Tour de Nesle affair
The Tour de Nesle affair was a scandal amongst the French royal family in 1314, during which Margaret and Joan, the daughters-in-law of King Philip IV, were accused of adultery. The accusations were started by Philip's daughter, Isabella; the Tour de Nesle was a tower in Paris. The scandal led to torture and imprisonments, with lasting consequences for the final years of the House of Capet; the royal scandal occurred at the end of the difficult reign of Philip IV, known as "le Bel" because of his good looks. Philip IV was a strangely unemotional man; the contemporary bishop of Pamiers described him as "neither a man nor a beast, but a statue". Throughout his reign, Philip had attempted to build up the authority and prestige of the French crown, raising fresh revenues, creating new institutions of government, engaging in wars against his rivals, on occasion challenging the authority of the Church. Just before the crisis broke, Philip had been engaged in the liquidation of the order of the Knights Templar in France.
By 1314, however, he was financially overstretched and in an difficult domestic political situation, some have suggested that his weakened position contributed to the subsequent royal crisis. Philip IV had three sons, Louis and Charles; as was customary for the period, all three were married with an eye for political gain. Philip had intended for Louis to marry Joan, the eldest daughter of Otto IV, Count of Burgundy, but in the end chose Margaret, the daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy, in 1305, arranged for his middle son Philip to marry Joan in 1307, his youngest son Charles married Blanche, another of Otto's daughters, in 1308. The three marriages had fared differently. Louis' is considered to have been an unhappy match. Charles, a conservative, "strait-laced" and "stiff-necked" individual, had an unexceptional marriage. Philip, in contrast, became. Meanwhile, Philip the Fair married his daughter, Isabella, to Edward II of England in 1308 in an attempt to resolve the tensions of his twin problems of conflict over the contested territories of Gascony and Flanders.
Isabella's marriage proved difficult due to Edward's intimate relationship with his close friend and possible lover, Piers Gaveston. Isabella looked to her father for help addressing the problems in her English marriage. Most accounts of the scandal begin with the visit of the king and queen of England to the queen's father in France during 1313. During the visit and Charles had had a satirical puppet show put on for their guests, after this Isabella had given new embroidered purses both to her brothers and to their wives. In the year and Edward held a large dinner in London to celebrate their return and Isabella noticed that the purses she had given to her sisters-in-law were now being carried by two Norman knights, Walter of Aunay and Philip of Aunay. Isabella concluded that the pair must have been carrying on an illicit affair, appears to have informed her father of this during her next visit to France in 1314. Philip IV placed the knights under surveillance for a period, the scandal began to take shape.
The accusations centred on suggestions that Blanche and Margaret had been drinking and engaging in adultery with Gautier and Philip of Aunay in the Tour de Nesle over a period. The Tour de Nesle was an old guard tower in Paris next to the river Seine and had been bought by Philip IV in 1308; the third sister-in-law, was said to have been present on some of these occasions and to have known of the affair. Most historians have tended to conclude that the accusations against Blanche and Margaret were true, although some are more skeptical; some accounts have suggested. Others have argued that this seems an unlikely plan, given the normal probability that at least one of the three brothers would have remarried and enjoyed a male heir in the coming years; some contemporary chroniclers suggested that Philip IV's unpopular chamberlain Enguerrand de Marigny might have been responsible for framing the knights and women involved. Following the period of surveillance, Philip IV broke the news of the accusations publicly and arrested all involved.
There are some suggestions that Walter and Philip of Aunay attempted to escape to England but in due course both knights were interrogated and tortured by French officials. Both confessed to adultery and were found guilty, therefore, of lèse majesté. Blanche and Margaret were found guilty of adultery; the two women were sentenced to life imprisonment. Joan was tried before the Parlement but was found innocent as a result of her husband Philip's influence; the Tour de Nesle scandal led to the imprisonment of Blanche and Margaret, the execution of their lovers. Having been tortured, the guilty knight
Kingdom of France
The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War, it was an early colonial power, with possessions around the world. France originated as West Francia, the western half of the Carolingian Empire, with the Treaty of Verdun. A branch of the Carolingian dynasty continued to rule until 987, when Hugh Capet was elected king and founded the Capetian dynasty; the territory remained known as Francia and its ruler as rex Francorum well into the High Middle Ages. The first king calling himself Roi de France was Philip II, in 1190. France continued to be ruled by the Capetians and their cadet lines—the Valois and Bourbon—until the monarchy was overthrown in 1792 during the French Revolution. France in the Middle Ages was a feudal monarchy. In Brittany and Catalonia the authority of the French king was felt. Lorraine and Provence were states of the Holy Roman Empire and not yet a part of France.
