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Tourette syndrome

Tourette syndrome is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that begins in childhood or adolescence. It is characterized by at least one vocal tic. Common tics are blinking, throat clearing and facial movements; these are preceded by an unwanted urge or sensation in the affected muscles, can sometimes be suppressed temporarily, characteristically change in location and frequency. Tourette's is at the more severe end of a spectrum of tic disorders; the tics go unnoticed by casual observers. Once regarded as a rare and bizarre syndrome, Tourette's has popularly been associated with coprolalia, it is no longer considered rare. There are no specific tests for diagnosing Tourette's; therefore many may never seek medical attention. Extreme Tourette's in adulthood, though sensationalized in the media, is rare, but for a small minority debilitating tics can persist into adulthood. Tourette's does not affect life expectancy. There is no cure for Tourette's, no single most effective medication. Education is an important part of any treatment plan, explanation and reassurance alone are sufficient.

In most cases, medication for tics is not necessary, behavioral therapies are the first-line treatment. Among those who are referred to specialty clinics, other conditions like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive–compulsive disorder are more than in the broader population of persons with Tourette's; these co-occurring diagnoses cause more impairment to the individual than the tics. Tourette syndrome was named by French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot on behalf of his intern, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, who published in 1885 an account of nine patients with a "convulsive tic disorder". While the exact cause is unknown, it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors; the mechanism appears to involve dysfunction in neural circuits between the basal ganglia and related structures in the brain. Compared to the success in genetic research seen in other conditions, funded research into the genetics of Tourette's is lagging in the US. Tourette syndrome is classified as a motor disorder.

It is listed in the neurodevelopmental disorder category of the fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published in 2013. Tourette's is at the more severe end of the spectrum of tic disorders. Tics are sudden, nonrhythmic movements that involve discrete muscle groups, while vocal tics involve laryngeal, oral, nasal or respiratory muscles to produce sounds; the tics must not be explained by other substance use. Other conditions on the spectrum include persistent motor or vocal tics, in which one type of tic has been present for more than a year; the fifth edition of the DSM replaced what had been called transient tic disorder with provisional tic disorder, recognizing that "transient" can only be defined in retrospect. Some experts believe that TS and persistent motor or vocal tic disorder should be considered the same condition, because vocal tics are motor tics in the sense that they are muscular contractions of nasal or respiratory muscles. Tic disorders are defined only differently by the World Health Organization.

Most published research on TS originates in the United States, in international research the DSM is preferred over the WHO classification. Genetic studies indicate that tic disorders cover a spectrum, not recognized by the clear-cut distinctions in the current diagnostic framework. Studies have suggested since 2008 that Tourette's is not a unitary condition with a distinct mechanism as described in the existing classification systems. Elucidation of these subtypes awaits fuller understanding of the genetic and other causes of tic disorders. Tics are movements or sounds that take place "intermittently and unpredictably out of a background of normal motor activity", having the appearance of "normal behaviors gone wrong"; the tics wane. Tics may occur in "bouts of bouts", which vary among people; the variation in tic severity may occur over days, or weeks. Tics may increase when someone is experiencing stress, anxiety, or

Winter time (clock lag)

Winter time is the practice of shifting the clock back during winter months −1 hour. It is a form of daylight saving time, the opposite compensation to the summer time. However, while summer time is applied, use of winter time has been and is rare. Winter time was applied in Czechoslovakia by government ordinance no. 213/1946 Sb. from 1 December 1946 to 23 February 1947, authorized by act 212/1946 Sb. O zimním čase; this simple two-paragraph act, approved on 21 November 1946 and announced on 27 November 1946, authorised the government to implement winter time by ordinance at any time. The government gave as the main reason for this provision the fact that power plants had 10% lack of capacity in peak hours and winter time should help to spread the load out; the act was never cancelled and it theoretically authorises the government in the successor Czech Republic, as well as in the Slovak Republic, which adopted Czechoslovak law, to implement winter time again at any time. However, the experiment has never been repeated.

