Miaoli County is a county in western Taiwan. Miaoli is adjacent with Hsinchu County and Hsinchu City to the north, Taichung to the south, borders the Taiwan Strait to the west; the Council for Economic Planning and Development of Taiwan classifies Miaoli as a county of Central Taiwan, while the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau classifies Miaoli as a county of the North. Miaoli City is the capital of the county, is known as "Mountain Town", owing to the number of mountains nearby, making it a destination for hiking; the name Miaoli was coined using two Hakka Chinese words, meu and li to phonetically approximate Pali from the Taokas language. The resulting word is a non-orthodox variant referring to Viverridae. In 1889, during late Qing rule, the name was modified from various forms to its current form. Evidence of settlement in Miaoli dates back a thousand years. Many archaeological artifacts have been found showing that during the prehistoric era, people lived in the river terrace, they led an agriculture life and engaged in hunting and fishing for their extra food source.
About a thousand years ago, an indigenous group Taokas settled here. In the mid-17th century, Han Chinese began to migrate into the area, beginning a gradual process of deforestation and establishment of permanent settlement sites; the prior inhabitants of Miaoli were either assimilated into the dominant Han population, or migrated deeper into the mountainous range. After several hundred years, Miaoli had become the home of people from different origins, such as Hakka, Hoklo and Saisiyat. After Koxinga took over Taiwan from the Netherlands, he placed Miaoli into Tian-Sing County and started an immigration plan to develop this area. After the last Tungning Ruler Zheng Keshuang surrendered to the Qing Dynasty, Tian-sing County was renamed Zhuluo County. In 1889, Miaoli Hsien was established as an independent county under Taiwan Prefecture. At the end of the 19th century, thousands of acres of high-quality fertile fields had been reclaimed in the area of Nanzhuang, Shitan and Zhuolan. Public and private schools were established all over Miaoli which made the area a place of gathering intellectuals and elites in northern Taiwan.
The county was at first eliminated under Japanese Imperial rule. Byōritsu Chō existed from ca. 1901 to 1908, but was split over Shinchiku Chō and Taichū Chō in 1909. From 1920 to 1945, Byōritsu Town, Enri Town and six villages were under the jurisdiction of Byōritsu District, under Shinchiku Prefecture. After the handover of Taiwan from Japan to the Republic of China on 25 October 1945, the present day area of Miaoli County was incorporated to Hsinchu County. On 16 August 1950, the government re-established Miaoli county on 16 August 1950 with Miaoli township as the county seat. On 25 December 1981, Miaoli Township was upgraded from township to a county-controlled city. Miaoli County is considered to be located in the central northern part of the island of Taiwan, contiguous with Hsinchu county, Hsinchu City, Taichung City; the Xueshan Range is located on the border between Taichung City. Miaoli county north to south averages about 50 kilometers and east to west averages about 64 kilometers, it is diamond-shaped in appearance.
The overall coastline of Miaoli is about 50 kilometers long. Miaoli has little flat lands and mountainous due to the Xueshan Range. Miaoli has rich rainfall along with abundant rivers. Miaoli County is divided into 2 cities, 5 urban townships, 10 rural townships and 1 mountain indigenous townships. Miaoli County has the second highest number of urban townships after Changhua County. Miaoli City is the county seat which houses Miaoli County Council; the incumbent Magistrate of Miaoli County is Hsu Yao-chang of the Kuomintang. Colors indicate the common language status of Hakka within each division. Note that Nanzhuang and Tai'an are indigenous areas of Atayal people; the main population of Miaoli County is comprised by the Taiwanese aborigines. The Taiwanese aborigines constitute about 1.9% of the total population where the rural areas is where the Hokkiens are the main group in western urban areas of Miaoli, while the Hakkas comprise the main group of Han Chinese in the rural southern and central parts of Miaoli county Taiwanese aboriginesThe Saisiat reside in the Wufeng Township of Hsinchu County and the Nanzhuang Township of Miaoli County.