West Frankish kings were elected by the secular and ecclesiastic magnates, but the regular coronation of the eldest son of the reigning king during his father's lifetime established the principle of male primogeniture, which became codified in the Salic law. During the Late Middle Ages, the Kings of England laid claim to the French throne, resulting in a series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years' War. Subsequently, France sought to extend its influence into Italy, but was defeated by Spain in the ensuing Italian Wars. France in the early modern era was centralised. Religiously France became divided between the Catholic majority and a Protestant minority, the Huguenots, which led to a series of civil wars, the Wars of Religion. France laid claim to large stretches of North America, known collectively as New France. Wars with Great Britain led to the loss of much of this territory by 1763. French intervention in the American Revolutionary War helped secure the independence of the new United States of America but was costly and achieved little for France.
The Kingdom of France adopted a written constitution in 1791, but the Kingdom was abolished a year and replaced with the First French Republic. The monarchy was restored by the other great powers in 1814 and lasted until the French Revolution of 1848. During the years of the elderly Charlemagne's rule, the Vikings made advances along the northern and western perimeters of the Kingdom of the Franks. After Charlemagne's death in 814 his heirs were incapable of maintaining political unity and the empire began to crumble; the Treaty of Verdun of 843 divided the Carolingian Empire into three parts, with Charles the Bald ruling over West Francia, the nucleus of what would develop into the kingdom of France. Charles the Bald was crowned King of Lotharingia after the death of Lothair II in 869, but in the Treaty of Meerssen was forced to cede much of Lotharingia to his brothers, retaining the Rhone and Meuse basins but leaving the Rhineland with Aachen and Trier in East Francia. Viking advances were allowed to increase, their dreaded longships were sailing up the Loire and Seine rivers and other inland waterways, wreaking havoc and spreading terror.
During the reign of Charles the Simple, Normans under Rollo from Norway, were settled in an area on either side of the River Seine, downstream from Paris, to become Normandy. The Carolingians were to share the fate of their predecessors: after an intermittent power struggle between the two dynasties, the accession in 987 of Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, established the Capetian dynasty on the throne. With its offshoots, the houses of Valois and Bourbon, it was to rule France for more than 800 years; the old order left the new dynasty in immediate control of little beyond the middle Seine and adjacent territories, while powerful territorial lords such as the 10th- and 11th-century counts of Blois accumulated large domains of their own through marriage and through private arrangements with lesser nobles for protection and support. The area around the lower Seine became a source of particular concern when Duke William took possession of the kingdom of England by the Norman Conquest of 1066, making himself and his heirs the King's equal outside France.
Henry II inherited the Duchy of Normandy and the County of Anjou, married France's newly divorced ex-queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine, who ruled much of southwest France, in 1152. After defeating a revolt led by Eleanor and three of their four sons, Henry had Eleanor imprisoned, made the Duke of Brittany his vassal, in effect ruled the western half of France as a greater power than the French throne. However, disputes among Henry's descendants over the division of his French territories, coupled with John of England's lengthy quarrel with Philip II, allowed Philip II to recover influence over most of this territory. After the French victory at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, the English monarchs maintained power only in southwestern Duchy of Guyenne; the death of Charles IV of France in 1328 without male heirs ended the main Capetian line. Under Salic law the crown could not pass through a woman (Philip IV's daughter
Flaying known colloquially as skinning, is a method of slow and painful execution in which skin is removed from the body. An attempt is made to keep the removed portion of skin intact. A dead animal may be flayed when preparing it to be used for its hide or fur; this is more called skinning. Flaying of humans is used as a method of torture or execution, depending on how much of the skin is removed; this is referred to as "flaying alive". There are records of people flayed after death as a means of debasing the corpse of a prominent enemy or criminal, sometimes related to religious beliefs. Dermatologist Ernst G. Jung notes that the typical causes of death due to flaying are shock, critical loss of blood or other body fluids, hypothermia, or infections, that the actual death is estimated to occur from a few hours up to a few days after the flaying. Hypothermia is possible, as skin is essential for maintaining a person's body temperature, as it provides a person's natural insulation. Ernst G. Jung, in his "Kleine Kulturgeschichte der Haut", provides an essay in which he outlines the Neo-Assyrian tradition of flaying human beings.
