A seagull intersection or continuous green T-intersection is a type of three-way road intersection used on high traffic volume roads and dual carriageways. This form of intersection is popular in Australia and New Zealand, sometimes used in the United States and other countries. Seagull intersections get their name from the pattern that the two right-turn lanes make when looking down from the air. In a seagull intersection, one or more lanes of traffic on the arterial road, on the carriageway opposite the intersecting side road, are free flowing, that is, one direction of traffic on the arterial is allowed to travel straight through without stopping; the free-flowing lane are called "continuous green through lane". For the free-flowing through lanes, access into and out of the side road is provided via turn lanes separated from the through lanes in a configuration similar to exit and entrance ramps at an interchange; those wishing to turn right into the side road at the intersection, bear right into the turn lane, which forms one "wing" of the seagull.
Here, they meet the side road. Traffic wishing to turn right out of the side road, cross the intersecting carriageway, drive up the other "wing" of the seagull, merge onto the other carriageway. For the arterial carriageway adjacent to the side road, access into and out of the side road is ordinarily handled like a conventional T intersection. However, some seagull intersections may have a second, smaller "seagull" formed by two left turning lanes into and out of the side road. Different methods are used to control traffic where two right-turning movements and the through movement meet. Most intersections use traffic lights, while others use give way and stop signs, sometimes roundabouts; this design type has been proven to provide sustainable benefits when compared the traditional T-intersection design. By reducing delay through the intersection, automobiles use less fuel on average passing through the intersection, thus emissions are reduced across the intersection; the savings per vehicle may not seem significant, but when scaled to account for all automobiles passing through the intersection, the total emission savings are significant.
Additionally, there are economic and social benefits to reducing delay time and allowing drivers to pass through the intersection quicker. In the Netherlands, this type of intersection occurs by default when a T-junction has a bicycle path on the continuing road, is not intersected by a roadway for motorized vehicles; the bicycle path may ignore red lights. An experiment was done in Illinois, United States to allow going straight on red when approaching a T junction on the main road, with the intersecting road on the left, it was a failure. However, at some T junctions where the main road includes at least two lanes on the side away from the intersecting road, the farthest lane is given the right of way to proceed straight through the intersection at all times, denoted by a "green arrow" signal if a traffic light is installed at the intersection. In such cases that lane is specially delimited with pavement markings or other lane separation devices, to keep left-turning traffic on the intersecting road from colliding with traffic proceeding through the intersection on the main road.
The seagull intersection was developed as a safer variation of this. Cotter Road at Streeton Drive – Weston Creek 35.326214°S 149.053649°E / -35.326214.
The Southern Tablelands is a geographic area of New South Wales, located south-west of Sydney and west of the Great Dividing Range. The area is characterised by high, flat country, extensively cleared and used for grazing purposes; the area is accessible to the Australian federal capital city of Canberra in the Australian Capital Territory. The area is included with the Southern Highlands and parts of the South West Slopes in the district, known as Capital Country. In a wider sense the Southern Tablelands includes the Monaro, the Southern Highlands and Australia's capital Canberra. Regions of New South Wales
Carrick, New South Wales
Carrick is a locality in the Goulburn Mulwaree Council, New South Wales, Australia. It is located on the northern side of the Hume Highway to the east of Goulburn. At the 2016 census, it had a population of 136. Carrick railway station was a station on the Main Southern railway line from 1869 to 1975, it had a public school from 1873 to 1909, operating as a "half-time" school from 1887
Queanbeyan–Palerang Regional Council
Queanbeyan–Palerang Regional Council is a local government area located in the Southern Tablelands region of New South Wales, Australia. The council was formed on 12 May 2016 through a merger of the City of Queanbeyan and Palerang Council; the council has an area of 5,319 square kilometres and lies between the eastern boundary of the Australian Capital Territory and the Great Dividing Range. At the time of its establishment the council had an estimated population of 56,368. Following the election on 9 September 2017, Tim Overall was elected Mayor of Queanbeyan–Palerang Regional Council. Overall was the last Mayor of the Queanbeyan City Council, as an independent, prior to the merger with Palerang; the Queanbeyan urban area contains the following localities The balance of the Queanbeyan–Palerang Regional Council area contains the towns of: It contains the following localities: The population for the predecessor councils was estimated in 2015 as: 40,657 in City of Queanbeyan and 15,897 in Palerang Council Queanbeyan–Palerang Regional Council comprises eleven Councillors elected proportionally in a single ward.
