Les-Praz-de-Chamonix is a mountain village in the French Alps, part of the commune of Chamonix. Les Praz is located in the middle of the valley of Chamonix and it is connected to Switzerland by the pass over the Col des Montets, and the Col de la Forclaz to Martigny in the Rhône valley. Les Praz is the point for the cable car up to La Flégère. Peaks on the west side of the include the Aiguilles Rouges. On the east side, the sky is dominated by the Aiguille du Dru and to the south by Mont Blanc
Aiguille du Dru
The Aiguille du Dru is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif in the French Alps. It is situated to the east of the village of Les Praz in the Chamonix valley, the mountains highest summit is Grande Aiguille du Dru 3,754 m Another, slightly lower sub-summit is, Petite Aiguille du Dru 3,733 m. The two summits are located on the west ridge of the Aiguille Verte and are connected to other by the Brèche du Dru. The north face of the Petit Dru is considered one of the six great north faces of the Alps. Dent, in his description of the climb, Those who follow us, taken together, it affords the most continuously interesting rock climb with which I am acquainted. There is no wearisome tramp over moraine, no great extent of snow fields to traverse, sleeping out as we did, it would be possible to ascend and return to Chamonix in about 16 to 18 hrs. But the mountain is never safe when snow is on the rocks, the best time for the expedition would be, in ordinary seasons, in the month of August. The rocks are sound and are peculiarly unlike those of other mountains, from the moment the glacier is left, hard climbing begins, and the hands as well as the feet are continuously employed.
The difficulties are therefore enormously increased if the rocks be glazed or cold, the Petit Dru was climbed in the following year, on 29 August 1879, by J. E. Charlet-Straton, P. Payot and F. Follignet via the south face and the south-west ridge. The first traverse of both summits of the Drus was by E. Fontaine and J. Ravanel on 23 August 1901, the first winter traverse of the Drus was by Armand Charlet and Camille Devouassoux on 25 February 1938. In 1889 both peaks of the Dru were climbed for the first time from the Petit Dru to the Grand Dru by two parties. One party contained Katharine Richardson and guides Emile Rey and Jean-Baptiste Bich, and these 1000 m-high rock faces have seen serious rockfalls in 1950,1997,2003,2005 and 2011, which have considerably affected the structure of the mountain and destroyed a number of routes. Seven years later, from 24–26 July 1962, Gary Hemming and Royal Robbins climbed the American Direct, on 10–13 August 1965, Royal Robbins, this time accompanied by John Harlin, climbed the American Direttissima.
This route was destroyed by the 2005 rockfall, on 4 September 1913 a party of climbers led by Camille Simond and Roberts Charlet-Straton attempted to carry a hollow metal statue of Our Lady of Lourdes up the peak. The Aiguille du Dru on SummitPost
In geography and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. A settlement can range in size from a number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized areas. Settlements may include hamlets, villages and cities, a settlement may have known historical properties such as the date or era in which it was first settled, or first settled by a particular people. In the field of geospatial predictive modeling, settlements are a city, village ghost or other agglomeration of buildings where people live and work. The oldest remains that have found of constructed dwellings are remains of huts that were made of mud. The Natufians built houses, in the Levant, around 10,000 BC, remains of settlements such as villages become much more common after the invention of agriculture. Landscape history studies the form of settlements – for example whether they are dispersed or nucleated, urban morphology can thus be considered a special type of cultural-historical landscape studies.
Settlements can be ordered by size, centrality or other factors to define a settlement hierarchy, geoscience Australia defines a populated place as a named settlement with a population of 200 or more persons. The Committee for Geographical Names in Australasia used the term localities for rural areas, the Bulgarian Government publishes a National Register of Populated Places. The Canadian government uses the term populated place in the Atlas of Canada, Statistics Canada uses the term localities for historical named locations. The Croatian Bureau of Statistics records population in units called settlements, the Census Commission of India has a special definition of census towns. The Central Statistics Office of the Republic of Ireland has a definition of census towns. There are various types of inhabited localities in Russia, Statistics Sweden uses the term localities for various densely populated places. The common English-language translation is urban areas, the UK Department for Communities and Local Government uses the term urban settlement to denote an urban area when analysing census information.