Due the oppression by initial Han immigrants, the Atayal aboriginal group and the Nanzhuang Incident, the population of the Saisiat people have decreased to 5,000 people. It is the least populous Taiwanese aboriginal group after the Thao people; the traditions and culture of the Saisiat is impacted by the Atayal aborigines and Hakka people in the region. Han ChineseDuring the Qing Dynasty, Miaoli was inhabited by Hokkiens in the coast and Hakka in the rural peasant mountainous areas; the inhabitants of the four coastal townships of Miaoli consists of Taiwanese Hokkien speakers. With the exception of the four coastal townships and Tai'an Township, the main population consists of Hakka; the main sports and recreational structures in Miaoli include Miaoli Sports Hall, Miaoli County Tennis Court, the Park of Zhunan Township. In Taiwan National Athletic Games of 2011, Miaoli is ranked 21 out of 22 teams with 1 gold, 1 silver, 8 bronze. Popular regional agriculture, food production and culture promoted by the government include strawberries from Dahu Township, Hak
Pingtung County is a county in Southern Taiwan known for its agriculture and tourism. In recent years, it promotes specialties such as wax apples. Pingtung is where Kenting National Park, the oldest and the largest national park in Taiwan established in 1984, is located; the county seat is Pingtung City. The name Pingtung refers to a former nearby mountain known as Half-Screen Mountain. Pingtung means "East of Half-Screen Mountain." Modern-day Pingtung County and Kaohsiung City were part of Banlian-chiu during the Kingdom of Tungning and Fongshan Prefecture during Qing dynasty rule. Pingtung County is a developed county, its largest city is Pingtung City. Until the seventeenth century this area of Taiwan was a place of exile for Chinese criminals and occasional landing point for international mariners. Only the settlements near present-day Checheng Township existed. In 1664, the Hakka settlers arrived from mainland China and farmed under a homesteading system introduced by Zheng Jing. Pingtung City, the biggest city in Pingtung County known as "A-Kau", was the home of Taiwanese Plains Aborigines.
In their language, "A-kau" means "the forest". The first settlements by Han Chinese people were not established until 1684 with the creation of villages near Pingtung by people from China's southern Fujian region. By 1734 most of the Pingtung Plain was cultivated and in 1764 Pingtung was expanded. In 1836 the government and locals worked together to build the four walls of the city, the roads were properly finished. Under Japanese rule, Hōzan Subprefecture was under Tainan Ken, but political divisions changed between 1895 and 1901. In 1901, Akō Chō was established. In 1909, the name was modified to Akō Chō. In 1920, the name was changed to Heitō City and was administered under Takao Prefecture, which consisted of modern-day Pingtung County and Kaohsiung. After the handover of Taiwan from Japan to the Republic of China on 25 October 1945, the area of present-day Pingtung County was incorporated to Kaohsiung County on 25 December 1945. On 16 August 1950, Pingtung County was established after being separated from Kaohsiung County.
On 1 December 1951, Pingtung City was downgraded from provincial city to county-controlled city and county seat of Pingtung County. Pingtung was the site of an 7.1 magnitude earthquake on 26 December 2006. In 2009, Pingtung received rainfall in excess of 2,500 millimetres. With a land area of over 2,775 km2, Pingtung is the 5th largest county in Taiwan, the 2nd largest of Southern Taiwan after Kaohsiung City. Geographically it borders Kaohsiung City to the north, Taitung County to the east, the Taiwan Strait to the west and the Bashi Channel to the south. Due to being located at the southernmost part of Taiwan, Pingtung County is well known of having one of the warmest climate within the country; the whole county experiences a tropical wet and dry climate, but due to being such a large county with various geographical differences, climate differs in different areas of the county. Northern Pingtung, such as the Pingtung City, is characterized by having a high daytime temperature year round, averaging from 30-34 degrees Celsius during the warmer season of April–November to 25-28 degrees Celsius during the cooler season of December–March, while having the lowest nighttime temperatures within the county with temperatures dropping below 16 degrees Celsius at night in January due to being located further away from the sea than any other flatland settlements within the county.
Central Pingtung, such as the Fangliao Township, compared to northern Pingtung, has a lower daytime temperature but has warmer nights due to the temperating affect of the ocean noticeable during winter. The southern tip of Pingtung, the Hengchun Peninsula, has the mildest climate within the county due to being nearly surrounded by the Pacific Ocean with the exception of the mountains on the north. Daily highs during the warmer season reach around 29-32 while daily highs during the cooler season vary around 23-26 degrees C, but, on the other hand, night time temperatures remain warm throughout the year from around 25 degrees Celsius during summer to around 19 degrees Celsius during the winter. Pingtung County is divided into 1 city, 3 urban townships, 21 rural townships and 8 mountain indigenous townships. Pingtung County has the most number of rural townships and mountain indigenous townships among other counties in Taiwan. Pingtung City is the county seat of Pingtung County which houses the Pingtung County Government and Pingtung County Council.
