Andance is a French commune in the Ardèche department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of southern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Andançois or Andançoises Andance is located 5 km south of Saint-Rambert-d'Albon, 15 km east of Annonay, 20 km north of Tournon-sur-Rhone, it can be accessed by the D86 road from Champagne in the north passing through the village continuing south through the commune to Sarras. The D86B passes from the village over the Rhone to Andancette on the east bank; the D82 road comes from Saint-Etienne-de-Valoux in the north-east to the village. There are the small D370 road from Talencieux in the west to the village via a tortuous route and the D370B from Talencieux to the south of the commune; the commune has the Rhone as its entire eastern border with the Ruisseau de L'Ecoutay, the Ruisseau du Creux, the Ruisseau de Cueil, numerous other streams flowing through the commune to the Rhone. The Conce river forms the southern border of the commune and flows into the Rhone.
List of Successive Mayors The population of the commune is old. The proportion of persons above the age of 60 years is higher than the national rate while being less than the departmental rate; as with the national and departmental distribution, the female population of the commune is higher than the male population. The rate is of the same order of magnitude as the national rate; the distribution of the population of the commune was, in 2009, 50 % of women. Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Andance and Ardèche Department in 2009 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2009, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2009, INSEE; the Sarrazinière Roman Ruins at Châtelet are registered as an historical monument Andance bridge was built in 1827 with iron wires and a central pier. The Andance bridge is the oldest suspension bridge still used today in France, it was built by Marc Seguin the brilliant inventor from Annonay. Destroyed during the Second World War on 30 August 1944, it was rebuilt and reopened in 1946 underwent further changes The Church of Our Lady of Andance is registered as an historical monument A Calvary of Three Saints.
The Church contains many items that are registered as historical objects: A Painting: Saint Philomena Martyred A Painting: Saint Romain A Painting: Pope Pius IX remitting indulgences to the Andance Priest for the Saint-Barrel Chapel A Painting: Crusaders bringing relics to the chapel An Altar Cross A Processional Cross 2 Prints with frames: Stations of the Cross A Reliquary A Statue: Saint Barulas A Statue: Black Madonna A Passion Cross: Cross of Bargemen Andance is mentioned in the poem by Louis Aragon, The conscript of a hundred villages, written as an act of clandestine intellectual resistance in 1943 during the Second World War. Communes of the Ardèche department Andance on the National Geographic Institute website Andance official website Andance on Lion1906 Andance on Google Maps Andance on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Andance on the 1750 Cassini Map Andance on the INSEE website INSEE
Subprefectures in France
In France, a subprefecture is the administrative center of a departmental arrondissement that does not contain the prefecture for its department. The term applies to the building that houses the administrative headquarters for an arrondissement; the civil servant in charge of a subprefecture is the subprefect, assisted by a general secretary. Between May 1982 and February 1988, subprefects were known instead by the title commissaire adjoint de la République. Where the administration of an arrondissement is carried out from a prefecture, the general secretary to the prefect carries out duties equivalent to those of the subprefect; the municipal arrondissements of Paris and Marseille are divisions of the city rather than the prefecture, so are not arrondissements in the same sense. List of subprefectures of France List of arrondissements of France
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Ardèche is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of Southeastern France. It is named after the Ardèche River and had a population of 320,379 as of 2013, its largest cities are Aubenas, Guilherand-Granges, Tournon-sur-Rhône and Privas. The area has been inhabited by humans at least since the Upper Paleolithic, as attested by the famous cave paintings at Chauvet Pont d'Arc; the plateau of the Ardèche river has extensive standing stones, erected thousands of years ago. The river has the largest canyon in Europe and the caves that dot the cliffs—which go as high as 300 metres —are known for signs of prehistoric inhabitants; the Vivarais, as the Ardèche is still called, takes its name and coat-of-arms from Viviers, the capital of the Gaulish tribe of Helvii, part of Gallia Narbonensis, after the destruction of their previous capital at Alba-la-Romaine. Saint Andéol, a disciple of Polycarp, is supposed to have evangelized the Vivarais during the reign of Emperor Septimius Severus, was martyred in 208.