The Registrar General for Scotland defines settlements as groups of one or more contiguous localities, the Scottish settlements are used as one of several factors defining urban areas. A populated place is not incorporated and by definition has no legal boundaries. However, a place may have a corresponding civil record. Census − a statistical area delineated locally specifically for the tabulation of Census Bureau data, civil − a political division formed for administrative purposes
Aiguilles du Diable
The Aiguilles du Diable are a group of five rock needles, all over 4,000 metres high, on the southeast arête (also called the Teufelsgrat or Devils Ridge of the Mont Blanc du Tacul. The pinnacles lies within the French part of the Mont Blanc Massif in the departement of Haute-Savoie, the highest needle is L’Isolée, followed by Pointe Carmen, Pointe Médiane, Pointe Chaubert und Corne du Diable. The first needle to be climbed was Pointe Carmen in 1923 which was conquered by Brégault, Chevalier, in 1925 the others were first climbed, initially L’Isolée by Antoine Blanchet and Armand Charlet, Corne du Diable and Pointe Chaubert by Armand Charlet and Jean Chaubert. The last to be ascended was Pointe Médiane by Antoine Blanchet, Jean Chaubert, Armand Charlet, the first time all the needles were climbed in a single expedition was in 1927 by the Americans, Miriam O’Brien and Robert Underhill with Armand Charlet. Today a crossing of the Aiguilles du Diable is usually done as a climbing tour. The overall difficulty is assessed as difficult on the SAC scale and climbing grade V+ on the UIAA scale
Courmayeur is a town and comune in northern Italy, in the autonomous region of Aosta Valley. Courmayeur shares administration of Mont Blanc with its neighboring commune of Saint-Gervais-les-Bains in France, Courmayeur shares access to the glacial ski run of the Vallée Blanche with another French town, which sits at the opposite, side of the Mont Blanc massif. The ancient Curia Maior was always a popular tourist destination, thanks to its spa, during World War II, under the fascist regime and its italianist rule, the town was briefly renamed Cormaiore. Courmayeur’s picturesque mountain scenery make it an attractive year-round destination and it is cited as Italys best all-round ski resort, and contains the Giardino Botanico Alpino Saussurea, which describes itself as Europes highest botanical garden. The Church of Saint-Pantaléon dates to the 18th century, in the summer months Courmayeur is a popular destination for hikers. The nearby village of La Palud is the station of the Skyway Monte Bianco.
This links to the Vallée Blanche Aerial Tramway going to the Aiguille du Midi, which connects to the Téléphérique de lAiguille du Midi, the Courmayeur Noir in festival, an annual film and literature event, was introduced in 1991 and takes place in December. Chamonix, France Courmayeur travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website Courmayeur Noir in festival Sci Club Courmayeur Monte Bianco
The Aiguilles Rouges are a crystalline mountainous massif of the French Prealps, opposite the Mont Blanc Massif. The colour of the iron rich gneiss mountains gives the range its name, the highest summit is the Aiguille du Belvédère at 2,965 metres. At the southern end of the range, Le Brévent at 2,525 metres is accessible by a car in the Planpraz. Unlike the massif of the Mont Blanc, the Aiguilles Rouges have no significant glaciers, the southwest face abounds in vegetation which developed from a multitude of biotopes. Amongst the typical flora hikers can discover include sundews, martagons, in order to protect this biodiversity, the Aiguilles Rouges National Nature Reserve was created in 1974 covering 3,279 ha. The Aiguilles Rouges offer a view of all the peaks of Chamonix, the glaciers of Mont Blanc. The French artist Samivel is known for his paintings of some of these splendid views, the highest point in this range is named Belvédère because it offers a 360° panoramic view of all the mountains surrounding the Aiguilles Rouges.
The mountain path running from Planpraz to the Col des Montets via La Flégère, the eastern part of the range has numerous mountain lakes, of which the most remarkable is Lac Blanc at the foot of the Aiguille Belvédère. The range is home to the principal climbing crags of Chamonix and he mentions them in his novel From Russia, with Love. ASTERS, organization in charge of the management of the Aiguilles Rouges Natural Reserve Association des Amis des Réserves Naturelles des Aiguilles Rouges
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism and these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, a few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level and these colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains, different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m, there is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain, whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. The highest point in San Francisco, California, is called Mount Davidson, notwithstanding its height of 300 m, Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittows Dictionary of Physical Geography states Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, in addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement, typically 100 or 500 feet. For a while, the US defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, any similar landform lower than this height was considered a hill. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US, using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, and 14% of Africa. As a whole, 24% of the Earths land mass is mountainous, there are three main types of mountains, volcanic and block.