The county is headed by Magistrate Pan Men-an of the Democratic Progressive Party. Colors indicate statutory language status of Hakka and Formosan languages in the respective subdivisions. Pingtung County elected three Democratic Progressive Party legislators to the Legislative Yuan during the 2016 legislative election. Pingtung is home to the indigenous Paiwan tribes, which makes up 7 % of the population; as of December 2016, the total population of Pingtung County is 835,792. The county has been experiencing population decline for 15 consecutive years due to emigration to other cities; as of 2015, Pingtung County has the third highest number of registered temples at 1,101 after Tainan and Kaohsiung. The economy of Pingtung County has been traditionally dominated by agriculture and fishery industries. Howe
Pe̍h-ōe-jī is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min Chinese Taiwanese Hokkien and Amoy Hokkien. Developed by Western missionaries working among the Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia in the 19th century and refined by missionaries working in Xiamen and Tainan, it uses a modified Latin alphabet and some diacritics to represent the spoken language. After initial success in Fujian, POJ became most widespread in Taiwan and, in the mid-20th century, there were over 100,000 people literate in POJ. A large amount of printed material and secular, has been produced in the script, including Taiwan's first newspaper, the Taiwan Church News. During Taiwan under Japanese rule, the use of Pe̍h-ōe-jī was suppressed and it faced further countermeasures during the Kuomintang martial law period. In Fujian, use declined after the establishment of the People's Republic of China and in the early 21st century the system was not in general use there. Taiwanese Christians, non-native learners of Southern Min, native-speaker enthusiasts in Taiwan are among those that continue to use Pe̍h-ōe-jī.
Full native computer support was developed in 2004, users can now call on fonts, input methods, extensive online dictionaries. Rival writing systems have evolved, there is ongoing debate within the Taiwanese mother tongue movement as to which system should be used. Versions of pe̍h-ōe-jī have been devised for other Chinese varieties, including Hakka and Teochew Southern Min. In the 2006, the Taiwanese Romanization System was developed based on pe̍h-ōe-jī for official use to write Hokkien phonetically; the name pe̍h-ōe-jī means "vernacular writing", written characters representing everyday spoken language. The name vernacular writing could be applied to many kinds of writing and character-based, but the term pe̍h-ōe-jī is restricted to the Southern Min romanization system developed by Presbyterian missionaries in the 19th century; the missionaries who invented and refined the system used, instead of the name pe̍h-ōe-jī, various other terms, such as "Romanized Amoy Vernacular" and "Romanized Amoy Colloquial."
The origins of the system and its extensive use in the Christian community have led to it being known by some modern writers as "Church Romanization" and is abbreviated in POJ itself to Kàu-lô. There is some debate on. Objections to "pe̍h-ōe-jī" are that it can refer to more than one system and that both literary and colloquial register Southern Min appear in the system and so describing it as "vernacular" writing might be inaccurate. Objections to "Church Romanization" are that some secular writing use it. One commentator observes that POJ "today is disassociated from its former religious purposes." The term "romanization" is disliked by some, who see it as belittling the status of pe̍h-ōe-jī by identifying it as a supplementary phonetic system instead of a fully-fledged orthography. Sources disagree on which of the two is more used; the history of Peh-oe-ji has been influenced by official attitudes towards the Southern Min vernaculars and the Christian organizations that propagated it. Early documents point to the purpose of the creation of POJ as being pedagogical in nature allied to educating Christian converts.
The first people to use a romanized script to write Southern Min were Spanish missionaries in Manila in the 16th century. However, it was used as a teaching aid for Spanish learners of Southern Min, seems not to have had any influence on the development of pe̍h-ōe-jī. In the early 19th century, China was closed to Christian missionaries, who instead proselytized to overseas Chinese communities in South East Asia; the earliest origins of the system are found in a small vocabulary first printed in 1820 by Walter Henry Medhurst, who went on to publish the Dictionary of the Hok-këèn Dialect of the Chinese Language, According to the Reading and Colloquial Idioms in 1832. This dictionary represents the first major reference work in POJ, although the romanization within was quite different from the modern system, has been dubbed Early Church Romanization by one scholar of the subject. Medhurst, stationed in Malacca, was influenced by Robert Morrison's romanization of Mandarin Chinese, but had to innovate in several areas to reflect major differences between Mandarin and Southern Min.
