History of American newspapers
The history of American newspapers begins in the early 18th century with the publication of the first colonial newspapers. American newspapers began as modest affairs—a sideline for printers, they became a political force in the campaign for American independence. Following independence the first article of U. S. Constitution guaranteed freedom of the press; the U. S. Postal Service Act of 1792 provided substantial subsidies: Newspapers were delivered up to 100 miles for a penny and beyond for 1.5 cents, when first class postage ranged from six cents to a quarter. The American press grew during the First Party System when both parties sponsored papers to reach their loyal partisans. From the 1830s onward, the Penny press began to play a major role in American journalism. Technological advancements such as the telegraph and faster printing presses in the 1840s helped to expand the press of the nation as it experienced rapid economic and demographic growth. Editors became the local party spokesman, hard-hitting editorials were reprinted.
By 1900 major newspapers had become profitable powerhouses of advocacy and sensationalism, along with serious, objective news-gathering. During the early 20th century, prior to rise of television, the average American read several newspapers per-day. Starting in the 1920s changes in technology again morphed the nature of American journalism as radio and television, began to play important competitive roles. In the late 20th century, much of American journalism became housed in big media chains. With the coming of digital journalism in the 21st century, all newspapers faced a business crisis as readers turned to the Internet for sources and advertisers followed them. Merchants published commercial papers. For example, The Boston Daily Advertiser was reported on ship departures. Prior to the 1830s, a majority of US newspapers were aligned with platform. Political parties would sponsor anonymous political figures in The Federal Republican and Daily Gazette; this was not unbiased in opinion. The first editors discovered.
The most dramatic confrontation came in New York in 1734, where the governor brought John Peter Zenger to trial for criminal libel after the publication of satirical attacks. The jury acquitted Zenger; the result was an emerging tension between the government. By the mid-1760s, there were 24 weekly newspapers in the 13 colonies, the satirical attack on government became common practice in American newspapers, it was James Franklin, Benjamin Franklin's older brother, who first made a news sheet something more than a garbled mass of stale items, "taken from the Gazette and other Public Prints of London" some six months late. Instead, he launched a third newspaper, The New England Courant." His associates were known as the Hell-Fire Club. Instead of filling the first part of the Courant with the tedious conventionalities of governors' addresses to provincial legislatures, James Franklin's club wrote essays and satirical letters modeled on The Spectator, which first appeared in London ten years earlier.
After the more formal introductory paper on some general topic, such as zeal or hypocrisy or honor or contentment, the facetious letters of imaginary correspondents fill the remainder of the Courant's first page. Timothy Turnstone addresses flippant jibes to Justice Nicholas Clodpate in the first extant number of the Courant. Tom Pen-Shallow follows, with his mischievous little postscript: "Pray inform me whether in your Province Criminals have the Privilege of a Jury." Tom Tram writes from the moon about rumors of a certain "villainous Postmaster". Ichabod Henroost complains of a gadding wife. Abigail Afterwit would like to know when the editor of the rival paper, the Gazette, "intends to have done printing the Carolina Addresses to their Governor, give his Readers Something in the Room of them, that will be more entertaining." Homespun Jack deplores the fashions in small waists in particular. Some of these papers represent native wit, with only a general approach to the model, and sometimes a Spectator paper is inserted bodily, with no attempt at paraphrase whatever.
