A Continental tire or a Continental kit is an upright externally-mounted spare tire located behind an automobile's trunk, made popular by the original Lincoln Continental. The term describes a non-functional bulge, stamped into the trunk lid or a cosmetic accessory to the rear of the car giving the impression of a spare tire mount; the pre-mounted spare tire and wheel combination on early automobiles meant an external mounting. Early European sports cars had their spare tire attached on the back of the automobile since their trunk or storage space was very small; the development of the enclosed trunk on automobiles meant the spare tire could be placed out of sight, but this arrangement used up valuable space for carrying luggage. Edsel Ford had a special car built after returning from a trip to Europe that would have a "continental look" – including a spare tire mounted on the trunk; the 1939 Lincoln Continental's short trunk with its external rear spare tire mount became a distinctive design.
While this was not the first car to either carry its spare above the rear bumper or integrated into the rear bodywork, it was the first to do it so elegantly and thus this feature became known as a "Continental tire" if the design was found on other brands. Similar spare tire placements added to more prosaic automobiles were described as a "Continental kit", borrowing their name from the production Lincoln Continental. There is a legend that Henry Ford II complained that the trunk of his personal Ford Thunderbird did not have room for a set of golf clubs without removing the spare tire; the 1956 Thunderbird had its spare tire mounted outside. However, adding weight behind the rear wheels was said to adversely affect steering and handling. For 1957 the Thunderbird's trunk was stretched 5 inches to allow the spare tire to migrate back inside, although the Continental mounting was still optional; this external spare wheel mount became a customizing aftermarket appearance accessory during the 1950s.
In the United States, the external Continental tire mounting was a factory option on various types of cars during the 1950s and early 1960s. On some models – such as on the Nash Metropolitan, Jeepster Commando, Mercury Turnpike Cruiser – the Continental tire was a standard feature. Most the car's rear bumper was extended and the tire had a fabric or metal cover; the bracket for the spare wheel was designed to swing away for access to the trunk. Contemporary examples of Continental kits are sometimes found on customized automobiles, it has become an accessory. Continental kits were made popular by the pimpmobile craze of the 1970s, not to mention the Pimp My Ride show. Continental tires are known as'fifth wheels' in hip hop slang. Numerous compact sport utility vehicle models of today have an exposed rear-mounted spare tire; this is no longer described as a Continental tire. However, the historic Jeep DJ "Surrey Gala" with the fringed top and Continental tire mount are of colorful vinyl-coated fabrics with "candy stripes" of pink, green or blue to match solid body colors.
Fender skirts Whitewall tire Spare wheel cover Media related to Continental tires at Wikimedia Commons
Caravan (towed trailer)
A caravan, travel trailer, camper or camper trailer is towed behind a road vehicle to provide a place to sleep, more comfortable and protected than a tent. It provides the means for people to have their own home on a journey or a vacation, without relying on a motel or hotel, enables them to stay in places where none is available. However, in some countries campers are restricted to designated sites. Caravans vary from basic models which may be little more than a tent on wheels to those containing several rooms with all the furniture and furnishings and equipment of a home, they are used principally in North America, Europe and New Zealand. In Europe, the origins of travel trailers and caravanning can be traced back to travelling Gypsies, showmen who spent most of their lives in horse-drawn caravans. Samuel White Baker purchased an actual Gypsy caravan in Britain and shipped it to Cyprus for his tour in 1879; the world's first leisure trailer was built by the Bristol Wagon & Carriage Works in 1880 for Dr. William Gordon Stables, a popular author of teenage adventure fiction, who ordered a "gentleman's caravan".
