could change according to different contexts. Sir William Chambers for example, in his oeuvre A Dissertation on Oriental Gardening of 1772, generically addresses China as the'Orient'. In the financial records of Louis XIV during the 17th and 18th centuries were registered expressions like'façon de la Chine', Chinese manner, or'à la chinoise', made in the Chinese way. In the 19th century the term'Chinoiserie' appeared for the first time in French literature. In the novel L'Interdiction published in 1836, Honoré de Balzac used Chinoiserie to refer to the craftworks made in the Chinese style. From this moment on the term gained momentum and started being used more to mean objects produced in the Chinese style but sometimes to indicate graceful objects of small dimension or of scarce account. In 1878'Chinoiserie' entered formally in the Dictionnaire de l'Académie.
After the spread of Marco Polo's narrations, the knowledge of China held by the Europeans continued to derive from reports made by merchants and diplomatic envoys. Dating from the latter half of the 17th century a relevant role in this exchange of information was taken up by the Jesuits, whose continual gathering of missionary intelligence and language transcription gave the European public a new deeper insight of the Chinese empire and its culture. While Europeans held inaccurate ideas about East Asia, this did not preclude their fascination and respect. In particular, the Chinese who had "exquisitely finished art... whose court ceremonial was more elaborate than that of Versailles" were viewed as civilized. According to Voltaire in his Art de la Chine, "The fact remains that four thousand years ago, when we did not know how to read, they knew everything useful of which we boast today." In other words, somewhere, on the other side
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history; the causes of the French Revolution are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution, the French government was in debt, it attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were regressive.
Leading up to the Revolution, years of bad harvests worsened by deregulation of the grain industry and environmental problems inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy of the established church. Some historians hold something similar to what Thomas Jefferson proclaimed: that France had "been awakened by our Revolution." Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789. During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime; the next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution; the Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins; the dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
They suspended elections, repudiated debts, persecuted the Catholic clergy, made significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars; the modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. All future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor, its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day; the Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudal system, emancipation of the individual, a greater division of landed property, abolition of the privileges of noble birth, nominal establishment of equality among men.
The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not only national, for it intended to benefit all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of democracies, it became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards the objective of military conquest; some of its central documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, continued to inspire movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century. Historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Rising social and economic inequality, new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment, economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt, political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the "public sphere" in France and elsewhere
Recouvrance is the section of the city of Brest, France on the right bank of the river Penfeld. It is a popular and Breton quarter, in contrast to the Francophone quarter of Brest-même or Brest-proper on the left bank; the lift bridge over the Penfeld was named after this neighbourhood, as was a schooner built in 1992 in the city
The word diorama can either refer to a 19th-century mobile theatre device, or, in modern usage, a three-dimensional full-size or miniature model, sometimes enclosed in a glass showcase for a museum. Dioramas are built by hobbyists as part of related hobbies such as military vehicle modeling, miniature figure modeling, or aircraft modeling; the word "diorama" originated in 1823 as a type of picture-viewing device, from the French in 1822. The word means "through that, seen", from the Greek di- "through" + orama "that, seen, a sight"; the diorama was invented by Louis Daguerre and Charles Marie Bouton, first exhibited in Paris in July 1822 and in London on September 29, 1823. The meaning "small-scale replica of a scene, etc." is from 1902. Daguerre's and Bouton's diorama consisted of a piece of material painted on both sides; when illuminated from the front, the scene would be shown in one state and by switching to illumination from behind another phase or aspect would be seen. Scenes in daylight changed to moonlight, a train travelling on a track would crash, or an earthquake would be shown in before and after pictures.
The current, popular understanding of the term "diorama" denotes a three-dimensional, full-size replica or scale model of a landscape showing historical events, nature scenes or cityscapes, for purposes of education or entertainment. One of the first uses of dioramas in a museum was in Stockholm, where the Biological Museum opened in 1893, it had several dioramas, over three floors. They were implemented by the National Museum Grigore Antipa from Bucharest Romania and constituted a source of inspiration for many important museums in the world. Miniature dioramas are much smaller, use scale models and landscaping to create historical or fictional scenes; such a scale model-based diorama is used, for example, in Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry to display railroading. This diorama employs a common model railroading scale of 1:87. Hobbyist dioramas use scales such as 1:35 or 1:48. An early, exceptionally large example was created between 1830 and 1838 by a British Army officer. William Siborne, represents the Battle of Waterloo at about 7.45 pm, on 18 June, 1815.
The diorama used around 70,000 model soldiers in its construction. It is now part of the collection of the National Army Museum in London. Sheperd Paine, a prominent hobbyist, popularized the modern miniature diorama beginning in the 1970s. Modern museum dioramas may be seen in most major natural-history museums; these displays use a tilted plane to represent what would otherwise be a level surface, incorporate a painted background of distant objects, employ false perspective modifying the scale of objects placed on the plane to reinforce the illusion through depth perception in which objects of identical real-world size placed farther from the observer appear smaller than those closer. The distant painted background or sky will be painted upon a continuous curved surface so that the viewer is not distracted by corners, seams, or edges. All of these techniques are means of presenting a realistic view of a large scene in a compact space. A photograph or single-eye view of such a diorama can be convincing, since in this case there is no distraction by the binocular perception of depth.