All Councillors have been elected for a fixed four-year term of office with effect from 9 September 2017. Local government areas of New South Wales
The Goulburn Herald was an English language newspaper published in Goulburn, New South Wales. At various times the paper was known as The Goulburn Herald and County of Argyle Advertiser and The Goulburn Herald and Chronicle, it is one of the earlier newspapers in the colony commencing publication more than fifty years before the federation of Australia. The newspaper was first published on Saturday, 1 July 1848 by William Jones and it passed through a number of name changes in subsequent years until it was absorbed into a competitor, The Southern Morning Herald, absorbed into the Goulburn Evening Penny Post; the editor of the Maitland Mercury, another N. S. W. Newspaper, described the first issue of the Goulburn Herald as "one of the best first numbers we remember to have seen, inasmuch as it contains a good amount of local news, a couple of leaders on the topics of the day, a creditable selection of other matter”. In 1850, the Goulburn Herald was one of only four newspapers published in provincial New South Wales, the area known as the Middle District, N.
S. W. included Brisbane at that time. The various versions of the paper have been digitised as part of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program project hosted by the National Library of Australia. List of newspapers in Australia List of newspapers in New South Wales Holden, W Sprague 1961, Australia goes to press, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne. Mayer, Henry 1964, The press in Australia, Lansdowne Press, Melbourne. Walker, R B 1976, The newspaper press in New South Wales 1803-1920, Sydney University Press, Sydney; the Goulburn Herald and County of Argyle Advertiser at Trove Goulburn Herald at Trove The Goulburn Herald and Chronicle at Trove Goulburn Herald at Trove
Crookwell, New South Wales
Crookwell is a small town located in the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia, in the Upper Lachlan Shire. At the 2016 census, Crookwell had a population of 2,641; the town is at a high altitude of 887 metres and there are several snowfalls annually during the winter months. The nearest major centre is the city of Goulburn, about a half-hour drive to the south-east of the town. Crookwell is accessible to the state capital of Sydney and the federal capital of Canberra. Most employment is based on rural industries, the district is renowned for potato farming. Crookwell is home to what was NSW's first wind farm, which consists of 8 turbines, is located a few kilometres out of town on the road towards Goulburn. A railway once connected Goulburn and Crookwell, which opened in 1902, but passenger services to Crookwell station ceased in 1974, the last goods train ran in 1985; the line is technically not closed, but has been listed as out of use, in some locations is now impassable. Prior to white settlement the area was inhabited by the Gundungara people.
The first Europeans known to be in the area were the exploratory party of surveyor James Meehan which camped 1 km south of present-day Grabben Gullen. John Oxley passed to the north and east that same year. Crookwell was known as "Kiama"; the area around Crookwell was first settled in the 1820s, had received its current name by the 1860s. After this, selection of blocks occurred; the first allotments were sold at the end of the decade. By the mid-1870s the population had reached 1000 people. Crookwell has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Goulburn-Crookwell railway: Crookwell railway station In the 2016 Census, there were 2,641 people in Crookwell. 85.8% of people were born in Australia and 91.4% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were Catholic 34.9%, Anglican 30.1%, No Religion 14.3% and Uniting Church 7.8%. Crookwell is the seat of the Upper Lachlan Shire Council local government area of New South Wales, formed in 2004. Crookwell is 2.5 hours drive from Sydney via Goulburn, 1.5 hours from Canberra.