Namibia used winter time since 1994 until 2017. In this period Namibian Standard Time was at UTC+02:00 Central Africa Time in summer, UTC+01:00 in winter. Winter time began on the first Sunday in April at 03:00, lasted until the first Sunday in September, 02:00 hours. In the Zambezi Region in the far north-east of Namibia clocks were not changed and remained on Central Africa Time all year round so that during winter time, Namibia spanned two time zones; the Namibian Standard Time was thus UTC+02:00 in summer, UTC+01:00 in winter. The purpose was not to utilise additional hours of daylight in the evening, but to prevent children from walking to school in darkness in the morning, to decrease the risk of injuries and assaults. Ireland uses Greenwich Mean Time in the winter period. Ireland has adjusted clocks in Winter since 1971; the Standard Time Act 1968 established that the time for general purposes in the State shall be one hour in advance of Greenwich mean time throughout the year. This act was amended by the Standard Time Act 1971, which established Greenwich Mean Time as a winter time period.

Ireland therefore operates one hour behind standard time during the winter period, reverts to standard time in the summer months. This is defined in contrast to the other states in the European Union, which operate one hour ahead of standard time during the summer period, but produces the same end result. In Ireland, Winter time begins at 02:00 IST on the last Sunday in October, ends at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday in March; until 2015, Continental Chile used the time offset UTC−04:00 and Easter Island used UTC−06:00 for standard time, with daylight saving time between October and March every year. In January 2015 the Chilean government announced that the entire country will keep the time offset used during daylight saving time permanently. Indeed, there was no time change in 2015, however the annual time change was reinstated in 2016 after feedback from the public about an increase in truancy during the winter months, complaints about older computers and other electronic devices not using the right time zone, fruit growers reporting a 15% loss in productivity.

Chile returned to UTC−04:00 for winter time for 3 months starting in 2016. This ends on the second Saturday of August. Since 2017 a new time zone in the Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica region has been implemented, having 2 different zones in Continental Chile for the first time. Daylight saving time

List of New Testament minuscules (101–200)

A New Testament minuscule is a copy of a portion of the New Testament written in a small, cursive Greek script. The numbers are the now standard system of Caspar René Gregory referred to as the Gregory-Aland numbers. Dates are estimated to the nearest 100 year increment. Content only describes sections of the New Testament: Gospels, The Acts of the Apostles, Pauline epistles, so on. Sometimes the surviving portion of a codex is so limited that specific books, chapters or verses can be indicated. Linked articles, where they exist specify content in detail, by verse. Digital images are referenced with direct links to the hosting web pages, with the exception of those at the INTF; the quality and accessibility of the images is as follows: † Indicates the manuscript has damaged or missing pages. P Indicates only a portion of the books were included. K Indicates manuscript includes a commentary. S Indicates lost portions of manuscript replaced via supplement of a hand.abs Indicates manuscript is copy.

Brackets around Gregory-Aland number indicate the manuscript belongs to an numbered manuscript, was found to not be a continuous text manuscript, was found to be written in modern Greek versus Koine Greek, was proved a forgery, or has been destroyed. Some manuscripts List of New Testament papyri List of New Testament uncials List of New Testament minuscules List of New Testament minuscules List of New Testament minuscules List of New Testament minuscules ordered by Location/Institution List of New Testament lectionaries Aland, Kurt. Köster. Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neues Testaments. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. P. 95. ISBN 3-11-011986-2. "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 2014-09-09

2020 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The 2020 United Nations Climate Change Conference known as COP26, is the 26th United Nations Climate Change conference. It is scheduled to be held in Glasgow, Scotland from 9 to 20 November 2020 under the presidency of the UK government; the conference is set to incorporate the 26th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the 16th meeting of the parties for the Kyoto Protocol, the third meeting of the parties for the Paris Agreement. The conference is due to be held at the SEC Centre in central Glasgow. Former UK Minister for Energy and Clean Growth, Claire Perry O'Neill, was appointed President of COP26, but the UK government abruptly removed her from the Presidential post on 31 January 2020, stating that the post would become "a ministerial role". Former Prime Minister David Cameron and former Foreign Secretary William Hague were unwilling to accept the position. On 13 February 2020, Conservative minister Alok Sharma was appointed to the role.

Official website

Bratislava Zoo

The ZOO Bratislava is a zoo in Bratislava, Slovakia. It is located in the area of Mlynská dolina in the borough of Karlova Ves on the slopes of the forested hills of Little Carpathians; as of 2016, the zoo has an area of 96 hectares out of which 35 hectares is open to the public, is home to over 900 specimens of 175 animal species. The zoo receives on average 300,000 visitors annually, it is the only zoo in Bratislava, it is accessible by car with a dedicated parking lot or by public transport and it is open every day of the year. Major attractions include white lions, white tigers and DinoPark, featuring moving life-sized sculptures of dinosaurs. Out of the 5 major zoos in Slovakia, ZOO Bratislava is the second oldest, second largest and second most visited. ZOO Bratislava was one of the first zoos in Europe, successful in breeding Eurasian lynx in captivity. ZOO Bratislava is a general type of zoo and it focuses on breeding and conservation of endangered animal species and research work, education of the public and providing recreational facilities in the city.

