The Campine or De Kempen is a natural region situated chiefly in north-eastern Belgium and parts of the south-eastern Netherlands which once consisted of extensive moors, tracts of sandy heath, wetlands. It encompasses a large northern and eastern portion of Antwerp province and adjacent parts of Limburg in Belgium, as well as portions of the Dutch province of North Brabant and Dutch Limburg around Weert. Today the Campine is becoming a popular destination for tourists in search of a quiet and relaxing weekend. Old farms have been transformed into bed-and-breakfast hotels, the restaurant and café business is active, an extensive cycle touring network has come into existence over the past few years. Part of the Campine is protected as the Hoge Kempen Nationaal Park, it is located in the east of the Belgian province of Limburg, between Genk and the Meuse valley and was opened in March 2006. Covering 60 square kilometres, it forms part of the Natura 2000 network; the area is heathland and pine forest.
In May 2011 it was placed on UNESCO's Tentative List for consideration as a World Heritage Site. The name Campine / Kempen derives from the Latin Campinia or Campina, meaning "region of fields"; the inhabitants of the Campine region are known as Kempenaars. The region, described as a desolate flat land appears in the books of the prominent Flemish writer Hendrik Conscience, who spent much of his childhood there. Another author who has written many novels playing in the Campine was Georges Eekhoud. In 1837 Victor Hugo made a journey through Belgium and visited the Campine and the towns of Lier and Turnhout, wrote about his journey. During the interbellum Felix Timmermans, Stijn Streuvels, Jozef Simons and the poet Jozef De Voght wrote about the Belgian Campine; the painters Jakob Smits and Frans Van Giel painted many Campine landscapes. The region is rich in folk tales, such as the stories about the Buckriders and those concerning the gnome king Kyrië; the Museum Kempenland in Eindhoven has a considerable and important art collection of painters, sculptors and other craftsmen from this region.
Much of the architectural and historical and cultural heritage of the Campine can be visited in the open-air museum of Bokrijk. The old way of living and the Campine dialects have been the topic of scientific research. In the Roman era the name of the region was Taxandria; the Campine is an area in the Belgian provinces Antwerp and the extreme north of the province Flemish Brabant, in the south of the Dutch province Noord-Brabant. It stretches towards the west of Eindhoven. Farther east the Campine is in the Groote Peel, a region, geographically related to the Campine; the south border is formed by the river Demer, the east border by the valley of the river Meuse. The Campine plateau is part of the Campine region; the Campine Basin, which extends from Belgium into the Netherlands, is formed by the Devonian and Carboniferous sedimentary rocks on the northern flank of the Brabant Massif. In historical times, it is the reputed original territory of the Cempsii who along the Eburones and others Loire Celtic and Belgian tribes of the iron Age - according to the Classic Greeks writers reports- were leading a large train of mixed peoples behind them in their migrating into the Iberian peninsula at the end of the Hallstatt period, looking for more benign and akin lands propitiated after a combination of factors came about in those centuries: the increased aggressive pressure from the new La Tene Culture ethnic groups from further South the Rhine in their rise and expansion across much wider areas in Europe, as result of the climatic worsening too during those centuries which altered all the animal and plant life over Northern Europe for other folks, vital for their growing and harvest seasons, that will push many irremediably into migrations too across the Rhine into the area and beyond from the North and East.
The Portuguese city of Sesimbra and others in central Portugal still bear their names, legacy of their important presence once settled in the region. Since it was a region with a poor sandy soil, there are only a few old or large cities in the region. Most of those cities are located at the outer rim of the region, such as Hasselt, Aarschot, Breda, Eindhoven and Maastricht. Turnhout is an exception. West of Turnhout clay was used for the production of barge, one of the reasons why the Noord-Kempens Canal was dug to Antwerp; the more central Herentals was an historical industrial center, thanks to its textile industry of which the Lakenhal on the main market place is a remaining monument. The printing industry in Turnhout is important, with companies such as Brepols and more Cartamundi; the region was sparsely populated, therefore chosen by monks who were looking for silence, such as those of the abbeys of Achel, Zundert, Postel and Tongerlo. In the 19th and 20th centuries, industry established itself in the region, such as the metallurgy in Balen-Overpelt-Lommel.
In 1872 the Sablières et Carrières Réunies, now Sibelco, was founded to extract the silica sand layers in Mol for industrial applications. In 1891, the Koninklijke Philips Electronics N. V. was founded in Eindhoven. In the 20th century, the first nuclear installation in Belgium, the SCK•CEN, was built in Mol in 1962; the European
Tessenderlo is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg. It is where the three Belgian provinces of Limburg, Flemish Brabant and Antwerp meet at the front gate of the Averbode Abbey; the municipality Tessenderlo encompasses the villages of Tessenderlo proper, Engsbergen and Berg. On January 1, 2006, Tessenderlo had a total population of 16,811; the total area is 51.35 km² which gives a population density of 327 inhabitants per km². The name Tessenderlo means " the forest of the Taxandrians" It is along the Albert Canal and the European route E313, the highway between Antwerp and Liège, one of the reasons it was the place for the first Belgian "Industrial Zone of National Importance" in the 1960s. Tessenderlo was the scene of an infamous industrial disaster during World War II, when a stock of 150 tonnes of ammonium nitrate at the chemical plant of Produits Chimiques de Tessenderloo - located near the centre of town - exploded on April 29, 1942, killing 189 people at the plant and in the town.