Several important developments occurred in Medhurst's work the application of consistent tone markings. Medhurst was convinced that accurate representation and reproduction of the tonal structure of Southern Min was vital to comprehension: Respecting these tones of the Chinese language, some difference of opinion has been obtained, while some have considered them of first importance, others have paid them little or no intention; the author inclines decidedly to the former opinion. The system expounded by Medhurst influenced dictionary compilers with regard to tonal notation and initials, but both his complicated vowel system and his emphasis on the literary register of Southern Min were dropped by writers. Following on from Medhurst's work, Samuel Wells Williams became the chief proponent of major changes in the orthography devised by Morrison and ada
Taiwanese Hokkien known as Taiwanese, is a variety of Hokkien Chinese spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan. It is spoken by the Taiwanese Hoklo people, who descended from immigrants from southern Fujian during the Qing dynasty; the Pe̍h-ōe-jī romanization is a popular orthography for this variant of Hokkien. Taiwanese Hokkien is similar to the speeches of Amoy and Zhangzhou, as well as their dialectal forms used in Southeast Asia and are mutually intelligible; the mass popularity of Hokkien entertainment media from Taiwan has given prominence to the Taiwanese variety of Hokkien since the 1980s. Taiwanese Hokkien is a branched-off variety of a group of Southern Min dialects. Like many Min varieties, it has distinct literary and colloquial layers of vocabulary associated with formal and informal registers respectively; the literary layer can be traced to the late Tang dynasty, can thus be related to Middle Chinese. In contrast, the colloquial layers of Min varieties are believed to have branched from the mainstream of Chinese around the time of the Han dynasty.
Regional variations within Taiwanese may be traced back to Hokkien variants spoken in Southern Fujian those from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou later Amoy. Taiwanese Hokkien contains loanwords from Japanese and the native Formosan languages. Recent work by scholars such as Ekki Lu, Sakai Toru, Lí Khîn-hoāⁿ, based on former research by scholars such as Ông Io̍k-tek, has gone so far as to associate part of the basic vocabulary of the colloquial Taiwanese with the Austronesian and Tai language families; the literary form of Hokkien was brought to Taiwan by early emigrants. Tale of the Lychee Mirror, a manuscript for a series of plays published during the Ming dynasty in 1566, is one of the earliest known works; this form of the language is now extinct. However, literary readings of the numbers are used in certain contexts such as reciting telephone numbers. During Yuan dynasty, Fujian province became a major international port for trade with the outside world. From that period onwards, due to political and economic reasons, many people from Hokkien-speaking regions started to emigrate overseas.
This included the undeveloped island of Formosa, starting around 1600. They brought with them Hokkien. During the late Ming dynasty, due to political chaos, there was increased migration from southern Fujian and eastern Guangdong to Taiwan; the earliest immigrants who were involved in the development of Taiwan included pirate-merchants Chinese Peter and Zheng Zhilong. In 1621, Chinese Peter and his forces, hailing from Zhangzhou, occupied Ponkan and started to develop Tirosen. After the death of Peter and another pirate, Li Dan of Quanzhou, Zheng sought to dominate the Strait of Taiwan. By 1628, he had grown so powerful that the Ming court bestowed him the official title, "Patrolling Admiral". In 1624, the number of Chinese in the island was about 25,000. During the reign of Chongzhen Emperor, there were frequent droughts in the Fujian region. Zheng and a Chinese official suggested to send victims to Taiwan and provide "for each person three taels of silver and for each three people one ox". Although this plan was never carried out, the Zheng family maintained an interest in Taiwan that would have dire consequences for the Dutch, who ruled Taiwan as Dutch Formosa at the time.
In 1624 and 1626, the Dutch and Spanish forces occupied the Keelung areas, respectively. During the 40 years of Dutch colonial rule of Taiwan, many Han Chinese from the Quanzhou and Hakka regions of mainland China were recruited to help develop Taiwan; because of intermingling with Siraya people as well as Dutch colonial rule, the Hokkien dialects started to deviate from the original Hokkien spoken in mainland China. In the 1661 Siege of Fort Zeelandia, Chinese general Koxinga expelled the Dutch and established the Kingdom of Tungning. Koxinga originated from the Quanzhou region. Chen Yonghua, in charge of establishing the education system of Tungning originated from Quanzhou; because most of the soldiers he brought to Taiwan came from Quanzhou, the prestige variant of Hokkien on the island at the time was the Quanzhou dialect. In 1683, Chinese admiral Shi Lang attacked Taiwan in the Battle of Penghu, ending the Tungning era and beginning Qing dynasty rule. In the following years, in order to prevent people from rebelling, the Qing court instituted a ban on migration to Taiwan the migration of Hakka people from Guangdong province, which led Hokkien to become a prestige language in Taiwan.