They published poetry, autobiographies, etc. Ben Franklin, journalist saw the printing press as a device to instruct colonial Americans in moral virtue. Frasca argues he saw this as a service to God, because he understood moral virtue in terms of actions, doing good provides a service to God. Despite his own moral lapses, Franklin saw himself as uniquely qualified to instruct Americans in morality, he tried to influence American moral life through the construction of a printing network based on a chain of partnerships from the Carolinas to New England. Franklin thereby invented the first newspaper chain, It was more than a business venture, for like many publishers since, he believed that the press had a public-service duty; when Franklin established himself in Philadelphia, shortly before 1730, the town boasted three "wretched little" news sheets, Andrew Bradford's American Mercury, Samuel Keimer's Universal Instructor in all Arts and Sciences and Pennsylvania Gazette
Francis Towne was a British watercolour painter of landscapes that range from the English Lake District to Naples and Rome. After a long period of obscurity, his work has been recognised from the early 20th century onwards. Towne was born in Isleworth in the son of a corn chandler. In 1752 he was apprenticed to a leading coach painter in Thomas Brookshead. In 1759 he won a design prize from the Society of Arts, studied for a while at St Martin’s Lane Academy. In 1763 Towne was employed by a coach painter called Thomas Watson in Long Acre, went to Exeter on business, where he soon settled, he had begun painting in oils and taught drawing, now he began to accept commissions from wealthy families in Devon. After a tour of north Wales in 1777, undertaken with his friend, the Exeter lawyer James White, he began to specialize in watercolours. In 1780 he travelled to Rome, where he knew, painted with, John "Warwick" Smith, there since 1776, William Pars, a friend from London, he spent a month in Naples in March 1781.
After returning to Rome, excursions to Tivoli and other nearby areas, he travelled home to England with Smith, passing over the Alps. His works from this trip include over 200 sheets, 54 large views of Rome which emphasize the ancient ruins rather than the post-classical sights or the contemporary life of the city; these 54 were exhibited as a group in 1805 but never sold. Many were reworked starting around 1800, in the heavier and more conventional style he had by adopted. At his death Towne left the group to the British Museum. On his return to Devon, he was asked by Sir Thomas and Lady Acland of Killerton to paint some views in Devon and North Wales, in 1786 he went on a painting tour of the Lake District, he painted versions of his watercolours, of Rome and elsewhere, in oils to submit to the Royal Academy, but though several were exhibited his eleven attempts from 1788 on to be elected a member all failed, he gave up in 1803. He remained in Exeter teaching, achieving reasonable success. In the last years of his life he returned to live in London.
He remained an obscure figure until the early 20th century, so that the collector Paul Oppé was able to acquire numbers of important works cheaply. Oppé was impressed with Towne's elegant and somewhat stylised early manner, which chimed with trends in English painting at the time, "the taste of our own century for flat colourful pattern-making", as Andrew Wilton put it in 1993; the writings of Oppé and others created a revival of interest in Towne, more works began to appear on the market. By the 1950s he was recognised as an important figure and his works were owned by many museums the British Museum and the Yale Center for British Art. A catalogue raisonné of the artist's work is published by the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art. From January 2016, the British Museum held an exhibition of the watercolours he painted in Rome, art critic Jonathan Jones commented: Francis Towne, who failed 11 times to get elected to the Royal Academy but had the foresight to leave these watercolours to the British Museum when he died in 1816, may not be a famous British artist.
He is, however, a great one. Stephens, Light, legacy. Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. A. P. Oppé, ` Landscape painter', in The Walpole Society. Francis Towne, Lone star of watercolour painting Stephens, Richard. New material for Towne's biography. Stephens, Richard. A Catalogue Raisonné of Francis Towne, doi:10.17658/towne. Wilcox, Timothy. Francis Towne. Spink, John. Francis Towne and his friends Hargraves, Matthew. Great British Watercolors: From the Paul Mellon Collection at the Yale Center for British Art p. 30 ff. Wilcox, Timothy.'Francis Towne's Lake District sketchbook. A facsimile reconstruction' Towne biography Towne biography and work Analysis of Towne's watercolour paintings Francis Towne online Great Works: Ambleside, Francis Towne The Colosseum from the Caelian Hills Ludlow castle Ambleside
Henry R. Towne
Henry Robinson Towne was an American mechanical engineer and businessman, known as early systematizer of management. Towne was born in Philadelphia in 1844 to Maria T. Towne, he attended the University of Pennsylvania from 1861 to 1862, where he was a member of St. Anthony Hall, but did not complete a degree; the university awarded him an honorary master's degree. Following his year of college, Towne found work as a draftsman at the Port Richmond Iron Works, owned by I. P. Morris, Towne & Co. In 1863, Towne was put in charge of repair work for the union gunboat Massachusetts. During 1864-1866, Towne was placed in charge of erecting engines in monitors for the United States Navy. After the war, Towne studied physics at the Sorbonne; when he returned, he found employment with the firm of William Co. in Philadelphia. In the summer of 1868, Henry R. Towne was introduced to Linus Yale Jr. by a mutual friend. Towne was, by this time, looking for a new business opportunity and had become impressed about the possibilities of Yale's new "cylinder" lock.