It offers educational programs for children and students and allows the public to symbolically adopt an animal from the zoo for a fee. The zoo has a staff of 77 people. Since 1991, the zoo director is Miloslava Šavelová; the zoo is an independent organization of the city of Bratislava. The zoo is located on a hilly and forested terrain; the river Vydrica flows through the zoo area. The area is large and some exhibits are far from each other. Despite a noise-cancelling wall the area struggles with noise from the nearby D2 motorway. All food kiosks in the zoo are closed outside of the summer season. Camels, donkeys and a Hamadryas baboon from ZOO Bratislava starred in the 1997 movie Kull the Conqueror. Notable exhibits: Breeding facility for South African lions, Tigers and Sri Lankan leopards Primate House for Common chimpanzee and Sumatran orangutan Terrarium and exhibit of exotic species with Slender-tailed meerkats, tropical monkeys, sloths and two new fresh water Malawi and Tanganyika aquariums Enclosures of rhinoceroses and kangaroos Enclosures of zebras and giraffes Enclosures of antelopes and pygmy hippopotamuses Lakes in a natural style with flamingos and pelicans A proposal to establish a zoo in Bratislava first appeared in 1948.

The first intention was to build a zoo corner within the area of the Park of Culture and Relaxation on the Danube riverfront but on, taking into consideration the importance of Bratislava as the capital of Slovakia, it was agreed to build a separate breeding and educational institution. At first, in 1949, it was considered to build a zoo in the area of Železná studnička, part of the Bratislava Forest Park, but the experts’ reports had confirmed this location as unsuitable. A new alternative was therefore accepted – to build a zoo in Mlynská dolina which covered 9 hectares and was expanded to 90 hectares. Construction began in 1959 with the help of volunteers and students, part of the zoo was opened on 9 May 1960. During the first decade of the existence of the zoo, there was some achievement regarding breeding of macaques, porcupines, leopards and dingos; the zoo has undergone two major reductions, the first in 1981–1985, as a result of sewage system and motorway feeder construction, which reduced the area of the zoo to one-third, destroying two-thirds of the original exposition area and causing animal relocation within the zoo.

As a consequence, a modern enclosure with the largest collection of exotic birds in Czechoslovakia had to be demolished and the birds were sent to other zoos. In 1991, a tiger was shot within the zoo area. No person was harmed in the incident. In 2002-2003, the new enclosure for Turkmenian kulans, Bactrian camels and Shetland pony was constructed in the forested part of the zoo and the building of a breeding facility for Heptner's markhor and Barbary sheep had begun; the second reduction was in 2003, when construction for the D2 motorway access road to the Sitina Tunnel forced a relocation of the entrance gate. Subsequently, the zoo had been closed to the public from December 2003, until the building of a new entrance, parking lot and noise barrier wall was finished. In 2004-2005, development plans of the ZOO Bratislava were accepted by the Bratislava municipal government and the construction of a new enclosure for big cats became one of the city priorities. In 2004, an exhibition of Central European Mesosoic reptiles—DinoPark—was opened in the central area of the zoo, becoming a major attraction for ZOO Bratislava.

At the area of 3 hectares DinoPark features life-sized sculptures of dinosaurs that are animated during the summer season. It features a 3D cinema, educational trails and a paleontological playground with fake fossils for children. Since 2006, the area features a specimen of the rare plant Wollemia. In 2006, the new big cats pavilion was opened to the public, housing leopards, jaguars and lions. In 2007, development of the Primate House was started with the official opening in spring 2010. In the spring of 2008, the zoo shop and two playgrounds for children were constructed. Since 2009, ZOO Bratislava is allowed its own commercial business activities. In 2011, the zoo hit a record of 336,661 visitors during that year; the ZOO Bratislava contains a collection of 175 animal species and 900 animals in total, including many rare and endangered species such as: White lion White tiger with 3 new cubs Sri Lankan leopard (Panthera

Giacomo Rizzo