Tessenderlo is part of a small western zone of Limburg where the local dialect is not the Limburgian dialect, but Brabantic. Kate Ryan, Belgian singer Chantal Calin, Belgian singer Tia Hellebaut, Olympic Champion 2008 Highjump Media related to Tessenderlo at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Limburg is a province in Belgium. It is the easternmost of the five Dutch-speaking provinces that together form the Region of Flanders, one of the three main political and cultural sub-divisions of modern Belgium. Limburg is located west of the river Meuse, upon which it borders the named Dutch province Limburg, it borders on the Wallonian province of Liège to the south, with which it has historical ties. To the north and west are the old territories of the Duchy of Brabant: the Flemish provinces of Flemish Brabant and Antwerp to the west, the Dutch province of North Brabant to the north; the province of Limburg has an area of 2,414 km2 which comprises three arrondissements containing 44 municipalities. Among these municipalities are the current capital Hasselt, the early medieval capital Borgloon, Genk and Tongeren, the only Roman city in the province and regarded as the oldest city of Belgium; the municipality of Voeren is geographically detached from Limburg and the rest of Flanders, with the Netherlands to the north and the Walloon province of Liège to the south.
This municipality was established by the municipal reform of 1977 and on 1 January 2008 with its six villages had a total population of 4,207. Its total area is 50.63 km2. Belgian Limburg was not called "Limburg" until the 19th century, when this province, like the rest of Belgium, was part of the Netherlands for some decades, after the fall of Napoleon. Like the name Belgium itself, the name Limburg was chosen from the region's history. In fact, the historical name for the territory of Belgian Limburg was County of Loon; the medieval Duchy of Limburg, although it was nearby, did not contain any part of today's province. The first wave of people with farming and pottery technology in northern Europe was the LBK culture which originated in central Europe and reached a geographical limit in the fertile southern Haspengouw part of Limburg about 5000 BC, only to die out about 4000 BC. A wave from central Europe, the Michelsburg culture arrived about 3500 BC and shared a similar fate. Pottery technology had however been taken up by local tribes of the Swifterbant culture, who remained present throughout.
The area became permanently agricultural only with the Urnfield culture, followed by the related Halstatt and La Tène material cultures, which are associated with Celts. Under these cultures the population increased in the region, it is during this period that Indo European languages are thought to have arrived. Caesar gave the first surviving written description of the area and described its people as the Germani cisrhenani, who were a part of the Belgae. Amongst these Germani, Belgian Limburg contained at least part of the country of the Eburones who fought against Julius Caesar under their leaders Ambiorix and Cativolcus. Apart from the Germani, somewhere in the west of the region were the Aduatuci, who were the descendants of the Cimbri and Teutones who had settled from the direction of Denmark some generations before Caesar. Under the Romans, the area was home to the Tungri. Tacitus equated these Tungri to the earliest tribes of "Germani" to have settled in Gaul, implying that they were still descended from the Germani cisrhenani, states that the use of the name "Germani" had been expanded in Roman times to cover a larger grouping of similar tribes those in Germany east of the Rhine.
The Tungri are accepted as being speakers of a Germanic language, but modern authors disagree over the extent to which they descend from new immigrants who came from over the Rhine after Caesar. Notably, the Tungri participated on the Roman side in the Revolt of the Batavi against Roman rule. In the north of Limburg during Roman times lived the Toxandri; the site of the fort in which the Romans encamped was called Aduatuca. This was a general word for a fort, associated not only with the Eburones, but the Aduatuci, the Tungri; the Roman city established in Belgian Limburg was referred to as Aduatuca Tungrorum meaning "Aduatuca of the Tungri". Today this has become "Tongeren", in the southeast of Belgian Limburg, it was the capital of a Roman administrative region called the "Civitas Tungrorum". Under the Romans, the Tungri civitas was first a part of Gallia Belgica, split out with the more militarized border regions between it and the Rhine, to become Germania Inferior, converted into Germania Secunda.