From the times of Ashurnasirpal II, the practice is displayed and commemorated in both carvings and official royal edicts. The carvings show that the actual flaying process might begin at various places on the body, such as at the crus, the thighs, or the buttocks. In their royal edicts, the Neo-Assyrian kings seem to gloat over the terrible fate they imposed upon their captives, that flaying seems, in particular, to be the fate meted out to rebel leaders. Jung provides some examples of this triumphant rhetoric. Here are some from Ashurnasirpal II:I have made a pillar facing the city gate, have flayed all the rebel leaders. I let the leaders of the conquered cities be flayed, clad the city walls with their skins; the captives I have killed by the sword and flung on the dung heap, the little boys and girls were burnt. The Rassam Cylinder, in the British Museum demonstrates this, their corpses they hung on stakes, they stripped off their skins and covered the city wall with them. Searing or cutting the flesh from the body was sometimes used as part of the public execution of traitors in medieval Europe.
A similar mode of execution was used as late as the early 18th century in France. In 1303, the Treasury of Westminster Abbey was robbed while holding a large sum of money belonging to King Edward I. After arrest and interrogation of 48 monks, three of them, including the subprior and sacrist, were found guilty of the robbery and flayed, their skin was attached to three doors as a warning against robbers of State. The Copford church in Essex, may have been found to have human skin attached to a door. In Chinese history, Sun Hao, Fu Sheng and Gao Heng were known for removing skin from people's faces; the Hongwu Emperor flayed many servants and rebels. In 1396 he ordered the flaying of 5000 women. Hai Rui suggested; the Zhengde Emperor flayed six rebels, Zhang Xianzhong flayed many people. Lu Xun said the Ming Dynasty was ended by flaying. One of the plastinated exhibits in Body Worlds includes an entire posthumously flayed skin, many of the other exhibits have had their skin removed. In Greek mythology, Marsyas, a satyr, was flayed alive for daring to challenge Apollo to a musical contest, which he lost.
According to Greek mythology, Aloeus is said to have had his wife flayed. In Aztec mythology, Xipe Totec is the flayed god of rebirth. Captured enemy warriors were flayed annually as sacrifices to him. Yahu-Bihdi, ruler of Hamath, was flayed alive by the Assyrians under Sargon II. According to Herodotus, Sisamnes, a corrupt judge under Cambyses II of Persia, was flayed for accepting a bribe; the Talmud discusses. Catholic and Orthodox tradition holds. Mani, founding prophet of Manichaeism, was said to have been beheaded. In March 415, Hypatia of Alexandria, a Neoplatonist philosopher, was murdered by a Christian mob of Nitrian monks who accused her of paganism, they stripped her naked, skinned her with ostraca, burned her remains. Totila is said to have ordered the bishop of Perugia, Herculanus, to be flayed when he captured that city in 549. In 991 AD, during a Viking raid in England, a Danish Viking is said to have been flayed by London locals for ransacking a church. Alleged human skin found on a local church door has, for many years, been considered as proof for this legend, but a deeper analysis made during the production of the 2001 BBC documentary, Blood of the Vikings, came to the conclusion that the preserved skin came from a cow hide and was part of a 19th-century hoax.
Pierre Basile was flayed alive and all defenders of the chateau hanged on 6 April 1199, by order of the mercenary leader Mercadier, for shooting and killing King Richard I of England with a crossbow at the siege of Châlus, in March 1199. In 1314, the brothers Aunay, who were lovers of the daughters-in-law of king Philip IV of France, were flayed alive castrated and beheaded, their bodies were exposed on a gibbet; the extreme severity of their punishment was due to the lèse majesté nature of the crime. In 1404 or 1417, the Hurufi Imad ud-Din Nes
Philip II of France
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus, was King of France from 1180 to 1223, the seventh from the House of Capet. His predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself "King of France"; the son of King Louis VII and his third wife, Adela of Champagne, he was nicknamed Dieudonné because he was a first son and born late in his father's life. Philip was given the epithet "Augustus" by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the crown lands of France so remarkably; the only known description of Philip describes him as "a handsome, strapping fellow, bald but with a cheerful face of ruddy complexion, a temperament much inclined towards good-living and women. He was generous to his friends, stingy towards those who displeased him, well-versed in the art of stratagem, orthodox in belief and stubborn in his resolves, he made judgements with great exactitude. Fortune's favorite, fearful for his life excited and placated, he was tough with powerful men who resisted him, took pleasure in provoking discord among them.