It was an 18-foot design, based upon their Bible Wagons, used by traveling preachers in America's Wild West. Stables named it Wanderer, he travelled around the British countryside in it and wrote a book documenting his travels in 1885 called The Gentleman Gypsy. This moved the Duke of Newcastle to commission The Bohemian. By the turn of the century,'caravanning' for leisure had become an popular activity. In 1901, the first dedicated caravanning club was established; the Camping and Caravanning Club was founded by the father of modern camping. The Caravan Club was founded in 1907 with Stables as its vice president, its stated aim was to "... bring together those interested in van life as a pastime...to improve and supply suitable vans and other appliances...and to arrange camping grounds." Caravanning gained popularity in North America in the 1920s. Modern travel trailers come in a range of sizes, from tiny two-berth trailers with no toilet and only basic kitchen facilities, to large, triple-axle, six-berth types.
Caravans the Vardo, have served both as a significant cultural icon and symbol of the nomadic Gypsies. Until the early 19th century, Romani caravans served as a means of transport and not as a domicile. At the beginning of the 19th century, more Romani people began to live in their caravans instead of sleeping in tents; the caravan offered greater protection from weather conditions and could be outfitted with modern amenities such as wood-burning stoves. Caravans were commissioned to be built at the request of newlywed couples and their families; the small-scale, pre-industrial methods of the builders and the labour-intensive nature of the building process meant that a family's caravan could take up to a year to build. Trailer caravan is defined in ISO Standard 3833:1977, Road vehicles - Types - Terms and definitions, term No 126.96.36.199. In the United States and Canada, the history of travel trailers can be traced back to the early 1920s, when those who enjoyed their use were referred to as'tin can tourists'.
As time progressed, trailers became more liveable and earned a new name in the 1930s and 1940s, the house trailer. In the 1950s and 1960s, the industry seemed to split, creating the two types that we see today, that of the recreational vehicle industry and mobile home industry. Today travel trailers are classified as a type of RV along with motorhomes, fifth-wheel trailers, pop-up trailers, truck campers. Smaller travel trailers and pop-ups are still made with touring in mind; these are less than 18 feet long and contain simple amenities. By design, they are quick to set up or prepare for travel. Most weigh less than 3,000 pounds and can be towed with a large car or small truck depending upon its towing capacity. Lightweight pop-up trailers weighing less than 700 pounds, such as the Combi-camper and Kamparoo can be towed by small economy cars; some exceptionally light travel trailers can be pulled by motorcycle or bicycle. Fiberglass body construction entered the U. S. scene in 1971 with the introduction of the first U.
S.-produced mini travel trailer, called the Playpac. The Playpac, invented by Steven Whysel, was the answer to the needs of the growing horde of VW "Bug" and other small-car owners who wanted a hard-shelled camper, light enough to be pulled by a small car, it came with a private water closet and the ability to sleep six. Its ultramodern aerodynamic styling and domed skylight by the modernist industrial designer Toshihiko Sakow made it an instant hit, it was short-lived, however, as the first Arab Oil Embargo and the ensuing major slow-down of RV sales caused it to cease operations. The Boler travel trailer, was developed in Canada in 1968, soon joined the Playpac in the U. S. fiberglass light-weight class. The Hunter and Amerigo travel trailers were on the scene by then. Mid-range travel trailers are 18 to 25 feet long, can weigh 5,000 pounds or more, are towed with compact pickup trucks and SUVs, they sleep fewer people. Larger travel trailers are made with the full-time user in mind; these range from 25 to 40 feet long and contain all the comforts of a luxury condominium.
These amenity-laden models can reach 12,000 pounds or more, requiring a purpose-built tow vehicle, highway tractor or large truck or SUV. While trailers may weigh in above that, mo
The Honda Ridgeline is a pickup truck by American Honda Motor Company and is categorized by some as a lifestyle pickup. The Ridgeline is one of only two trucks produced by the Honda Motor Company—the other being the Honda Acty mini-truck; the Ridgeline is built using a unibody frame, a transverse-mounted engine, is only offered in a crew-cab/short-box configuration with one powertrain. According to Honda and some automotive journalists, other noteworthy aspects of the Ridgeline include: Industry's first in-bed trunk Industry's first truck bed audio system Industry's first ultra-low emissions truck in North America Segment's first all-wheel drive truck with a independent suspension Dual-action tailgate Scratch and dent-resistant half-ton capacity composite bed Large interior for a mid-size truck Advanced safety and technologyContrary to some media reporting, Honda's publications state that the first–generation Ridgeline was a uniquely engineered vehicle with 7% of its components shared with other Honda vehicles.