In October 1868, the two men formed the Yale Lock Manufacturing Company, to be located in Stamford, Connecticut. Towne provided new capital and management of the firm, Yale the invention. Yale died in 1868, Towne reorganized the company as Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co. Towne stepped down as chairman in 1915. Within this time-frame he developed the Towne-Halsey plan. According to F. W. Taylor and mentioned in his book Scientific Management "it consists in recording the quickest time in which a job has been done, fixing this as a standard. If the workman succeeds in doing the job in a shorter time, he is still paid his same wages per hour for the time he works on the job, in addition is given a premium for having worked faster, consisting of from one-quarter to one-half the difference between the wages earned and the wages paid when the job was done in standard time." Towne was one of the first engineers to see management as a new social role for engineers and that the development of management techniques was important for the development of the engineering profession.
He laid out his ideas about the management role for the engineer in his "The Engineer as Economist." He was elected President of the ASME in 1888, his presidential address continued to address how to improve shop and worker efficiency. Towne and Link-Belt president James Mapes Dodge were responsible for maneuvering Frederick Winslow Taylor to the Presidency of the ASME in 1906. Henry R. Towne died on October 15, 1924, his wife Cora E. White, whom he had married in 1868, died in 1917. In his will, Towne bequeathed over two million dollars to the establishment of the Museums of the Peaceful Arts in Manhattan. Towne, Henry Robinson. Locks and Builders Hardware: A Hand Book for Architects. J. Wiley & Sons, 1904. Towne, Henry R. "Foreword to Shop Management." Frederick Taylor, Scientific Management: 5-6. 1911. Articles, a selection: Towne, Henry R. "A Drawing Office System." Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 5: 193-205. Towne, Henry R. "Engineer as an Economist," Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 7, 425ff.
Towne, Henry R. "Gain-Sharing," Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 10, 600ff. Towne, Henry R. "President's Address, 1889." Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 11: 50-71. Towne, Henry R. "Industrial engineering." Ingeniería Industrial), discurso pronunciado en la Universidad de Purdue el 24. Towne, Henry Robinson. "Axioms Concerning Manufacturing Costs." Trans. A SM E 34. Towne, Henry R. "The General Principles of Organization Applied to an Individual Manufacturing Establishment," Transactions, Efficiency Society Incorporated. V.1 1912, p. 77-83 1897. US patents 575016 - Frictional controlling device for screw hoist. 1898. US patents 29786 - design for a key Biographical Sketch
Joseph Towne was a British moulageur and stereoscopist. He is best known for the creation of anatomical models made of wax, many of which still survive today and are on display in the Guy's Hospital medical school museum. Joseph Towne was born in Royston, where his father was a preacher at the local chapel, the youngest of five surviving children, he was apprenticed to a local artist. When he was seventeen, Joseph Towne began work on a major project, the construction of a wax skeleton though he had never seen a real one. Working from books, he wanted to be accurate, he had been informed that there was a Society of Arts competition in London, so he decided to go to London where he visited doctors who examined it, but could not tell him whether it was correct. Advised to ask Astley Cooper, in April 1825, Towne met the surgeon, who wrote out a note for him: I have seen the wax skeleton made by Mr. Joseph Towne, I approveSigned Astley Cooper His skeleton took second place. In the following year, a wax sculpture of a head dissection made for John Hilton won the first prize.