Legend tells of Andéol's burial by Amycia Eucheria Tullia. In 430, Auxonius transferred the see to Viviers as a result of the problems suffered at its previous site in Alba Augusta; the area of the Vivarais suffered in the 9th century with raids from Magyar and Saracen slavers operating from the coast of Provence resulting in an overall depopulation of the region. In the early 10th century, economic recovery saw the building of many Romanesque churches in the region including Ailhon, Saint Julien du Serre, Balazuc, Niègles and Rochecolombe; the medieval county of Viviers or Vivarais at this time was administratively a part of the Kingdom of Arles, formed in 933 with the fusion by Rudolph II of Burgundy of the realms of Provence and Burgundy and bequeathed by its last monarch Rudolph III of Burgundy to the Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II in 1032. Locally throughout this period, the Church played an important role. John II, Cardinal and Bishop of Viviers, accompanied Pope Urban II to the Council of Clermont.
It was held in fief by the Counts of Toulouse, who lost it to the French crown in 1229. In 1284, with the Cistercian Abbey of Marzan, Philip IV established Villeneuve de Berg, by the treaty of 10 July 1305 Philip IV of France obliged the bishops of Vivarais to admit the sovereignty of the Kings of France over all their temporal domain; the realm was ignored by the Emperors and was granted to France as part of the domain of the Dauphin, the future Charles VII of Valois in 1308. During this period, the Maillard family, as Counts of Tournon, were influential in the Ardèche. During the Hundred Years War, the area maintained its loyalty to the French crown, despite frequent attacks from the west; as a result of the reformation of John Calvin in Geneva, the Vivarais Ardèche was one of the areas which embraced Protestantism as a result of the missionary activity of 1534 by Jacques Valery. During the following Wars of Religion, the Ardèche was considered a strategically important location between Protestant Geneva and Catholic Languedoc.
The region had prospered with the introduction of tobacco growing from America, the agrarian experiments of Olivier de Serres, father of modern French agriculture. The influence of Protestant Lyon, the growth of the silk industry, thanks to the planting of mulberry trees, had given the burghers of the Vivarais towns a certain independence of thinking, with the support of powerful Protestant Huguenots, the Vivarais became a Protestant stronghold; as a result, it suffered many attacks and eight pitched battles between 1562 and 1595. In 1598, the Edict of Nantes put an end to these struggles. At that time, the Vivarais had over 75 Protestant churches and five fortified strongholds with permanent garrisons. However, the problems of the area were not over. In 1629, Paule de Chambaud, daughter of the Huguenot lord of Privas, chose instead to marry a Catholic, the Vicomte de l'Estrange, who supported the persecution of Protestants by Cardinal Richelieu. Privas, with a majority of the population Protestant, refused to submit, as a centre of the revolt of the Benjamin de Rohan, duc de Soubise, was burned to the ground by the forces of Louis XIII, sent to support the Vicomte de l'Estrange.
As a result, one-fifth of the Protestant population of the Vivarais emigrated. The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, which outlawed Protestantism, resulted in the peasant family of Marie and Pierre Durand leading a revolt against royal authority; this led to the Camisard revolt of the Ardèche prophets. Louis XIV responded by dispatching Dragoons, who brutalised the population by "dragonnades", destroying a number of communities; the brutality of those years was enormous and peace was only restored in 1715. As a result of brutality on both sides, a further 50,000 Archèche Protestants left France, many fleeing to Switzerland, whilst others were forced into abjuration. In the following century, despite the growth of the community of Annonay, an increasing polarisation between the upper nobility families such as Rohan Soubise, Vogue, Count of Aubenas, possessing huge financial fortunes, the lesser nobility, the village clergy and the bourgeoisie of the Vivarais paralleled developments elsewhere in France.