Its powertrain resembled the one used in the Gen1 Acura MDX but was modified for heavier hauling and towing duties. The second–generation Ridgeline took a different approach sharing Honda's new "global light truck platform," found in the third generation Honda Pilot as well as other large Honda vehicles. However, Honda did have to create or modify components in order to support their next generation pickup, including: Extending the wheelbase Modifying various parts to support heavier hauling and more aggressive off-road use Incorporating notable features from the Gen1, such as the dual-action tailgate and in-bed trunk Adding new exclusive features, such as Honda's truck bed audio system Despite these modifications, Honda has stated that 73% of the Gen2 Ridgeline's components remain common in some way with the Gen3 Pilot; the first Honda Ridgeline went on sale in March 2005 as a 2006 model year vehicle. Production of the Gen1 Ridgeline ended in early 2015. After a one-year hiatus in production, the Gen2 Ridgeline went on sale in June 2016 as a 2017 model year vehicle.
According to Honda, the Ridgeline was not designed to steal sales from the more traditional trucks sold in North America, but was developed to "give the 18% of Honda owners who own pickups a chance to make their garages a Honda-only parking area." Despite the Gen1 Ridgeline's sales, according to the author of Driving Honda, this pickup was one of the more profitable vehicles for Honda with reported sales in over 20 countries. According to the author of The Car Design Yearbook, the Ridgeline was "Honda's first foray into the true heartland of the American automotive way of life." It was designed and engineered by Honda Research and Development Americas, led by Gary Flint, who took about four years to develop the vehicle. According to the author of Driving Honda, the automaker decided to target buyers who were looking to transition out of sedans and sport utility vehicles into trucks. Honda wanted to build a truck that could "...haul a boat and ATVs, camping supplies and wood" while still being comfortable "carrying groceries, kids and dry cleaning."
The design was first revealed as the Honda Sport Utility Truck Concept at the 2004 North American International Auto Show. That same year, Honda unveiled a revised version of their pickup concept at the Specialty Equipment Market Association Show and announced the name chosen for their light-duty truck, the "Ridgeline." The production version of the Ridgeline—which did not stray far from the Sport Utility Truck Concept's design language—was unveiled the next year at the 2005 North American International Auto Show. According to Honda, engineers started construction of the Ridgeline by building "a mission-specific platform" using 44% high-strength steel across a boxed "four bone" ladder-like frame, leveraging seven high-strength steel crossmembers. Honda engineers created "a unique suspension design with custom components, 100% unique sheetmetal and a 95% exclusive interior" for the Ridgeline; the steel-reinforced boxed ladder-like frame, powertrain configuration, four-wheel independent suspension provided space for designers to build unique storage solutions in, on top of the frame.
Starting at the front of the Ridgeline, engineers crafted an aluminum hood that supports a unique cold air intake system for the engine that draws outside air from above and in front of the radiator to support torque production and enhances water fording. This hood design allowed engineers to build environmentally protected windshield wipers that are heated to improve winter performance. Honda incorporated large side-view mirrors to support better visibility while towing. In the crew-cab, the unibody frame allowed engineers to build a cabin with a flat floor and more passenger space than other mid-size trucks. At the center of the truck, the C-pillar's shape was designed to help distribute large loads across the unibody frame and the cab so the truck could achieve its targeted payload and towing figures; the design of the C-pillar, rear roof section, tailgate were built to maintain good aerodynamics and reduce turbulence in the bed while maintaining driver visibility. This aerodynamic design allowed them to create a rear roof design that shields the rear glass window so when it's opened at speed there is no buffeting or rainwater intrusion.