All three types are formed from plate tectonics, when portions of the Earths crust move, compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features. The height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if higher and steeper, major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity. Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed below another plate, at a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, and forms magma that reaches the surface. When the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Fuji in Japan and Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain, magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
The Swiss Alps extend over both the Western Alps and the Eastern Alps, encompassing an area sometimes called Central Alps. The Swiss Alps comprise almost all the highest mountains of the Alps, such as Dufourspitze, the Dom, the Liskamm, the Weisshorn, the other following major summits can be found in this list of mountains of Switzerland. Since the Middle Ages, transit across the Alps played an important role in history, the region north of St Gotthard Pass became the nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the early 14th century. The Alps cover 65% of Switzerlands total 41,285 square kilometres surface area, making it one of the most alpine countries. The glaciers of the Swiss Alps cover an area of 1,220 square kilometres — 3% of the Swiss territory, the Swiss Alps are situated south of the Swiss Plateau and north of the national border. The limit between the Alps and the runs from Vevey on the shores of Lake Geneva to Rorschach on the shores of Lake Constance, passing close to the cities of Thun.
The not well defined regions in Switzerland that lie on the margin of the Alps, the Swiss Prealps are mainly made of limestone and they generally do not exceed 2,500 metres. The Alpine cantons are Valais, Graubünden, Glarus, Ticino, St. Gallen, Obwalden, Schwyz, Appenzell Innerrhoden, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Fribourg and Zug. The countries with which Switzerland shares mountain ranges of the Alps are, Italy, the Alps are usually divided into two main parts, the Western Alps and Eastern Alps, whose division is along the Rhine from Lake Constance to the Splügen Pass. The western ranges occupy the greatest part of Switzerland while the more numerous eastern ranges are smaller and are all situated in the canton of Graubünden. The latter are part of the Central Eastern Alps, except the Ortler Alps which belong to the Southern Limestone Alps, the Pennine and Bernina Range are the highest ranges of the country, they contain respectively 38,9 and 1 summit over 4000 metres. The lowest range is the Appenzell Alps culminating at 2,500 metres, Western Alps Eastern Alps The north side of the Swiss Alps is drained by the Rhône, Rhine and Inn while the south side is mainly drained by the Ticino.
The rivers on the empty into the Mediterranean and Black Sea. The major triple watersheds in the Alps are located within the country, they are, Piz Lunghin, Witenwasserenstock, between the Witenwasserenstock and Piz Lunghin runs the European Watershed separating the basin of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. The European watershed lies in fact only partially on the main chain, Switzerland possesses 6% of Europes fresh water, and is sometimes referred to as the water tower of Europe. Since the highest dams are located in Alpine regions, many mountain lakes are artificial and are used as hydroelectric reservoirs. Some large artificial lakes can be found above 2,300 m, the melting of low-altitude glaciers can generate new lakes, such as the 0.25 km² large Triftsee which formed between 2002–2003. The following table gives the area above 2000 m and 3000 m
Trient is the German name for the city of Trento, Italy Trient is a municipality in the district of Martigny in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. In 1900 the municipality was created, when it separated from Martigny-Combe, Trient has an area, as of 2011, of 39.5 square kilometers. Of this area,12. 4% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,0. 8% is settled and 55. 6% is unproductive land. The blazon of the coat of arms is Azure on a plane in front of mountains Vert a Chamois stantant Argent. Trient has a population of 193, as of 2008,6. 2% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 3. 5% and it has changed at a rate of 2. 8% due to migration and at a rate of 1. 4% due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks French as their first language, German is the second most common, as of 2008, the population was 47. 6% male and 52. 4% female. The population was made up of 64 Swiss men and 6 non-Swiss men, there were 73 Swiss women and 4 non-Swiss women.
Of the population in the municipality,53 or about 40. 8% were born in Trient and lived there in 2000. There were 45 or 34. 6% who were born in the canton, while 17 or 13. 1% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. As of 2000, children and teenagers make up 28. 5% of the population, while adults make up 54. 6%, as of 2000, there were 53 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 67 married individuals,6 widows or widowers and 4 individuals who are divorced, as of 2000, there were 51 private households in the municipality, and an average of 2.5 persons per household. There were 13 households that consist of one person and 7 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 49 apartments were permanently occupied, the vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 1. 48%. The historical population is given in the chart, In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the FDP which received 39. 31% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the CVP, the SP and the SVP, in the federal election, a total of 83 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 76. 1%.
In the 2009 Conseil dEtat/Staatsrat election a total of 57 votes were cast, the voter participation was 62. 6%, which is much more than the cantonal average of 54. 67%. In the 2007 Swiss Council of States election a total of 72 votes were cast, the voter participation was 77. 4%, which is much more than the cantonal average of 59. 88%