The Hiwassee River has its headwaters on the north slope of Rocky Mountain in Towns County in the northern State of Georgia and flows northward into North Carolina before turning westward into Tennessee, flowing into the Tennessee River a few miles west of State Route 58 in Meigs County, Tennessee. The river is about 147 miles long; the river is dammed by the Tennessee Valley Authority in four locations, all in western North Carolina. Chatuge Dam, Mission Dam, Hiwassee Dam, Apalachia Dam. Water is diverted from the stream bed at Apalachia Dam and sent through a pipeline, tunneled through the mountains for eight miles flows through the Apalachia Powerhouse to generate electricity; the stretch of the river that flows between Apalachia Dam and Apalachia Powerhouse features reduced flow and is followed by the John Muir Trail in Tennessee's Cherokee National Forest. The 23-mile stretch of river that flows from the North Carolina/Tennessee state line to U. S. Highway 411 near Delano is designated a State Scenic River and for recreational purposes is managed by the state Resource Management Division, in cooperation with TVA.
The river features Class I depending on water levels. After exiting the mountains through a gorge, the Hiwassee flows under US-411 and broadens, meandering through rural Polk and Bradley counties; the river crosses under U. S. Route 11 at Calhoun and Charleston, where local industries such as Bowater Newsprint Mill and Arch/Olin Chemical use river water in their operations. At this point the river interfaces with the impoundment of Chickamauga Dam, many marshes and wetlands surround the main channel, providing areas for hunting and fishing; the Hiwassee passes under Interstate 75 on the border of Bradley counties. The Hiwassee continues westward to pass under TN-58's historic, narrow, bridge on its way to the confluence with the Tennessee River; this area of the river is enjoyed by boaters and water skiers. Major tributaries include Valley River, Nottely River, Coker Creek, Big Lost Creek, Spring Creek, Conasauga Creek, Toccoa/Ocoee River; the Hiwassee River has been known by many variant spellings.
The best-known of these is Hiawassee, the name of the Georgia town through which the river flows. Other alternate spellings include Heia Wassea and Highwassee, some less obvious related names include Eufasee, Eufassee and Quannessee; some Cherokee say the name came from the Cherokee word Ayuhwasi, which means a savanna. The Muskogee say the river's name is the Koasati and Hitchiti, Creek language words for the copperhead snake; the river is known for its many copperheads today. Various Muskogean-speaking ethnic groups occupied the region for many centuries before the arrival of the Cherokee. Tribes related to them include the Creek, Choctaw and Seminole; some historians thought that because the Europeans had encountered the Cherokee in the Hiwassee Valley in the 18th century, the latter people had occupied the territory for a much longer period, but this is not the case. Their language is Iroquoian and they are believed to have migrated at an earlier time from south of the Great Lakes region, where several other Iroquoian tribes have been based, including the Five Nations of the Haudenosaunee.
Spanish explorers visited the region in the 16th century. Hernando de Soto crossed the Hiwassee River near its confluence with the Tennessee River at Hiwassee Island, in the spring of 1541 AD. Juan Pardo followed a trail that paralleled the river in 1567 AD. All town names and indigenous words that were recorded by de Soto's chroniclers in present-day Georgia, North Carolina and Tennessee, can be translated by contemporary Muskogean dictionaries. Most of the words are of the Koasati and Hitchiti languages, but a few are Muskogean and Alabama words. None of the words are Cherokee; the earliest European maps from the 17th century vaguely show the Hiwassee River Basin occupied by a mountain branch of the Apalachee and the Kusa. The Kusa were one of the ancestral branches of the "Upper Creek"; the Tama-tli of the Altamaha River Basin in southeastern Georgia are known to have had a colony in the valley between Andrews, North Carolina and the Hiwassee River at Murphy, North Carolina. The initial contacts by English explorers and traders in the 1690s found most of the river valley occupied by Muskogean and Yuchi towns.