The bed is built out of steel-reinforced sheet moulding composite —developed by Continental Structural Plastics—which is dent resistant, corrosion resistant, ultraviol
A bumper is a structure attached to or integrated with the front and rear ends of a motor vehicle, to absorb impact in a minor collision, ideally minimizing repair costs. Stiff metal bumpers appeared on automobiles as early as 1904 that had a ornamental function. Numerous developments, improvements in materials and technologies, as well as greater focus on functionality for protecting vehicle components and improving safety have changed bumpers over the years. Bumpers ideally protect pedestrians from injury. Regulatory measures have been enacted to reduce vehicle repair costs, more impact on pedestrians. Bumpers were at first just rigid metal bars; the first bumper appeared on a vehicle in 1897, it was installed by Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft, a Czech carmaker. The construction of these bumpers was not reliable as they featured only a cosmetic function.. Early car owners had the front spring hanger bolt replaced with ones long enough to be able to attach a metal bar. G. D. Fisher patented a bumper bracket to simplify the attachment of the accessory.
The first bumper designed to absorb impacts appeared in 1901. It was made of rubber and Frederick Simms gained patent for this invention in 1905. Bumpers were added by automakers in the mid-1910s, but consisted a strip of steel across the front and back. Treated as an optional accessory, bumpers became more and more common in the 1920s as automobile designers made them more complex and substantial. Over the next decades, chrome plated bumpers became heavy and decorative until the late 1950s when US automakers began establishing new bumper trends and brand specific designs; the 1960s saw the use of lighter chrome plated blade-like bumpers with a painted metal valance filling the space below it. Multi-piece construction became the norm as automakers incorporated grilles and rear exhaust into the bumpers. On the 1968 Pontiac GTO, General Motors incorporated an "Endura" body-colored plastic front bumper designed to absorb low-speed impact without permanent deformation, it was featured in a TV advertisement with John DeLorean hitting the bumper with a sledgehammer and no damage resulted.
Similar elastomeric bumpers were available on the rear of the 1970-71 Plymouth Barracuda. In 1971, Renault introduced a plastic bumper on the Renault 5. Current design practice is for the bumper structure on modern automobiles to consist of a plastic cover over a reinforcement bar made of steel, fiberglass composite, or plastic. Bumpers of most modern automobiles have been made of a combination of polycarbonate and Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene called PC/ABS. Bumpers offer protection to other vehicle components by dissipating the kinetic energy generated by an impact; this energy is a function of vehicle velocity squared. The kinetic energy is equal to 1/2 the square of the speed. In formula form: E k = 1 2 m v 2 A bumper that protects vehicle components from damage at 5 miles per hour must be four times stronger than a bumper that protects at 2.5 miles per hour, with the collision energy dissipation concentrated at the extreme front and rear of the vehicle. Small increases in bumper protection can lead to weight loss of fuel efficiency.
Until 1959, such rigidity was seen as beneficial to occupant safety among automotive engineers. Modern theories of vehicle crashworthiness point in the opposite direction, towards vehicles that crumple progressively. A rigid vehicle might have excellent bumper protection for vehicle components, but would offer poor occupant safety. Bumpers are being designed to mitigate injury to pedestrians struck by cars, such as through the use of bumper covers made of flexible materials. Front bumpers have been lowered and made of softer materials, such as foams and crushable plastics, to reduce the severity of impact on legs. For passenger cars, the height and placement of bumpers is specified under both US and EU regulations. Bumpers do not protect against moderate speed collisions, because during emergency braking, suspension changes the pitch of each vehicle, so bumpers can bypass each other when the vehicles collide. Preventing override and underride can be accomplished by tall bumper surfaces. Active suspension is another solution to keeping the vehicle level.