Never, did he cause an adversary to die in prison. He liked to employ humble men, to be the subduer of the proud, the defender of the Church, feeder of the poor". After a twelve-year struggle with the Plantagenet dynasty in the Anglo-French War of 1202–14, Philip broke up the large Angevin Empire presided over by the crown of England and defeated a coalition of his rivals at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214; this victory would have a lasting impact on western European politics: the authority of the French king became unchallenged, while the English King John was forced by his barons to sign Magna Carta and deal with a rebellion against him aided by Philip, the First Barons' War. The military actions surrounding the Albigensian Crusade helped prepare the expansion of France southward. Philip did not participate directly in these actions, but he allowed his vassals and knights to help carry it out. Philip transformed France from a small feudal state into the most prosperous and powerful country in Europe.
He checked the power of the nobles and helped the towns to free themselves from seigniorial authority, granting privileges and liberties to the emergent bourgeoisie. He built a great wall around Paris, re-organized the French government and brought financial stability to his country. Philip was born in Gonesse on 21 August 1165. King Louis VII intended to make his son Philip co-ruler with him as soon as possible, in accordance with the traditions of the House of Capet, but these plans were delayed when Philip, at the age of thirteen, was separated from his companions during a royal hunt and became lost in the Forest of Compiègne, he spent much of the following night attempting to find his way out, but to no avail. Exhausted by cold and fatigue, he was discovered by a peasant carrying a charcoal burner, but his exposure to the elements meant he soon contracted a dangerously high fever, his father went on pilgrimage to the Shrine of Thomas Becket to pray for Philip's recovery and was told that his son had indeed recovered.
However, on his way back to Paris, the king suffered a stroke. In declining health, Louis VII had his 14-year-old son crowned and anointed as king at Reims on 1 November 1179 by Archbishop William of the White Hands, he was married on 28 April 1180 to Isabelle of Hainaut, the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, Margaret I, Countess of Flanders, who brought the County of Artois as her dowry. From the time of his coronation, all real power was transferred to Philip, as his father descended into senility; the great nobles were discontented with Philip's advantageous marriage, while his mother and four uncles, all of whom exercised enormous influence over Louis, were unhappy with his attainment of the throne, which caused a diminution of their power. Louis died on 18 September 1180. While the royal demesne had increased under Philip I and Louis VI, it had diminished under Louis VII. In April 1182 to enrich the French crown, Philip expelled all Jews from the demesne and confiscated their goods.
Philip's eldest son Louis was born on 5 September 1187 and inherited the County of Artois in 1190, when his mother Isabelle died. The main source of funding for Philip's army was from the royal demesne. In times of conflict, he could call up 250 knights, 250 horse sergeants, 100 mounted crossbowmen, 133 crossbowmen on foot, 2,000 foot sergeants, 300 mercenaries. Towards the end of his reign, the king could muster some 3,000 knights, 9,000 sergeants, 6,000 urban militiamen, thousands of foot sergeants. Using his increased revenues, Philip was the first Capetian king to build a French navy actively. By 1215, his fleet could carry a total of 7,000 men. Within two years, his fleet included 10 large ships and many smaller ones. In 1181, Philip began a war with Philip, Count of Flanders, over the Vermandois, which King Philip claimed as his wife's dowry and the Count was unwilling to give up; the Count of Flanders invaded France, ravaging the whole district between the Somme and the Oise before penetrating as far as Dammartin.
Notified of Philip's impending approach with 2,000 knights, he turned around and headed back to Flanders. Philip chased him, the two armies confronted each other near Amiens. By this stage, Philip had managed to counter the ambitions of the count by breaking his alliances with Henry I, Duke of Brabant, Philip of Heinsberg, Archbishop of Cologne. This, together with an uncertain outcome were he to engage the French in battle, forced the Count to conclude a peace. In July 11
Philip V of France
Philip V, knowns as the Tall, was King of France and Navarre. He reigned from 1316 to his death and was the fourteenth and penultimate monarch of the main line of the House of Capet; as the second son of king Philip IV, he was granted an appanage, the County of Poitiers, while his elder brother, Louis X, inherited the throne in 1314. When Louis died in 1316, he left Clementia of Hungary. Philip the Tall claimed the regency. Queen Clementia gave birth to a boy, proclaimed king as John I, but the infant king lived only for five days. At the death of his nephew, Philip had himself crowned at Reims. However, his legitimacy was challenged by the party of Louis X’s daughter Joan. Philip V contested her claims for a number of reasons, including her youth, doubts regarding her paternity, the Estates General's determination that women should be excluded from the line of succession to the French throne; the succession of Philip, instead of Joan, set the precedent for the French royal succession that would be famously known as the Salic law.