Miniature dioramas may be used to represent scenes from historic events. A typical example of this type are the dioramas to be seen at Norway's Resistance Museum in Oslo, Norway. Landscapes built around model railways can be considered dioramas though they have to compromise scale accuracy for better operating characteristics. Hobbyists build dioramas of historical or quasi-historical events using a variety of materials, including plastic models of military vehicles, ships or other equipment, along with scale figures and landscaping. In the 19th and beginning 20th century, building dioramas of sailing ships had been a popular handcraft of mariners. Building a diorama instead of a normal model had the advantage that in the diorama, the model was protected inside the framework and could be stowed below the bunk or behind the sea chest. Nowadays, such antique sailing ship dioramas are valuable collectors' items. One of the largest dioramas created was a model of the entire State of California built for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition of 1915 and that for a long time was installed in San Francisco's Ferry Building.
Dioramas are used in the American educational system in elementary and middle schools. They are made to represent historical events, ecological biomes, cultural scenes, or to visually depict literature, they are made from a shoebox and contain a trompe-l'œil in the background contrasted with two or three-dimensional models in the foreground. The Diorama was a popular entertainment that originated in Paris in 1822. An alternative to the popular "Panorama", the Diorama was a theatrical experience viewed by an audience in a specialized theatre; as many as 350 patrons would file in to view a landscape painting that would change its appearance both subtly and dramatically. Most would stand; the show lasted 10 to 15 minutes, after which time the entire audience would rotate to view a second painting. Models of the Diorama theater held a third painting; the size of the proscenium was 24 feet wide by 21 feet high. Each scene was hand-painted on linen, made transparent in selected areas. A ser
Pont de Recouvrance
The Pont de Recouvrance is a vertical-lift bridge in Brest, across the river Penfeld. Opened on 17 July 1954, it was the largest vertical-lift bridge in Europe until the opening of the Rouen Pont Gustave-Flaubert in 2008, it links the bottom of the rue de Siam to the quartier de Recouvrance, replacing a swing bridge destroyed by Allied bombardment in 1944. Each pylon is 70m high, the 525-tonne lift span is 88m long; the bridge was crossed by trolleybuses from its opening in 1954 until the closure of the Brest trolleybus system, in 1970. The lift span was renovated in 2011 to allow the new tram line to cross the bridge; the tram line opened by July 2012. Le pont levant de Brest, brochure edited by La Télémécanique Électrique Media related to Pont de Recouvrance at Wikimedia Commons Structurae
Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement popular in the Western world that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew in the early 19th century, when serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, lancet windows, hood moulds and label stops; the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 18th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with philosophical movements associated with Catholicism and a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism; the "Anglo-Catholicism" tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. Gothic Revival architecture varied in its faithfulness to both the ornamental style and principles of construction of its medieval original, sometimes amounting to little more than pointed window frames and a few touches of Gothic decoration on a building otherwise on a wholly 19th-century plan and using contemporary materials and construction methods.
In parallel to the ascendancy of neo-Gothic styles in 19th-century England, interest spread to the continent of Europe, in Australia, Sierra Leone, South Africa and to the Americas. The influence of the Revival had peaked by the 1870s. New architectural movements, sometimes related as in the Arts and Crafts movement, sometimes in outright opposition, such as Modernism, gained ground, by the 1930s the architecture of the Victorian era was condemned or ignored; the 20th century saw a revival of interest, manifested in the United Kingdom by the establishment of the Victorian Society in 1958. The rise of Evangelicalism in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries saw in England a reaction in the High church movement which sought to emphasise the continuity between the established church and the pre-Reformation Catholic church. Architecture, in the form of the Gothic Revival, became one of the main weapons in the High church's armoury; the Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by "medievalism", which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals and curiosities.
As "industrialisation" progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the picturesque such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society and portrayed pre-industrial medieval society as a golden age. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values, supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation. Gothic Revival took on political connotations. In English literature, the architectural Gothic Revival and classical Romanticism gave rise to the Gothic novel genre, beginning with The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, inspired a 19th-century genre of medieval poetry that stems from the pseudo-bardic poetry of "Ossian". Poems such as "Idylls of the King" by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance. In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions. Gothic architecture began at the Basilica of Saint Denis near Paris, the Cathedral of Sens in 1140 and ended with a last flourish in the early 16th century with buildings like Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster.
However, Gothic architecture did not die out in the 16th century but instead lingered in on-going cathedral-building projects. In Bologna, in 1646, the Baroque architect Carlo Rainaldi constructed Gothic vaults for the Basilica of San Petronio in Bologna, under construction since 1390. Guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active in Turin, recognized the "Gothic order" as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Gothic architecture survived in an urban setting during the 17th century, as shown in Oxford and Cambridge, where some additions and repairs to Gothic buildings were considered to be more in keeping with the style of the original structures than contemporary Baroque. Sir Christopher Wren's Tom Tower for Christ Church, University of Oxford, Nicholas Hawksmoor's west towers of Westminster Abbey, blur the boundaries between what is called "Gothic survival" and the Gothic Revival. Throughout France in the 16th and 17th centuries, churches such as St-Eustache continued to be built following gothic forms cloaked in classical details, until the arrival of Baroque architecture.
In the mid-18th century, with the rise of Romanticism, an increased in