Despite this, the sons of a local Annonay paper-maker and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier ascended in the first hot air balloon over the town on 4 June 1783. The firm of Canson Mongolfier continues making paper to this day and on the anniversary every year on the first weekend in June a large
Aubignas is a commune in the Ardèche department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of southern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aubignassiennes. Aubignas is located some 10 km west by north-west of Montelimar, 6 km north-west of Le Teil and 16 km south of Privas. Access to the commune is by Route nationale N102 from Le Teil in the south-east which passes through the south of the commune forming part of the southern border and continues west to Saint-Jean-le-Centenier. Access to the village in the centre of the commune is by the Champagnet road which goes north from the N102. Apart from the village there is the hamlet of Pignatelle in the south The commune is forested in the north with farmland in the south; the Frayol rises in the north of the commune and flows south-east gathering many tributaries and continuing to join the Rhone at Le Teil. The Ruisseau des Avents forms the eastern border of the commune as it flows south to join the Frayol as it leaves the commune; the Ruisseau de l'Eguille rises in the north-west of the commune and flows south to join the Escoutay at Alba-la-Romaine.
List of Successive Mayors In 2010 the commune had 418 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The population of the town is old; the ratio of persons above the age of 60 years is higher than the national average but lower than the departmental average. As for national and departmental allocations, the male population of the town is less than the female population. Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Aubignas and Ardèche Department in 2010 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2010, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2010, INSEE; the commune has many houses and farmhouses that are registered as historical monuments: The Town Hall and School.
The town hall contains an item, registered as a historical object: A Relief: Christ on the Cross The commune has a church and some structures that are registered as historical monuments: A Wayside Cross at Liotard An Oratory Chapelette The Church of the Assumption A'Cemetery Cross A'Monumental Cross The Church contains many items that are registered as historical objects: A Statue: Saint Regis A Statue: Saint Diacre A Statue: Saint Joseph A Statue: Virgin and Child The Marie Françoise Léon Bell A Statue: Saint Joseph A Statue: Saint François Régis A Statue: Saint Vincent A Statue: Virgin and Child A Monumental Cross: Christ on the Cross Placide Astier was born in the commune on 23 February 1856 and died in Paris on 6 March |1918. He was French politician. Communes of the Ardèche department Aubignas on Google Maps Aubignas on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Aubignas on the 1750 Cassini Map Aubignas on the INSEE website INSEE
Aizac is a French commune in the Ardèche department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of southern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aizacois or Aizacoises Aizac is located some 30 km east of Langogne and 40 km west of Livron-sur-Drome close to the Mont d'Ardeche Regional National Park. Access to the commune is difficult with only three circuitous roads entering the commune. From Vals-les-Bains in the south the D578 goes north left to the D243 which comes close to the western border of the commune where there is a right turn to the D443 which enters the commune and joins the D254 at the village; the D254 road enters the commune from Labastide-sur-Besorgues in the north-west and continues through the commune exiting on the eastern side intersecting with the D578 which goes north and south. Other than small mountain roads no other roads enter the commune; the village is small with only a few houses and there are a few other houses scattered through the commune. There are many streams throughout the commune such as the Ruiseau des Fuels, the Bise, the Coupe, the Rousses, the Ribeyres, the Sandron most of which flow to the Ardeche river in the south.
List of Successive Mayors of Aizac The population of the town is old. The rate of persons above the age of 60 years is higher than the national rate and departmental level. Like the national and departmental allocations, the female population of the municipality is higher than the male population; the rate is of the same order of magnitude as the national rate. Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Aizac and Ardèche Department in 2008 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2008, INSEE. Results of the Census for Ardèche in 2008, INSEE. Remains of Aizac volcano A Romanesque Church from the 11th century including font; the church has several items that are registered as historical objects: A Statue: Saint Roch A Statue: Virgin and child An Altar A Stoup A Baptismal font Communes of the Ardèche department Aizac on Lion1906 Aizac on Google Maps Aizac on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Ayzac on the 1750 Cassini Map Aizac on the INSEE website INSEE
Alba-la-Romaine is a commune in the Ardèche department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of southern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Albains or Albaines Alba-la-Romaine is located some 5 km west of Montelimar on a mountain ridge overlooking the Rhone river valley; the commune can be accessed on Highway N102 running west from Le Teil and through the northern part of the commune and continuing west to Saint-Jean-le-Centenier. Local Road D253 enters the commune from Sceautres in the north and runs south crossing the N102 before continuing to the village of Alba-la-Romaine and continuing south to Valvigneres. Another district road the D107 goes south to Saint-Thome. There is an extensive network of small country roads throughout the commune. There are extensive areas of farmland in the commune following the ridge line from north to south as well as steep mountain slopes. An extensive network of streams throughout the commune run into L'Escoutay river which runs south out of the commune east to join the Rhone near Viviers.