In the first decades of the 18th century, the linguistic differences between the Qing imperial bureaucrats and the commoners was recorded by the Mandarin-speaking first Imperial High Commissioner to Taiwan, Huang Shujing: The tone of Huang's message foretold the uneasy relationships between different language communities and colonial establishments over the next few centuries. The ban on migration to Taiwan was relaxed sometime after 1722. During the 200 years of Qing dynasty rule, thousands of immigrants from Fujian arrived yearly. Civil unrest and armed conflicts were frequent. In addition to resistance against governments (both Chinese and J
Taiwan the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the northeast, the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy, not a member of the United Nations; the island of Taiwan was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the 17th century, when Dutch colonialists opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, ceded to Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan; the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communists and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands.
In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of industrialisation. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system; as a founding member, the ROC represented China in the UN until it was replaced by the PRC in 1971. The PRC has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the ROC; as of 2019, Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. Most international organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Most major powers maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. In Taiwan, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting a Taiwanese identity, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.
Taiwan is a high-income advanced economy, with a skilled and educated workforce. It has the 22nd-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy, it is urbanised, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with most of the population concentrated on the western coast. The state is ranked in terms of civil and political liberties, health care and human development. Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period; the name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa. The name Formosa "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century. In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Teijoan, etc.
This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar and nearby area. The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, seen in various forms in Chinese historical records; the area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name became official as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland became known as "Taiwan". In his Daoyi Zhilüe, Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; the name appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or Luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China".
Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was referred to as "Nationalist China" to differentiate it from "Communist China", it was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts ROC government publications, the name is written as "
Lukang known as Lugang and by other names, is an urban township in northwestern Changhua County, Taiwan. The township is on the west coast of Taiwan. Lukang was an important sea port in 19th century, it was the most populous city in central Taiwan until the early 20th century. In March 2012, it was named one of the Top 10 Small Tourist Towns by the Tourism Bureau of Taiwan; the township's name, which means "Deer Port", came from its deerskin trade during the Dutch period. Its old Taiwanese name was Lok-a-kang and its shortened version is seen in English texts and maps as variants such as Lok-kang, Lokang and Lo-kiang. In 2011, the Ministry of Interior decided to keep the historical Wade-Giles spelling "Lukang" and abandon the change to the Pinyin spelling "Lugang", taking place since Taiwan switched to Pinyin in 2009. During the Qing Dynasty, the depth of Lukang's harbor and its proximity to Fujian province on mainland China made Lukang an important trading port. During Lukang's heyday from 1785 to 1845, Lukang's population reached 20,000.
Lukang was Taiwan's second largest city after Tainan and was larger than Bangka the island's third-largest city. The subsequent silting of the harbor and the city's refusal to allow railroads to pass through the city led to losses in trade in commerce, which, in turn led to Lukang's decline relative to other cities, which were experiencing considerable urbanization and population growth; this same decline, averted the modernization processes that demolished historical buildings in Tainan and Taipei, leaving Lukang preserved as it was in the past. During the period of Japanese rule, the city was Taiwan's fifth most populous city, with a population of 19,805 according to the December 1904 census; the Hoklo people in the area were predominantly of Xiamen and Quanzhou origin, thereby speaking the Quanzhou dialect of Hokkien. Nanguan music is popular in Lukang and originates from Quanzhou. In 1920, Lukang was governed as Rokkō Town under Shōka District of Taichū Prefecture. There are many old temples such as Longshan Temple and Matzu Temple.