Cooper at Guy's Hospital seems to have intended to create a collection of wax medical models, because in 1825 he took Towne onto the staff. Towne worked for Addison. Addison taught materia medica, had need for wax moulages of diseases. Smallpox is contagious, so the students would be shown wax models rather than the real thing. Towne made eight moulages of variola, the smallpox - six days before eruption, five days, four days, three days, two days, the day before, the day of eruption and two days after, he made three moulages of vaccinia, the cowpox. Towne had an assistant and an Italian model known as Francis -, most Francesco. In the manner of a dental assistant, Towne's helper would mix up portions of plaster-of-paris for Towne to apply to the limb of Francis, he would fit end-caps as needed and fill the mold with wax. The wax molding would be painted with colored wax. Towne was paid a huge retainer, as well as a large sum for each moulage, he remained loyal to Guy's hospital. Additional work involved the making of a marble bust of Cooper -, now Sir Astley Cooper - and of other members of staff.
In 1852, he made "The magnificent bust by Towne", mentioned by Sir Samuel Wilks and Dr. Daldy in their "Collected Works of Thomas Addison". In 1859, the medical school at Guy's fell on hard times, it was suggested. That would automatically have spelled the end of Towne's career; the museum with its wax models continued - but in reduced circumstances. Loyal, Towne refused to make models for other British hospitals, his fame had spread, however, so that he made about two hundred additional moulages for faraway places such as India and the United States. Professor Charles Wheatstone had invented stereoscopy, revealed it to the world in 1838. There was no serious prior art. Victorians took to the novelty, Towne was no exception; as one might expect, he assembled a collection of 3D images of sculptures to study. He studied the work of Wheatstone and of Sir David Brewster. In 1862, Towne published the results of his stereoscopic researches together with a reply to the man, now Sir Charles Wheatstone, but loyal to Guy's, he published in Guy's Hospital Reports.
The articles, in two parts, provide a fascinating insight into the mind of Joseph Towne. For example, he argues that if one eye sees yellow and the other sees blue, the mind should see green; this is wrong. The yellow and blue that he speaks of are pigments, it is now known that when blue light are mixed, the outcome is white. But what if yellow enters the mind via one eye, blue via the other? Such binocular colour rivalry remained uncharted territory for long. Towne argues that one can see in three dimensions with only one eye; this is. However, it is not true shape-perception. Towne's adjustive Stereoscope is no more than a direct-viewing aid with a septum and pinhole oculars. However, it does help anybody, attempting direct-viewing because the septum cuts out distraction whilst the pinholes extend the depth-of-field. Over the course of his career, Towne made just over a thousand moulages for Guy's hospital, eight hundred under the direction of Addison including cases of skin disease, anatomical preparations from dissections made by John Hilton.
He made an equestrian statue of the Duke of Kent for Buckingham Palace. He was buried in West Norwood Cemetery. Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Towne, Joseph". Dictionary of National Biography. 57. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Joseph Towne, Friends of West Norwood Cemetery, Newsletter 50 Towne's articles Towne's bust of Addison in color
Salem witch trials
The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693. More than 200 people were accused, 19 of whom were executed by hanging. One other man, Giles Corey, was crushed to death for refusing to plead, at least five people died in jail, it was the deadliest witch hunt in the history of the United States. Twelve other women had been executed in Massachusetts and Connecticut during the 17th century. Despite being known as the Salem witch trials, the preliminary hearings in 1692 were conducted in several towns: Salem Village, Salem Town and Andover; the most infamous trials were conducted by the Court of Terminer in 1692 in Salem Town. The episode is one of Colonial America's most notorious cases of mass hysteria, it has been used in political rhetoric and popular literature as a vivid cautionary tale about the dangers of isolationism, religious extremism, false accusations, lapses in due process.