Bumper height from the roadway surface is important in engaging other protective systems. Airbag deployment sensors do not trigger until contact with an obstruction, it is important that front bumpers be the first parts of a vehicle to make contact in the event of a frontal collision, to leave sufficient time to inflate the protective cushions. Energy-absorbing crush zones are ineffective if they are physically bypassed. Underride collisions, in which a smaller vehicle such as a passenger sedan slides under a larger vehicle such as a tractor-trailer result in severe injuries or fatalities; the platform bed of a typical tractor-trailer is at the head height of seated adults in a typical passenger car, can cause severe head trauma in a moderate-speed collision. Around 500 people are killed this way in the United States annually. Following the 1967 death of actress Jayne Mansfield in an auto/truck accident, the US government agency NHTSA recommended requiring a rear underride guard known as a "Man
Four-wheel drive called 4×4 or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously. It may be full-time or on-demand, is linked via a transfer case providing an additional output drive-shaft and, in many instances, additional gear ranges. A four-wheeled vehicle with torque supplied to both axles is described as "all-wheel drive". However, "four-wheel drive" refers to a set of specific components and functions, intended off-road application, which complies with modern use of the terminology. 4WD systems were used in many different vehicle platforms. There is no universally accepted set of terminology to describe the various architectures and functions; the terms used by various manufacturers reflect marketing rather than engineering considerations or significant technical differences between systems. SAE International's standard J1952 recommends only the term All-Wheel-Drive with additional sub classifications which cover all types of AWD/4WD/4x4 systems found on production vehicles.
Four-by-four or 4x4 is used to refer to a class of vehicles in general. Syntactically, the first figure indicates the total number of wheels, the second indicates the number that are powered. So 4x2 means a four-wheel vehicle that transmits engine torque to only two axle-ends: the front two in front-wheel drive or the rear two in rear-wheel drive. A 6×4 vehicle has three axles, two of which provide torque to two axle ends each. If this vehicle were a truck with dual rear wheels on two rear axles, so having ten wheels, its configuration would still be formulated as 6x4. During World War II, the U. S. military would use spaces and a capital'X' – like "4 X 2" or "6 X 4". Four-wheel drive refers to vehicles with two axles providing torque to four axle ends. In the North American market the term refers to a system, optimized for off-road driving conditions; the term "4WD" is designated for vehicles equipped with a transfer case which switches between 2WD and 4WD operating modes, either manually or automatically.
All-wheel drive was synonymous with "four-wheel drive" on four-wheeled vehicles, six-wheel drive on 6×6s, so on, being used in that fashion at least as early as the 1920s. Today in North America the term is applied to both heavy vehicles as well as light passenger vehicles; when referring to heavy vehicles the term is applied to mean "permanent multiple-wheel drive" on 2×2, 4×4, 6×6 or 8×8 drive train systems that include a differential between the front and rear drive shafts. This is coupled with some sort of anti-slip technology hydraulic-based, that allows differentials to spin at different speeds but still be capable of transferring torque from a wheel with poor traction to one with better. Typical AWD systems are not intended for more extreme off-road use; when used to describe AWD systems in light passenger vehicles, it refers to a system that applies torque to all four wheels and/or is targeted at improving on-road traction and performance, rather than for off-road applications. Some all-wheel drive electric vehicles solve this challenge using one motor for each axle, thereby eliminating a mechanical differential between the front and rear axles.
An example of this is the dual motor variant of the Tesla Model S, which on a millisecond scale can control the torque distribution electronically between its two motors. Individual-wheel drive is used to describe electric vehicles with each wheel being driven by its own electric motor; this system has inherent characteristics that would be attributed to four-wheel drive systems like the distribution of the available torque to the wheels. However, because of the inherent characteristics of electric motors, torque can be negative, as seen in the Rimac Concept One and SLS AMG Electric; this can have drastic effects, as in better handling in tight corners. The term IWD can refer to a vehicle with any number of wheels. For example, the Mars rovers are 6-wheel IWD. Per the SAE International standard J1952, AWD is the preferred term for all the systems described above; the standard subdivides AWD systems into three categories. Part-Time AWD systems require driver intervention to couple and decouple the secondary axle from the driven axle and these systems do not have a center differential.