Cherokee villages were north of the river at this time. In 1714, two traders in South Carolina supplied the Cherokee with firearms and directed them to attack the Yuchi villages on the Hiwassee River. Most of the men in one Yuchi town were gone. Not having firearms, the remaining Yuchi were massacred. In 1715, the Cherokee invited the leaders of the many Muskogean provinces that would comprise the Creek Confederacy to a diplomatic conference at Tugaloo at the headwaters of the Savannah River, they murdered the Muskogean leaders in their sleep. This precipitated a 40-year-long war between the Cherokee. Due to disunity among the Creek, the Cherokee were able to occupy the northeastern tip of what is now Georgia, but was part of South Carolina, they drove the Yuchi from most of North Carolina west and south of the Hiwassee. Most of the branches of the Creek lost interest in this war after a few years; the Hiwassee River and its tributaries were part of Cherokee territory in the early 18th century. A town known as "Hiwassee" was located near the mou
For the Department of Energy facility, see Savannah River Site The Savannah River is a major river in the southeastern United States, forming most of the border between the states of South Carolina and Georgia. Two tributaries of the Savannah, the Tugaloo River and the Chattooga River, form the northernmost part of the border; the Savannah River drainage basin extends into the southeastern side of the Appalachian Mountains just inside North Carolina, bounded by the Eastern Continental Divide. The river is around 301 miles long, it is formed by the confluence of the Seneca River. Today this confluence is submerged beneath Lake Hartwell; the Tallulah Gorge is located on the Tallulah River, a tributary of the Tugaloo River that forms the northwest branch of the Savannah River. Two major cities are located along the Savannah River: Savannah, Augusta, Georgia, they were nuclei of early English settlements during the Colonial period of American history. The Savannah River is tidal at Savannah proper.
Downstream from there, the river broadens into an estuary before flowing into the Atlantic Ocean. The area where the river's estuary meets the ocean is known as "Tybee Roads"; the Intracoastal Waterway flows through a section of the Savannah River near the city of Savannah. The name "Savannah" comes from a group of Shawnee, they destroyed the Westo and occupied established Westo lands at the Savannah River's head of navigation on the Fall Line, near present-day Augusta. These Shawnee were called by several variant names that all derive from their native name, Ša·wano·ki; the local variants included Shawano, Savano and Savannah. Another theory is that the name was derived from the English term "savanna", a kind of tropical grassland, borrowed by the English from Spanish sabana and used in the colonial southeast; the Spanish word was borrowed from the Taino word zabana. Other theories interpret the name Savannah to come from Atlantic coastal tribes, who spoke Algonquian languages, as there are similar terms meaning not only "southerner" but "salt".
Historical and variant names of the Savannah River, as listed by the U. S. Geological Survey, include May River, Westobou River, Kosalu River, Isundiga River and Girande River, among others; the Westobou River was the former name of the Savannah River, derived from the Westo Native American Indians. The Westo were thought to have come from the northeast, pushed out by the more powerful tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy, who had acquired firearms through trade; this migration beginning in the late 16th century resulted in the Westo Indians reaching the present area of Augusta, Georgia, in what was to be the 1660s. The Westo used the river for fishing and water supplies, for transportation, for trade, they were strong enough to hold off the Spanish colonists making incursions from Florida. The Carolina Colony needed the Westo alliance during its early years; when Carolinians desired to expand its trade to Charleston, they viewed the Westo tribe as an obstacle. In order to remove the tribe, they sent a group called the Goose Creek Men to arm the Savanna Indians, a Shawnee tribe, who defeated the Westo in the Westo War of 1680.
Following this, the English colonists renamed the river as the Savannah. They founded two major cities on the river during the colonial era: Savannah was established in 1733 as a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean, Augusta is located where the river crosses the Fall Line of the Piedmont; the two large cities on the Savannah served as Georgia's first two state capitals. In the nineteenth century, the sandy river channel changed causing numerous steamboat accidents. During the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed a blockade around the Confederate states, forcing merchantmen to use specific ports along the coast best suited for this purpose; the harbor at Savannah became one of the busiest ports for blockade runners bringing in supplies for the Confederacy. The Savannah River was significant during the 1950s when construction started on the U. S. government's Savannah River Plant for making tritium for nuclear weapons. In 1956 Clyde L. Cowan and Frederick Reines detected neutrinos with an experiment carried out at the Savannah River Nuclear Plant, after a preliminary experiment at the Hanford Site.
They placed a 10-ton tank of water next to a powerful nuclear reactor engaged in making plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. After shielding the neutrino trap underground and running it for about 100 days over the course of a year, they detected a few synchronized flashes of gamma radiation that signaled the interaction of a few neutrinos with the protons in the water; the neutrinos were not themselves observed, they never have been. Their presence is inferred by an exceedingly rare interaction. One out of every billion billion neutrinos that pass through the water tank hits a proton, producing the telltale burst of radiation. In 1995 Reines was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for this accomplishment, but Cowen did not live long enough to share it. Between 1946 and 1985, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers built three major dams on the Savannah for hydroelectricity, flood control, navigation; the J. Strom Thurmond Dam, the Hartwell Dam, the Richard B. Russell Dam and their reservoirs combine in order to form over 120 miles of lakes.
