Town of district significance is an administrative division of a district in a federal subject of Russia. It is equal in status to a selsoviet or an urban-type settlement of district significance, but is organized around a town. Prior to the adoption of the 1993 Constitution of Russia, this type of administrative division was defined on the whole territory of the Russian SFSR as an inhabited locality which serves as a cultural and an industrial center of a district and has a population of at least 12,000, of which at least 80% are workers, public servants, the members of their families. After the adoption of the 1993 Constitution, the administrative-territorial structure of the federal subjects is no longer identified as the responsibility of the federal government or as the joint responsibility of the federal government and the federal subjects; this state of the matters is traditionally interpreted by the governments of the federal subjects as a sign that the matters of the administrative-territorial divisions are the sole responsibility of the federal subjects themselves.
As a result, the modern administrative-territorial structures of the federal subjects vary from one federal subject to another. As of 2013, the following types of such entities are recognized: District town: in Krasnoyarsk Krai Settlement municipal formation: in Leningrad Oblast Town: in the Republic of Buryatia, the Republic of Kalmykia, the Sakha Republic. Confusingly, the Sakha Republic uses the term "town" to refer to a type of an administrative division. Палата Представителей Государственного Собрания Республики Саха. Закон №77-I от 6 июля 1995 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Саха », в ред. Закона №1426-З №407-V от 26 марта 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в статьи 7 и 9 Закона Республики Саха "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Саха"». Опубликован: "Якутские ведомости", №24, 2 августа 1995 г
Mandolins and Moonlight is a 1959 West German musical romance film directed by Hans Deppe and starring Christine Görner, Claus Biederstaedt and Johanna König. It was shot on location in Venice; the film's sets were designed by the art director Ernst H. Albrecht. Christine Görner as Susanne Peters Claus Biederstaedt as Robert Küfner Johanna König as Schwester Gisela Kurt Großkurth as Direktor Ferdinand Küfner Monika Dahlberg as Zimmermädchen Trudi Walter Gross as Max Krank Nina van Pallandt as Karin Gustafsson Frederik van Pallandt as Sven Harry Friedauer Herbert Hübner Alexander Engel Rex Gildo Manfred Hobsch. Liebe, Tanz und 1000 Schlagerfilme. Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf, 1998. Mandolins and Moonlight on IMDb
Kynurenic acid is a product of the normal metabolism of amino acid L-tryptophan. It has been shown, it acts as an antiexcitotoxic and anticonvulsant, most through acting as an antagonist at excitatory amino acid receptors. Because of this activity, it may influence important neurophysiological and neuropathological processes; as a result, kynurenic acid has been considered for use in therapy in certain neurobiological disorders. Conversely, increased levels of kynurenic acid have been linked to certain pathological conditions. Kynurenic acid was discovered in 1853 by the German chemist Justus von Liebig in dog urine, which it was named after, it is formed from L-kynurenine in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme kynurenine—oxoglutarate transaminase. KYNA has been proposed to act on four targets: As an antagonist at ionotropic AMPA, NMDA and Kainate glutamate receptors in the concentration range of 0.1-2.5 mM. As a noncompetitive antagonist at the glycine site of the NMDA receptor; as an antagonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.
However direct recording of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor currents in adult hippocampal interneurons by the Cooper laboratory validated a 2009 study that failed to find any blocking effect of kynurenic acid across a wide range of concentrations, thus suggesting that in noncultured, intact preparations from adult animals there is no effect of kynurenic acid on α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor currents. As a ligand for the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR35. Another tryptophan metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid exerts its effects via the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR35. High levels of kynurenic acid have been identified in patients suffering from tick-borne encephalitis, schizophrenia and HIV-related illnesses. In all these situations increased levels were associated with psychotic symptoms. Kynurenic acid acts in the brain as a glycine-site NMDAr antagonist, key in glutamatergic neurotransmission system, thought to be involved in the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
A kynurenic acid hypothesis of schizophrenia was proposed in 2007, based on its action on midbrain dopamine activity and NMDArs, thus linking dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia with the glutamate hypothesis of the disease. High levels of kynurenic acid have been identified in human urine in certain metabolic disorders, such as marked pyridoxine deficiency and deficiency/absence of kynureninase; when researchers decreased the levels of kynurenic acid in the brains of mice, their cognition was shown to improve markedly. Kynurenic acid shows neuroprotective properties; some researchers have posited that the increased levels found in cases of neurological degradation is due to a failed attempt to protect the cells. One controlled study kept mice on a ketogenic diet and measured kynurenic acid concentrations in different parts of the brain, it found that the mice on the ketogenic diet had greater kynurenic acid concentrations in the striatum and hippocampus compared to mice on a normal diet, with no significant difference in the cortex.
In response to the studies showing detrimental behaviour following increases in kynurenic acid the authors note that the diet was well tolerated by the animals, with no "gross behavioural abnormalities". They posit that the increases in concentrations found were insufficient to produce behavioural changes seen in those studies. Xanthurenic acid Link found between TBE and schizophrenia - TheLocal.se, Sweden's news in English, 6 November 2007