It was not unique, but a Colonial American example of the much broader phenomenon of witch trials in the early modern period, which took place in Europe. Many historians consider the lasting effects of the trials to have been influential in subsequent United States history. According to historian George Lincoln Burr, "the Salem witchcraft was the rock on which the theocracy shattered."At the 300th anniversary events in 1992 to commemorate the victims of the trials, a park was dedicated in Salem and a memorial in Danvers. In November 2001, an act passed by the Massachusetts legislature exonerated five people, while another one, passed in 1957, had exonerated six other victims; as of 2004, there was still talk about exonerating all the victims, though some think that happened in the 19th century as the Massachusetts colonial legislature was asked to reverse the attainders of "George Burroughs and others". In January 2016, the University of Virginia announced its Gallows Hill Project team had determined the execution site in Salem, where the 19 "witches" had been hanged.
The city is planning to establish a memorial to the victims. While witch trials had begun to fade out across much of Europe by the mid-17th century, they continued on the fringes of Europe and in the American Colonies; the events in 1692/1693 in Salem became a brief outburst of a sort of hysteria in the New World, while the practice was waning in most of Europe. In Against Modern Sadducism, Joseph Glanvill claimed that he could prove the existence of witches and ghosts of the supernatural realm. Glanvill wrote about the "denial of the bodily resurrection, the spirits."In his treatise, Glanvill claimed that ingenious men should believe in witches and apparitions. Glanvill wanted to prove. Works by men such as Glanvill and Cotton Mather tried to prove that "demons were alive." The trials were started after people had been accused of witchcraft by teenage girls such as Elizabeth Hubbard, 17, as well as some who were younger. The earliest recorded witchcraft execution was that of Alse Young in 1647 in Connecticut.
Historian Clarence F. Jewett included a list of other people executed in New England in his 1881 book. New England had been settled by religious refugees seeking to build a Bible-based society, they lived with the sense of the supernatural. The original 1629 Royal Charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony was vacated in 1684, after which King James II installed Sir Edmund Andros as the governor of the Dominion of New England. Andros was ousted in 1689 after the "Glorious Revolution" in England replaced the Catholic James II with the Protestant co-rulers William and Mary. Simon Bradstreet and Thomas Danforth, the colony's last leaders under the old charter, resumed their posts as governor and deputy governor, but lacked constitutional authority to rule because the old charter had been vacated. At the same time, tensions erupted between English colonists settling in "the Eastward" and French-supported Wabanaki Indians of that territory in what came to be known as King William's War; this was 13 years after the devastating King Philip's War with the Wampanoag and other indigenous tribes in southern and western New England.
In October 1690, Sir William Phips led an unsuccessful attack on French-held Quebec. Between 1689 and 1692, Native Americans continued to attack many English settlements along the Maine coast, leading to the abandonment of some of the settlements and resulting in a flood of refugees into areas like Essex County. A new charter for the enlarged Province of Massachusetts Bay was given final approval in England on October 16, 1691. News of the appointment of Phips as the new governor reached Boston in late January, a copy of the new charter reached Boston on February 8, 1692. Phips arrived in Boston on May 14 and was sworn in as governor two days along with Lieutenant Governor William Stoughton. One of the first orders of business for the new governor and council on May 27, 1692, was the formal nomination of county justices of the peace and the commission of a Special Court of Oyer and Terminer to handle the large numbers of people who were "thronging" the jails. Paul Boyer and Stephen Nissenbaum have postulated that without a valid charter, the colony had no legitimate form of government to try capital cases until Phips arrived with the new charter.
This has been disputed by David Konig. He points out that between charters
Pennsylvania Evening Post
The Pennsylvania Evening Post, a Philadelphia newspaper printed by Benjamin Towne from 1775 to 1784, was the first newspaper to print the United States Declaration of Independence, which it published on July 6, 1776. The Post was the first newspaper to publish the Lee Resolution, which established the new country. Known as "The Resolution for Independence", the Lee Resolution was passed by the Second Continental Congress on July 2, 1776, printed in The Pennsylvania Evening Post that evening. After appearing three times a week, in 1783 Towne began publishing the Pennsylvania Evening Post every day, making it the first daily newspaper in the United States. Physical history of the United States Declaration of Independence
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th