Asyat Mansurovich Saitov is a retired Russian cyclist. He missed the 1984 Summer Olympics due to their boycott by the Soviet Union and competed at the Friendship Games instead, winning a silver medal in the team road race; the same year he won Olympia's Tour. He won the GP Cuprosan in 1991, Vuelta a Castilla y León in 1992, Vuelta a Mallorca in 1993 and Gran Premio de Llodio in 1994. In 1988 he competed at the Summer Olympics in the 100 km team time trial and in the individual road race and finished in seventh and 51st place, respectively, he is married to Svetlana Masterkova, a Russian Olympic middle distance runner
Team Vorarlberg Santic
Team Vorarlberg Santic is a cycling team based in Austria. The team was founded in 1999 by the twin brothers Thomas and Johannes Kofler and known as Team Volksbank. In 2009, the Austrian federal state of Vorarlberg replaced Volksbank as title sponsor. In 2006 it became the first Austrian professional cycling team and was registered as a UCI Professional Continental team until June 2010, when their UCI license was suspended due to financial insecurity; the team was re-registered as a UCI Continental team, retained that status in 2011. In 2007, the team received international attention when former German Tour de France-winner Jan Ullrich announced to join the team in an official function after having been suspended by his T-Mobile Team due to his involvement in the Operación Puerto doping case. After pressure from the team's sponsors, the plan was discarded. Team Vorarlberg was the first Austrian cycling team to participate in events of the UCI ProTour, the top tier racing league in professional cycling.
It did so by receiving a wild card for the 2007 Deutschland Tour returning in 2008 with Daniel Musiol winning the mountains classification. From 2007 to 2009 it raced three times at the Tour de Suisse as well as joining the 2009 Tour of Flanders. Other notable results besides several national champion titles include the overall victory at the 2015 Tour of Austria by Victor de la Parte. 2002 Ireland Time Trial Championship, David McCann 2004 Greece Road Race Championship, Vasilis Anastopoulos Austria Road Race Championship, Harald Morscher 2005 Greece Road Race Championship, Vasilis Anastopoulos 2012 Slovenia Time Trial Championship, Robert Vrečer Michael Rasmussen Stefan Denifl Harald Morscher Gerrit Glomser Sven Teutenberg Olaf Pollack Reto Hollenstein René Haselbacher Sebastian Siedler Silvan Dillier René Weissinger Robert Vrečer Victor de la Parte Official website
Valeriy Dmitriyev is a Kazakhstani road bicycle racer, last for Astana of the UCI ProTour. Valeriy Dmitriyev at Cycling Archives
Stefan Schäfer is a German male road and track cyclist. He competed in the individual pursuit and team pursuit event at the 2012 UCI Track Cycling World Championships. Profile at cyclingarchives.com
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Cycle sport is competitive physical activity using bicycles. There are several categories of bicycle racing including road bicycle racing, time trialling, cyclo-cross, mountain bike racing, track cycling, BMX, cycle speedway. Non-racing cycling sports include artistic cycling, cycle polo, freestyle BMX and mountain bike trials; the Union Cycliste Internationale is the world governing body for cycling and international competitive cycling events. The International Human Powered Vehicle Association is the governing body for human-powered vehicles that imposes far fewer restrictions on their design than does the UCI; the UltraMarathon Cycling Association is the governing body for many ultra-distance cycling races. Bicycle racing is recognised as an Olympic sport. Bicycle races are popular all over the world in Europe; the countries most devoted to bicycle racing include Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Other countries with international standing include Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States.
The first bicycle race is popularly held to have been a 1,200 meter race on the 31 May 1868 at the Parc de Saint-Cloud, Paris. It was won by expatriate Englishman James Moore; the machine is now on display at the museum in Ely, England. The Union Cycliste Internationale was founded on 14 April 1900 by Belgium, the United States, France and Switzerland to replace the International Cycling Association, formed in 1892, over a row with Great Britain as well as because of other issues. Road bicycle racing involve both team and individual competition, races are contested in various ways, they range from the one-day road race and time trial to multi-stage events like the Tour de France and its sister events which make up cycling's Grand Tours. The races take place from spring through to autumn. Many riders from the northern hemisphere spend the winter in countries such as Australia, to compete or train. Professional races range from the three-week "Grand Tour" stage races such as the Tour de France, Giro d'Italia and the Vuelta a España to multi-day stage races such as the Tour de Suisse and Tour of California, to single day "Classics" such as the Tour of Flanders and Milan–San Remo.
The longest one-day road race sanctioned by USA Cycling is Lotoja which covers the 206 miles from Logan, Utah to Jackson, Wyoming. Criteriums are races based on circuits less than a mile in length and sometimes run for a set time rather than a specific distance. Criteriums are the most popular form of road racing in North America. In Belgium, kermesses are popular, single-day events of over 120 km; as well as road races in which all riders start individual time trial and team time trial events are held on road-based courses. Track cycling encompasses races that take place on banked velodromes. Events are quite diverse and can range from individual and team pursuits, two-man sprints, to various group and mass start races. Competitors use track bicycles which do not have freewheels. Cyclo-cross originated as a sport for road racers during the off season, to vary their training during the cold months. Races take place in the autumn and winter and consist of many laps of a 2–3 km or 1–2 mile course featuring pavement, wooded trails, steep hills, obstacles requiring the rider to dismount, carry the bike and remount in one motion.
Races for senior categories are between 30 minutes and an hour long, the distance varying depending on the conditions. The sport is strongest in traditional road cycling countries such as France. Mountain bike races involve moderate to high degree of technical riding. There are several varieties. BMX takes place off-road. BMX races are sprints on purpose-built off-road single-lap tracks on single-gear bicycles. Riders navigate a dirt course of banked and flat corners. Cycle speedway is bicycle racing on 70 -- 90 m in length. Motor-paced racing and Keirin use motorcycles for pacing so bicyclists achieve higher speeds. Speeds achieved on indoor tracks are greater than those on roads. Other factors affecting speed are the route profile, wind conditions and elevation. At a 2013 event in Mexico, François Pervis achieved an average of 21.40 metres per second with a flying start over 200 meters. The top average speed over the men's 1 km time trial at the 2004 Summer Olympics was 16.4 metres per second recorded by Chris Hoy.
Average speeds drop with increasing distance, so that over the 120 km Cootamundra Annual Classic it is 11.8 metres per second. In the 259 km 2010 Paris-Roubaix, Fabian Cancellara set a speed of 10.9 metres per second, while over the 818 km Furnace Creek 508, the speed drops to 8.3 metres per second. For an extreme road distance such as the 4800 km Race Across America, the average speed of the record holder is 5.7 metres per second, while the 2350 km Freedom Trail over mountainous terrain in South Africa is at a record speed of 1.9 metres per second. Mountain bike trials is a sport where riders navigate natural and man-made obstacles without putting down their foot, or "dabbing", it is similar to motorcycle trials. Points are awarded for bike handling skills. Freestyle BMX is an extreme sport of stunt riding BMX bikes. Cycling Mountain bi