The definition notes. Full-Time AWD systems drive both rear axles at all times via a center differential; the torque split of that differential may be fixed or variable depending on the type of center differential. This system can be used on any surface at any speed; the definition does not address exclusion of a low range gear. On-Demand AWD systems drive the secondary axle via an active or passive coupling device or "by an independently powered drive system"; the standard notes that in some cases the secondary drive system may provide the primary vehicle propulsion. An example is a hybrid AWD vehicle where the primary axle is driven by an internal combustion engine and secondary axle is driven by an electric motor; when the internal combustion engine is shut off the secondary, electrically driven axle is the only driven axle. On-demand systems function with only one powered axle until torque is required by the second axle. At that point either a passive or active coupling sends torque to the secondary axle.
In addition to the above primary classifications the J1952 standard notes seconda
Sport utility vehicle
Sport-utility, SUV or sport-ute is an automotive classification a kind of station wagon / estate car with off-road vehicle features like raised ground clearance and ruggedness, available four-wheel drive. Many SUVs are built on a light-truck chassis but operated as a family vehicle, though designed to be used on rougher surfaces, most used on city streets or highways. In recent years, in some countries the term SUV has replaced terms like "Jeep" or "Land-Rover" in the popular lexicon as a generic description for light 4WD vehicles. Many SUVs have an upright built body and tall interior packaging, a high seating position and center of gravity, available all-wheel drive for off-road capability; some SUVs include the towing capacity of a pickup truck and the passenger-carrying space of a minivan or large sedan. The traditional truck-based SUV is more and more being supplanted by unitary body SUVs and crossovers based on regular automobile platforms for lighter weight and better fuel efficiency.
In some countries, notably the United States, SUVs are not classified as cars, but as light trucks. SUVs overtook lower medium segment cars to become the world's largest automotive segment in 2015, accounting for 22.9 percent of global light vehicle sales, or 36.8% of the world's passenger car market. Worldwide sales of SUVs grew from 5 million units in 2000 to 20 million in 2015 and are forecast to hit 42 million units by 2031. Becoming popular in the 1990s and early 2000s, SUVs combined with other light trucks, like pickups and minivans, supplanted many conventional large passenger cars and station wagons, changed the composition of America's vehicle fleet. SUV sales temporarily declined due to high oil prices and a declining economy, but by 2010, SUV sales around the world were growing again, in spite of gasoline prices; the market has overwhelmingly come to prefer 4/5-door models in favor of popular 2-door off-roaders. There is no universally accepted definition of the sport utility vehicle.
Dictionaries, automotive experts, journalists use varying wordings and defining characteristics, in addition to which there are regional variations of the use by both the media and the general public. The auto industry has not settled on one definition of the SUV either; the actual term "Sport Utility Vehicle" did not come into wide popular usage until the late 1980s — prior to such vehicles were marketed during their era as 4-wheel drives, station wagons, or other monikers. The American Merriam-Webster online dictionary offers three different definitions; the general definition of a "sport-utility vehicle", found under "SUV" reads: "a rugged automotive vehicle similar to a station wagon but built on a light-truck chassis", it is defined in the definition of sport-utility vehicle for students as: "an automobile similar to a station wagon but built on a light truck frame". However, the Merriam-Webster definition "for English Language Learners" reads: "a large vehicle, designed to be used on rough surfaces but, used on city roads or highways".
The Webster's New World Dictionary defines sport utility vehicle as "a passenger vehicle similar to a station wagon but with the chassis of a small truck and four-wheel drive". In recent years, the term SUV has come to replace the use of "jeep" as a generic trademark and description of these type of vehicles, a name that originated during World War II as slang for the light general purpose military truck. A Hemmings article defines the sport utility vehicle as bridging the gap between cars and trucks, "combining car-like appointments and wagon practicality with steadfast off-road capability". S. it only applies to the newer street oriented one, whereas "Jeep", "Land Rover" or 4x4 are used for the off-roader oriented ones. The German automaker BMW utilizes the term SAV to denote "Sport Activity Vehicles." Not all SUVs have four-wheel drive capabilities, not all four-wheel-drive passenger vehicles are SUVs. Although some SUVs have off-road capabilities, they play only a secondary role, SUVs do not have the ability to switch among two-wheel and four-wheel-drive high gearing and four-wheel-drive low gearing.