The city boasts over 200 temples dedicated to a wide variety of folk deities. The town is the origin of the terms "ē-káng" and "téng-káng" used to refer to southern Taiwan and northern Taiwan; the Yu Jen Jai cakes are famous local specialties, as well as Lukang's Ox Tongue Cakes and oyster pancakes. It will host the 2012 Taiwan Lantern Festival. Lukang encompasses 39.46 square kilometers with a population of 86,779, including 44,115 males and 42,664 females as of January 2017. The township comprises 29 villages, which are Dayou, Luojin, Pulun, Yushun, Guocuo, Jingfu, Zhangxing, Longshan, Jiewei, Haipu, Caozhong, Shanlun, Toulun, Liaocuo and Dingcuo. Hsingneng Power Plant Hsingyuan Power Plant BRAND'S Health Museum Chang Bin Show-Chwan Health Mall Eight Wonders Lukang Ai Gate Lukang Artist Village Lukang Culture Center Lukang Folk Arts Museum Lukang Kinmen Hall Lukang Longshan Temple Lukang Rimao Hang Lugang Mazu Temple Lukang Wen Wu Temple No Heaven Street Taiwan Glass Gallery & Glass Temple Koo Hsien-jung, former businessperson Koo Kwang-ming, politician Li Ang, writer Shi Shuqing, writer Lukang Township Office
Nantou County is the second largest county of Taiwan. It is the only landlocked county in Taiwan, its name derives from the Hoanya Taiwanese aboriginal word Ramtau. Nantou County is administered as a county of Taiwan, its mountainous area makes it a tourist destination. Other well-known areas of the county are Sitou. Notable cities in Nantou are Puli Town; the official butterfly of Nantou County is the broad-tailed swallowtail butterfly. Nantou's tung-ting tea is one of high-quality oolong teas grown in Taiwan. Before the arrival of Han Chinese to Nantou, the Atayal and Tsou tribes were distributed throughout the northern and central Nantou; these groups pioneered the early development of mountain regions in Nantou. In 1677, Lin Yi, a general under the command of Koxinga, led soldiers to establish residence in Shalianbao; the Han Chinese began to enter Nantou via the Zhuoshui River and Maoluo River. In 1901, during Japanese rule, Nanto Chō was one of twenty local administrative offices established.
In 1909, part of Toroku Chō was merged into Nanto Cho. A major reorganization occurred in 1920, in which the area was administered under Taichū Prefecture together with modern-day Changhua County and Taichung City. After the handover of Taiwan from Japan to the Republic of China on 25 October 1945, the present day area of Nantou County was administered under Taichung County of Taiwan Province. On 16 August 1950, Nantou County was established by its separation from Taichung County, Nantou Township was designed as the county seat. On 1 July 1957, the Zhongxing New Village in Nantou Township was designed to be the capital of Taiwan Province from the former Taipei City. In 1981, the county seat was upgraded from Nantou Township to Nantou City. Nantou County has an area of 4,106.436 km2 with length of 95 km. It is the second largest county in Taiwan after Hualien County. There are 41 mountains with peaks over 3,000 meters high, with Mount Yu in Xinyi Township is the highest peak in Nantou County and in Taiwan with a height of 3,952 meters.
Around 83 % of Nantou County area is covered by mountains. Rain that falls into the mountains area converge into the Dadu Zhuoshui River. There are inland ponds and lakes throughout the mountains in the county, such as the Sun Moon Lake, Bi Pond, Liyu Pond and Cilin Pond; the annual average temperature in Nantou County is 20 °C on mountains. The annual average rainfall is 2,800 mm on mountains; the rainy season lasts from April to September and the dry season lasts from October to March. Nantou County consists of 1 city, 4 urban townships, 6 rural townships, 2 mountain indigenous townships, 128 villages and 133 neighborhoods. Nantou City is the seat of the county which houses the Nantou County Government and Nantou County Council; the incumbent Magistrate of Nantou County is Lin Ming-chen of the Kuomintang. Colors indicate statutory language status of Hakka and Formosan languages in the respective subdivisions. Nantou County voted two Kuomintang legislators out of two seats to be in the Legislative Yuan during the 2016 Republic of China legislative election.
Nantou County has a population of 517,037 people as of January 2014. The official language of the county is Mandarin. Taiwanese, Hakka and aboriginal languages are spoken. There are 2 colleges, 13 senior high and vocational schools, 30 junior high schools, 149 elementary schools, 106 kindergartens and 84 day care centers in the county. Notable universities in the county are National Chi Nan University and Nan Kai University of Technology. Nantou County houses Taiwan's first pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant, the Takuan Pumped Storage Hydro Power Plant commissioned in 1985 with an installed capacity of 1,008 MW, it houses Taiwan's largest pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant, the Mingtan Pumped Storage Hydro Power Plant with an installed capacity of 1,602 MW. Both power plants are located in Shueili Township along the Shuili River. Chung Tai Chan Monastery Paper Dome Fonghuanggu Bird and Ecology Park Formosan Aboriginal Culture Village Jufang Hall Lalu Island Ming Shan Resort Nantou County Culture Park Qingjing Farm Shanlinxi Forest Recreation Area Sun Moon Lake Taroko National Park Wushe Incident Memorial Park Xitou Nature Education Area Yushan National Park Nantou County is served by the Jiji Line of Taiwan Railways which consists of Checheng, Longquan and Zhuoshui Station Administrative divisions of the Republic of China Nantou County Government