Other than the main road to Goulburn, minor roads link Crookwell with Bathurst, Grabben Gullen and Taralga. Crookwell railway station is the terminus of the now disused Crookwell railway line. Crookwell has a small unpaved airstrip 5 km south of the town. Radio stations with transmitters located in Crookwell include- Crookwell FM 88.0 FM Triple J 91.7 FM 2GN 106.1 FM ABC Local Radio 106.9 FM ABC Radio National 107.7 FM Depending on location some Goulburn, and/or Canberra based radio stations can be heard. Crookwell has a low powered transmitter broadcasting ABC Television. Residents wishing to receive a wider range of channels and in digital can attempt to receive signals from either Canberra, or Orange, although Crookwell is located in the fringe area of both transmitters. Another option is to use the VAST free-to-view satellite service, which offers a similar range of channels; the local newspaper, the Crookwell Gazette has been published since 1885. Crookwell railway line
Boorowa is a farming village in the Hilltops Region and is located in South West Slopes of New South Wales, Australia. At the 2011 census, Boorowa had a population of 1,211 people, it is located in 487 metres above sea-level. The town is in Hilltops Council local government area. Prior to European settlement the area was occupied by the Wiradjuri Nation with the Gandangara Aboriginal Australians, it is believed that the name'Burrowa', the original spelling, derives from the local Aboriginal language and refers to a native bird the plains turkey Australian bustard. The first European to travel through what is now Boorowa Shire was surveyor George Evans, in 1815. Unofficial occupation of the district began in 1821 with Irishmen Rodger Corcoran and Ned Ryan, both former convicts who had received their'ticket of leave' from the Governor; the first land grant in the general area was issued to Thomas Icely in 1829. A mill was operating on the future town site of Boorowa by 1837, along with an inn and several houses.
Governor Gipps proposed the creation of a village named'Burrowa' in 1842, to be located 9 km north-east of the present site at Kings Plains, surveyed in 1828. However, that spot proved unsuitable and the village was established on its present site in 1843; the early years in the district saw lawlessness and mayhem as a result of long running boundary disputes, theft of livestock and arson murders. Bushrangers roamed the surrounding unsettled wild mountainous land, making raids into the town and stations of the district. Squatters took up large tracts of land in the Boorowa area but the introduction of the Robertson Land Acts in 1861 resulted in a new land grab where large numbers of settlers, particularly'ticket of leave' men, applied for a'selection' of land with low cost land parcels available; the district was given over to farming, although it received a push along when gold was found at Carcoar, Browns Creek and Kings Plains. Gold mines were established although copper and iron were extracted.
Samuel Marsden's copper mine operated until 1900. The town's rugby league team competed for the Maher Cup during the 20th century. Boorowa residents and the local member of parliament lobbied the Government to direct the new southern main line progressing towards Goulburn to pass through the town but the towns of Yass and Murrumburrah won the debate; the next best option was a branch line to the town and this lobbying lasted 40 years before the line was constructed, opening for traffic on 10 October 1914. The arrival of the railway in 1874 spurred on development and Burrowa's name was changed to "Boorowa". Boorowa replaced Carcoar as the major service centre to local farmlands, it became a municipality in 1888. By the turn of the century a butter factory and freezing works were major employers in the town. Passenger trains ceased in 1980 and the Boorowa railway line from Galong to Boorowa closed in 1987; the main infrastructure achievements over the 180 years that connected Boorowa to the rest of the Colony included the first Post Office and mail service in 1835, the electric telegraph in 1866, voice telephone in 1906, electric street lighting in the 1920s by the towns own generator the town and consumers were connected to the Burrinjuck Hydro electricity system in 1938.
The town is located on a tributary of the Lachlan River. The Murrumbidgee River drains the southern portion of the Boorowa district; the soil in the area is rich volcanic soil washed down over millennia from an extinct volcano known as Mount Canemumbola. Eric Bryce – music teacher and composer Frederick Ashton – circus proprietor Marguerite Ludovia Dale – feminist and playwright Francis McGrath jockey and racehorse-trainer John Quinn – sheepdog expert and veterinary surgeon John Collings Willcock – engine driver and Premier of Western Australia Greg Carnell - sheep farmer, property owner, conqueror of the LLF Jelisa Apps - Channel 9, Sydney sports presenter Boorowa's agricultural show is held in March. October long weekend - The "Running of the Sheep" down the main street of Boorowa during the Irish Woolfest. Media related to Boorowa, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons Hilltops Council web site Visit Hilltops Region Tourist Information Boorowa Irish Woolfest