Philip V restored somewhat good relations with the County of Flanders, which had entered into open rebellion during his father’s rule, but his relations with Edward II of England worsened as the English king, Duke of Guyenne refused to pay him homage. A spontaneous popular crusade started in Normandy in 1320 aiming to liberate Iberia from the Moors. Instead the angry populace marched to the south attacking castles, royal officials, priests and Jews. Philip V engaged in a series of domestic reforms intended to improve the management of the kingdom; these reforms included the creation of an independent Court of Finances, the standardization of weights and measures, the establishment of a single currency. Philip V died from dysentery in 1322 without a male heir and was succeeded by his younger brother Charles IV. Philip was born in the second son of King Philip IV of France and Queen Joan I of Navarre, his father granted to him the county of Poitiers in appanage. Modern historians have described Philip V as a man of "considerable intelligence and sensitivity", the "wisest and politically most apt" of Philip IV's three sons.
Philip was influenced by the troubles and unrest that his father had encountered during 1314, as well as by the difficulties his older brother, Louis X, known as "the Quarreler", had faced during the intervening few years. At the heart of the problems for both Philip IV and Louis X were taxes and the difficulty in raising them outside of crises. Philip married Joan of Burgundy, the eldest daughter of Otto IV, Count of Burgundy and Mahaut, Countess of Artois, in 1307; the original plan had been for Louis X to marry Joan, but this was altered after Louis was engaged to Margaret of Burgundy. Modern scholars have found little evidence as to whether the marriage was a happy one, but the pair had a considerable number of children in a short space of time, Philip was exceptionally generous to Joan by the standards of the day. Philip went to great lengths not only to endow Joan with lands and money but to try to ensure that these gifts were irrevocable in the event of his early death. Amongst the various gifts were a palace, additional money for jewels, her servants and the property of all the Jews in Burgundy, which he gave to Joan in 1318.
Joan was implicated in Margaret's adultery case during 1314. Joan was suspected of having secretly known about the adultery. With Philip's support she continued to protest her innocence, by 1315 her name had been cleared by the Paris Parlement through Philip's influence, she was allowed to return to court, it is unclear. One theory has been that he was concerned that if he were to abandon Joan, he might lose Burgundy. Philip's older brother, Louis X, died in 1316 leaving the pregnant Clementia of Hungary as his widow. There were several potential candidates for the role of regent, including Charles of Valois and Duke Odo IV of Burgundy, but Philip outmanoeuvred them, being appointed regent himself. Philip remained as regent for the remainder of the pregnancy and for a few days after the birth of his nephew John I, who lived for only five days; the death of John I was unprecedented in the history of the Capetian Kings of France. For the first time, the king of France died without a male heir; the heir to the throne was now a subject of some dispute.
Joan, the remaining daughter of Louis X by Margaret of Burgundy, was one obvious candidate, but suspicion still hung over her as a result of the scandal in 1314, including concerns over her actual parentage. With only his niece between himself and the throne, Philip engaged in some rapid political negotiations and convinced Charles of Valois, who along with Odo IV was championing Joan's rights, to switch sides and support him instead. In exchange for marrying Philip's daughter, Odo IV abandoned his niece's cause, not only her claim to the French throne but her claim to Navarre's. On 9 January 1317, with Charles's support, Philip was hastily crowned at Rheims; the majority of the nobility, refused to attend, there were demonstrations in Champagne and Burgundy, Philip called a rapid assembly of the nobility
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Institut de France
The Institut de France is a French learned society, grouping five académies, including the Académie française. The Institute, located in Paris, manages 1,000 foundations, as well as museums and châteaux open for visit, it awards prizes and subsidies, which amounted to a total of over €27 million per year in 2017. Most of these prizes are awarded by the Institute on the recommendation of the académies; the building was constructed as the Collège des Quatre-Nations by Cardinal Mazarin, as a school for students from new provinces attached to France under Louis XIV. The Institut de France was established on 25 October 1795, by the French government. In 2017, Xavier Darcos was named the Institut de France's chancellor. Académie française – initiated 1635, suppressed 1793, restored 1803 as a division of the institute. Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres – initiated 1663. Académie des sciences – initiated 1666. Académie des beaux-arts – created 1816 as the merger of the Académie de peinture et de sculpture Académie de musique and Académie d'architecture Académie des sciences morales et politiques – initiated 1795, suppressed 1803, reestablished 1832.
The Royal Society of Canada, initiated 1882, was modeled after the Institut de France and the Royal Society of London. The Lebanese Academy of Sciences, known by its French name "Académie des Sciences du Liban", is broadly fashioned after the French Academy of Sciences, with which it continues to develop joint programs. Collège des Quatre-Nations National academy List of museums in Paris List of honorary societies Media related to Institut de France at Wikimedia Commons Official website Notes on the Institut de France from the Scholarly Societies project