Donnie Thompson named a small subdivision "Westobou Crossing", located in North Augusta, South Carolina. The area of the subdivision is located marks the first natural ford that crosses the Savannah River, thus promoting trade and allowing travel. Many native a
Hiawassee is the county seat of Towns County, United States. The community's population was 880 at the 2010 census, its name is derived from the Cherokee—or Creek—word Ayuhwasi, which means meadow, Settled circa 1820, Hiawassee was designated seat of the newly formed Towns County in 1856. It was incorporated as a town in 1870 and as a city in 1916. Hiawassee was inhabited by predominately Cherokee-speaking peoples, but the myth that the town was named after a Cherokee or otherwise Native American princess is false and is as mythical as the Cherokee princess herself. Hiawassee's name is nature-based. Hiawassee is located on the Hiwassee River at 34°56′58″N 83°45′18″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.2 square miles, of which 1.7 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles is water. Hiawassee is 2000 feet above sea level; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 880 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 95.2% White, 0.3% Black, 0.1% Native American, 1.3% Asian and 0.3% from two or more races.
2.7% were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 810 people, 355 households, 203 families residing in the town; the population density was 479.5 people per square mile. There were 527 housing units at an average density of 312.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.40% White, 0.25% African American, 0.12% Native American, 1.73% Asian, 0.37% from other races, 0.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.61% of the population. There were 355 households out of which 14.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.6% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.8% were non-families. 40.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 24.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.86 and the average family size was 2.39. In the town, the population was spread out with 10.0% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 13.1% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, 46.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 62 years. For every 100 females, there were 70.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 65.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $26,615, the median income for a family was $31,458. Males had a median income of $28,929 versus $22,917 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,957. About 12.6% of families and 16.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.3% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over. Hiawasse has a City Council form of government; the current mayor, Liz Ordiales, is one of only 3 city officials out of 16 LGBT candidates elected across north Georgia/metro Atlanta in the fall 2016 election cycle. The Towns County School District holds grades pre-school to grade twelve, consists of one elementary school, a middle school and a high school; the district has 144 full-time teachers and over 2,408 students. Towns County Elementary School Towns County Middle School Towns County High School Fred Hamilton Rhododendron Garden Georgia Mountain Fairgrounds Lake Chatuge
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Tennessee Valley Authority
The Tennessee Valley Authority is a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter on May 18, 1933, to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, economic development to the Tennessee Valley, a region affected by the Great Depression. The enterprise was a result of the efforts of Senator George W. Norris of Nebraska. TVA was envisioned not only as a provider, but as a regional economic development agency that would use federal experts and electricity to more modernize the region's economy and society. TVA's service area covers most of Tennessee, portions of Alabama and Kentucky, small slices of Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, it remains the largest. Under the leadership of David Lilienthal, the TVA became a model for America's efforts to help modernize agrarian societies in the developing world; the Tennessee Valley Authority was founded as an agency to provide general economic development to the region through power generation, flood control, navigation assistance, fertilizer manufacturing, agricultural development, but has evolved into a power utility.
Despite its shares being owned by the federal government, TVA operates like a private corporation, receives no taxpayer funding. The TVA Act authorizes the company to use eminent domain. TVA provides electricity to ten million people through a diverse portfolio which includes nuclear, coal-fired, natural gas-fired and renewable generation. TVA sells its power to 154 local power utilities, 5 direct industrial and institutional customers, 12 surrounding utilities. In addition to power generation, TVA provides flood control with its 29 hydroelectric dams, which allow for recreational activities, provides navigation and land management along rivers within its region of operation. TVA assists governments and private companies on economic development projects. TVA has a nine member board of directors, each nominated by the United States President and confirmed by the United States Senate; the part time members serve five year terms and receive an annual stipend of $45,000. The board members choose the chief executive officer.
The Tennessee Valley Authority Police are the primary law enforcement agency for the company. Part of the TVA, the TVA Police became a federal law enforcement agency in 1994. During the 1920s and the Great Depression years, Americans began to support the idea of public ownership of utilities hydroelectric power facilities; the concept of government-owned generation facilities selling to publicly owned distribution utilities was controversial and remains so today. Many believed owned power companies were charging too much for power, did not employ fair operating practices, were subject to abuse by their owners, at the expense of consumers. During his presidential campaign, Roosevelt claimed that private utilities had "selfish purposes" and said, "Never shall the federal government part with its sovereignty or with its control of its power resources while I'm president of the United States." By forming utility holding companies, the private sector controlled 94 percent of generation by 1921 unregulated..