While automakers tout an SUV's off-road prowess with advertising and naming, the daily use of SUVs is on paved roads. In British English the terms "four-by-four" or "off-road vehicle" are preferred, for example the Chambers Dictionary has no entry for sport utility vehicle; the Collins English online dictionary defines sport utility vehicle as a "powerful vehicle with four-wheel drive that can be driven over rough ground" or "a high-powered car with four-wheel drive designed for off-road use", but the citations quoted by Collins are few. Other alternative terms are "four-wheel drive", or using the brand name to describe the vehicle. In the United States, many government regulations have categories for "off-highway vehicles" which are loosely defined and result in SUVs being classified as light trucks. For example, Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations included "permit greater cargo-carrying capacity than passenger carrying volume" in the definition for trucks, resulting in SUVs being classified as light trucks.
This classification as trucks allowed SUVs to be regulated
Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, trucks, buses and vans. The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering, design roles are not associated with requirements for Professional or Chartered-Engineer qualifications. Automotive design in this context is concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design as a professional vocation is practiced by designers who may have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design. Terminology used in the field is found in the glossary of automotive design; the task of the design team is split into three main aspects: exterior design, interior design, color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of automotive design.
Design focuses not only on the isolated outer shape of automobile parts, but concentrates on the combination of form and function, starting from the vehicle package. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic utility features as well. In particular, vehicular electronic components and parts will give more challenges to automotive designers who are required to update on the latest information and knowledge associated with emerging vehicular gadgetry dashtop mobile devices, like GPS navigation, satellite radio, HD radio, mobile TV, MP3 players, video playback, smartphone interfaces. Though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models; the designer responsible for the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions and surfaces of the vehicle. Exterior design is first done by a series of manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management.
Industrial plasticine and or digital models are developed from, along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full-sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the clay model is first designed in a computer program and "carved" using the machine and large amounts of clay. In times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, the clay model is still the most important tool to evaluate the design of a car and, therefore, is used throughout the industry; the designer responsible for the vehicles' interior develops the proportions, shape and surfaces for the instrument panel, door trim panels, pillar trims, etc. Here the emphasis is on the comfort of the passengers; the procedure here is the same as with exterior design. The color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle; these include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, so on.
Color, contrast and pattern must be combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience. Designers work with the exterior and interior designers. Designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as: industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for projects two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from this research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry; the designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models. The design team develops graphics for items such as: badges, dials, kick or tread strips, liveries; the sketches and rendering are transformed into 3D Digital surface modelling and rendering for real-time evaluation with Math data in initial stages. During the development process succeeding phases will require the 3D model developed to meet the aesthetic requirements of a designer and well as all engineering and manufacturing requirements.
The developed CAS digital model will be re-developed for manufacturing meeting the Class-A surface standards that involves both technical as well as aesthetics. This data will be further developed by Product Engineering team; these modelers have a background in Industrial design or sometimes tooling engineering in case of some Class-A modelers. Autodesk Alias and ICEM Surf are the two most used software tools for Class-A development. Several manufacturers have varied development cycles for designing an Automobile, but in practice these are the following. Design and User Research Concept Development sketching CAS Clay modeling Interior Buck Model Vehicle ergonomics Class-A Surface Development Colour and Trim Vehicle GraphicsThe design process occurs concurrently with other product Engineers who will be engineering the styling data for meeting performance and safety regulations. From mid-phase and forth interactions between the designers and product engineers culminates into a finished product be manufacturing ready.
Apart from this the Engineering team parallelly works in the following areas. Product Engineering, NVH Development team, Prototype