The western border of the commune is formed by the Ruisseau de Julieu. Le Rounei, Le Ruisseau de Berg streams which flow into Le Salauzon stream, part of the southern border of the commune before joining L'Escoutay river. There are a few villages and hamlets in the commune including: Les Baumes, Le Buis d'Aps, La Roche, Saint-Philippe, Le Pont. A metre-gauge railway line traverses the north of the commune but the nearest station is at Saint-Jean-le-Centenier. There are the remains of a Roman city and a medieval village in the commune. Alba-la-Romaine town bore the name Alba Helviorum, it became the episcopal see during the 4th century. From the Middle Ages until 1904, it bore the family name of the local proprietors; the origin of the name Alba is not Latin as may be thought but Celtic. The current name of the village was formalized on 30 May 1986; the village had been called only Alba. It has been assumed that when the city of Alba was founded at the beginning of the Roman Empire it was the successor, as occurred in Gaul, of an earlier city.
The existence of a protohistoric oppidum Chaulène on the plateau, northwest of Alba, is in fact likely. The assumption of a lowland habitat can be used as the excavations to the west of the "St. Peter" site have yielded the remains of stone tools dating from the late third millennium. At the location of two "domus" south-east of the "home field Lauzun" site, a habitat was found of La Tène III The discovery of imported ceramics of "Campanian type A" which debris was collected in "Saint-Pierre" such as collars and lips of wine amphorae from Italy and some Allobrogian currency issued in the third quarter of the 1st century AD revealed a long term relationship with the Romans before the invasion. Other hill forts are known in the territory of Helviens such as Jastres North; when Bituitos, the Chief of the Arverni people who were located beyond the Cevennes, was defeated in 121 BC by the Roman consul Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus, Alba was the capital of the Helviens territory which corresponded to the current department of the Ardeche.
Their neighbours were Segusiavi: to the north-west the Vellaves Gabales and to the south Volques Arécomiques. Fabius Maximus managed to separate the Helviens the Allobroges and Arverni and draw them into alliance with Rome, they obtained the title of allies and friends of Rome and Julius Caesar observed, on his arrival in Gaul, that they were independent and had their own customs and administration. In 83 BC Cabur, the Chief of the helviens obtained Roman citizenship under the name of Gaius Valerius Caburus and his son Gaius Valerius Troucillus became a friend of Julius Caesar; the pro-Roman politics of the Helviens allowed Caesar to install his forces near the Arverni. After winning over the Helvie and its capital Alba there was major economic development. Subsequently, Augustus Caesar conferred on Alba the privilege of Roman law. First attached to the province of Aquitaine in the time of Strabo, it appears to have been integrated into the province of Narbonne. "The Starting point of the Roman roads to Valencia and Lyon by the banks of the Rhone, another to Bourg-Saint-Andéol, to Gergovie.
Apart from the roads, Alba was the centre of an agricultural region for wine, a regional trading centre of Gaul.... Alba was from the first century a major city", said Marcel Le Glay, "although not equaling the splendour of Arles, Nimes or Vienna; until its peak in the second century, Alba developed on two axes: south on the terraces of Escoutay and north in the "Bagnols" district located near the valley the Rhone below the Massif Central. At the time of the Christianization of the city, the first episcopal see of the region remains uncertain, ranging from the late first century or that of the second century. After its decline from the late third century, the city lost its episcopal function in the middle of the fourth century to the benefit of Viviers; the ancient site was abandoned and a new settlement was made in the Middle Ages in the location of the present village. The names of the Bishops of Alba are known to us through a document written in 950 by the Bishop of Viviers: the Charta Vetus: they were called Januarius, Maspicianus and Auxonius.
The existence of a Bishop Avolus is a popular tradition. This was attributed to the Alemanni at the destruction of Alba Helvorium in 406 AD. Bishop Avolus was put to death and his successor Bishop Auxionus e