Many private companies in the Tennessee Valley were bought by the federal government. Others shut down, unable to compete with the TVA. Government regulations were passed to prevent competition with TVA. In the 1920s, a major battle erupted over building an electric power system in the Tennessee Valley, based on the World War I federal dam at Muscle Shoals, Alabama, it would produce fertilizer. Senator George Norris of Nebraska blocked a proposal from Henry Ford in 1920 to use the dam to modernize the valley. Norris distrusted owned utility companies, he did get Congress to pass the Muscle Shoals Bill, but it was vetoed as socialistic by President Herbert Hoover in 1931. The idea behind the Muscle Shoals Bill in 1933 became a core part of the New Deal's TVA. By Depression standards, the Tennessee Valley was economically dismal in 1933. Thirty percent of the population was affected by malaria, the average income was only $639 per year, with some families surviving on as little as $100 per year. Much of the land had been farmed too hard for too long and depleting the soil.
Crop yields had fallen along with farm incomes. The best timber had been cut, with another 10% of forests being burnt each year. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed the Tennessee Valley Authority Act, creating the TVA. TVA was designed to modernize the region, using experts and electricity to combat human and economic problems. TVA developed fertilizers, taught farmers ways to improve crop yields and helped replant forests, control forest fires, improve habitat for fish and wildlife; the most dramatic change in Valley life came from TVA-generated electricity. Electric lights and modern home appliances made farms more productive. Electricity drew industries into the region, providing needed jobs; the development of the dams displaced more than 15,000 families. This created anti-TVA sentiment in some rural communities. Many local landowners were suspicious of government agencies, but TVA introduced new agricultural methods into traditional farming communities by blending in and finding local champions.
Tennessee farmers would reject ad
White County, Georgia
White County is a county located near the northeast corner of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,144; the county seat is Cleveland. The county was created on December 22, 1857 from part of Habersham County and named for Newton County Representative David T. White, who helped a Habersham representative attain passage of an act creating the new county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 242 square miles, of which 241 square miles is land and 1.5 square miles is water. The highest point in White County is 4,430-foot Tray Mountain, shared with Towns County to the north. Tray is the 6th-highest mountain peak in Georgia. Another prominent White County peak is Yonah Mountain known as Mount Yonah; this 3,143-foot peak, located between Helen and Cleveland, is rimmed by sheer cliffs and is the highest point on Georgia's Piedmont Plateau. All of White County is located in the Upper Chattahoochee River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin. Towns County - north Habersham County - east Hall County - south Lumpkin County - west Union County - northwest Chattahoochee National Forest Unicoi State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 19,944 people, 7,731 households, 5,782 families residing in the county.
The population density was 83 people per square mile. There were 9,454 housing units at an average density of 39 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.16% White, 2.17% Black or African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.18% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 1.07% from two or more races. 1.56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,731 households out of which 31.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.70% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.20% were non-families. 21.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.20% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 25.20% from 45 to 64, 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years.
For every 100 females there were 98.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,084, the median income for a family was $40,704. Males had a median income of $29,907 versus $22,168 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,193. About 8.40% of families and 10.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.30% of those under age 18 and 15.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 27,144 people, 10,646 households, 7,750 families residing in the county; the population density was 112.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 16,062 housing units at an average density of 66.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.1% white, 1.7% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.5% American Indian, 0.8% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 16.0% were English, 14.9% were American, 14.5% were Irish, 10.8% were German.
Of the 10,646 households, 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.6% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.2% were non-families, 22.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age was 42.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,756 and the median income for a family was $50,981. Males had a median income of $40,265 versus $31,061 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,680. About 16.9% of families and 19.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4% of those under age 18 and 12.0% of those age 65 or over. Cleveland Helen Sautee-Nacoochee Yonah Mossy Creek Robertstown Scorpion Hollow Shoal Creek Benefit Leo National Register of Historic Places listings in White County, Georgia Lanier Meaders White County Chamber of Commerce website White County Government Website White County Historical Society Website History of White County, Georgia
The Chattahoochee River forms the southern half of the Alabama and Georgia border, as well as a portion of the Florida - Georgia border. It is a tributary of the Apalachicola River, a short river formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers and emptying from Florida into Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico; the Chattahoochee River is about 430 miles long. The Chattahoochee and Apalachicola rivers together make up the Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint River Basin; the Chattahoochee makes up the largest part of the ACF's drainage basin. The source of the Chattahoochee River is located in Jacks Gap at the southeastern foot of Jacks Knob, in the southeastern corner of Union County, in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, a subrange of the Appalachian Mountains; the headwaters of the river flow south from ridges. The Appalachian Trail crosses the river's uppermost headwaters; the Chattahoochee's source and upper course lies within Chattahoochee National Forest. From its source in the Blue Ridge Mountains, the Chattahoochee River flows southwesterly to Atlanta and through its suburbs.
It turns due-south to form the southern half of the Georgia/Alabama state line. Flowing through a series of reservoirs and artificial lakes, it flows by Columbus, the second-largest city in Georgia, the Fort Benning Army base. At Columbus, it crosses the Fall Line of the eastern United States. From Lake Oliver to Fort Benning, the Chattahoochee Riverwalk provides cycling and walking along 15 miles of the river's banks. Farther south, it merges with the Flint River and other tributaries at Lake Seminole near Bainbridge, to form the Apalachicola River that flows into the Florida Panhandle. Although the same river, this portion was given a different name by separated settlers in different regions during the colonial times; the name Chattahoochee is thought to come from a Muskogean word meaning "rocks-marked", from chato plus huchi. This refers to the many colorful granite outcroppings along the northeast-to-southwest segment of the river. Much of that segment of the river runs through the Brevard fault zone.
A local Georgia nickname for the Chattahoochee River is "The Hooch". The vicinity of the Chattahoochee River was inhabited in prehistoric times by indigenous peoples since at least 1000 BC; the Kolomoki Mounds, now protected in the Kolomoki Mounds Historic Park near present-day Blakely in Early County in southwest Georgia, were built from 350 AD to 650 AD and constitute the largest mound complex in the state. Among the historical Indigenous nations, the Chattahoochee served as a dividing line between the Muscogee and the Cherokee territories in the Southeast; the Chattahoochee River became the dividing point for the Creek Confederacy, which straddled the river and became known as the Upper Creek Red Sticks and the Lower Creek White Sticks. The United States accomplished the removal of Native Americans, to extinguish their claims and make way for European-American settlement, through a series of treaties, land lotteries, forced removals lasting from 1820 through 1832; the Muscogee were first removed from the southeastern side of the river, the Cherokee from the northwest.
The Chattahoochee River was of considerable strategic importance during the Atlanta Campaign by Union General William Tecumseh Sherman of the American Civil War. Between the tributaries of Proctor Creek and Nickajack Creek on the Cobb and Fulton county lines in metropolitan Atlanta, are nine remaining fortifications nicknamed "Shoupades" that were part of a defensive line occupied by the Confederate Army in early July 1864. Designed by Confederate Brigadier General Francis A. Shoup, the line became known as Johnston's River Line after Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. A month prior to the Battle of Atlanta, Shoup talked with Johnston on June 18, 1864 about building fortifications. Johnston agreed, Shoup supervised the building of 36 small elevated earth and wooden triangular fortifications, arranged in a sawtooth pattern to maximize the crossfire of defenders. Sherman tried to avoid the Shoupade defenses by crossing the river to the northeast.
The nine remaining Shoupades consist of the earthworks portion of the original earth and wooden structures. Two of the last battles of the war, West Point and Columbus took place at strategically important crossings of the Chattahoochee. Since the nineteenth century, early improvements and alterations to the river were for the purposes of navigation; the river was a major transportation route. In the twentieth century, the United States Congress passed legislation in 1944 and 1945 to improve navigation for commercial traffic on the river, as well as to establish hydroelectric power and recreational facilities on a series of lakes to be created by building dams and establishing reservoirs. Creating the manmade, 46,000-acre Walter F. George Lake required evacuating numerous communities, including the majority-Native American settlement of Oketeyeconne, Georgia; the lakes were complete in 1963, covering over numerous historic and prehistoric sites of settlement. Beginning in the late twentieth century, the nonprofit organization called "Upper Chattahoochee Riverkeeper" has advocated for the preservation of the environment and ecology of the northern part of the river the part traversing Metropolitan Atlanta.
In 2010, a campaign to create a whitewater river course was launched in the portion of the Chattahoochee River that runs through Columbus, Georgia. Between 2010 and 2013, const