In late Roman and early medieval times, the northern or "Kempen" part of Belgian Limburg became empty because of Germanic plundering. This area, still known by its Roman name as Toxandria, was settled by incoming Salian Franks from the north, who were under pressure from Saxons; the southern or "Haspengouw" part of Belgian Limburg remained more Romanised, but became a core land of the Frankish empires. By the 9th century, the Frankish Carolingian dynasty, based in and around Belgian Limburg, had turned Gaul into "Francia" and ruled an empire that included much of Western Europe. Early Christianity was established earliest in the romanised southeastern corner of Limburg, around Tongeren, missionaries went north from there to convert the Franks; the church capital moved to nearby Maastricht and Liège, this was the area of activity of St Servatius and Lambert of Maastricht. The archbishops, became responsible for a lar
Cologne is the largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, its 1 million+ inhabitants make it the fourth most populous city in Germany after Berlin and Munich. The largest city on the Rhine, it is the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas, of the Rhineland. Centred on the left bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about 45 kilometres southeast of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Düsseldorf and 25 kilometres northwest of Bonn, it is the largest city in the Central Ripuarian dialect areas. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Cologne, one of Europe's oldest and largest universities, the Technical University of Cologne, Germany's largest university of applied sciences, the German Sport University Cologne, Germany's only sport university.
Cologne Bonn Airport lies in the southeast of the city. The main airport for the Rhine-Ruhr region is Düsseldorf Airport. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the 1st century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the first word of, the origin of its name. An alternative Latin name of the settlement is Augusta Ubiorum, after the Ubii. "Cologne", the French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the Middle Ages it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the leading members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval and Renaissance times. Prior to World War II the city had undergone several occupations by the French and by the British. Cologne was one of the most bombed cities in Germany during World War II, with the Royal Air Force dropping 34,711 long tons of bombs on the city.
The bombing reduced the population by 95% due to evacuation, destroyed the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has resulted in a mixed and unique cityscape. Cologne is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture; the Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne and the Photokina. The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Cisrhenian Germanic tribe. In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium on the river Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD. Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne near the wharf area, where a 1,900-year-old Roman boat was discovered in late 2007. From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus and Victorinus.
In 310 under emperor Constantine I a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map. Maternus, elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne; the city was the capital of a Roman province until it was occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462. Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890. Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire. In 716, Charles Martel commanded an army for the first time and suffered the only defeat of his life when Chilperic II, King of Neustria, invaded Austrasia and the city fell to him in the Battle of Cologne. Charles fled to the Eifel mountains, rallied supporters, took the city back that same year after defeating Chilperic in the Battle of Amblève. Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period.
In 843, Cologne became a city within the Treaty of Verdun-created East Francia. In 953, the archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I, King of Germany. In order to weaken the secular nobility, who threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors on the bishop's see with the prerogatives of secular princes, thus establishing the Electorate of Cologne, formed by the temporal possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of territory along the left Bank of the Rhine east of Jülich, as well as the Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg and Mark. By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well, technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803. Following the Battle of Worringen in 1288, Cologne gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City.
Archbishop Sigfried II von Westerburg was forced to reside in Bonn. The archbishop preserv
Julian known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek. A member of the Constantinian dynasty, Julian was orphaned as a child, he was raised by the Gothic slave Mardonius, who had a profound influence on him, providing Julian with an excellent education. Julian became Caesar over the western provinces by order of Constantius II in 355, in this role he campaigned against the Alamanni and Franks. Most notable was his crushing victory over the Alamanni at the Battle of Argentoratum in 357, leading his 13,000 men against a Germanic army three times larger. In 360, Julian was proclaimed Augustus by his soldiers at Lutetia, sparking a civil war with Constantius. However, Constantius died before the two could face each other in battle, named Julian as his successor. In 363, Julian embarked on an ambitious campaign against the Sassanid Empire; the campaign was successful, securing a victory outside Ctesiphon. However, while campaigning into Persian territory, the Persians flooded the area behind him and Julian took a risky decision to withdraw up the valley of the Tigris River.
During the Battle of Samarra, Julian was mortally wounded under mysterious circumstances, leaving his army trapped in Persian territory. Following his death, the Roman forces were obliged to cede territory in order to escape, including the fortress city of Nisibis. Julian was a man of unusually complex character: he was "the military commander, the theosophist, the social reformer, the man of letters", he was the last non-Christian ruler of the Roman Empire, he believed that it was necessary to restore the Empire's ancient Roman values and traditions in order to save it from dissolution. He purged the top-heavy state bureaucracy, attempted to revive traditional Roman religious practices at the expense of Christianity, his attempt to build a Third Temple in Jerusalem was intended to harm Christianity rather than please Jews. Julian forbade the Christians from teaching and learning classical texts, his rejection of Christianity, his promotion of Neoplatonic Hellenism in its place, caused him to be remembered as Julian the Apostate by the church.
Flavius Claudius Julianus was born at Constantinople in May or June 332, the son of Julius Constantius, consul in 335, half-brother of the emperor Constantine, by his second wife, Basilina, a woman of Greek origin. Both of his parents were Christians. Julian's paternal grandparents were the emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife, Flavia Maximiana Theodora, his maternal grandfather was Julius Julianus, Praetorian Prefect of the East under the emperor Licinius from 315 to 324, consul suffectus in 325. The name of Julian's maternal grandmother is unknown. In the turmoil after the death of Constantine in 337, in order to establish himself and his brothers, Julian's zealous Arian cousin Constantius II appears to have led a massacre of most of Julian's close relatives. Constantius II ordered the murders of many descendants from the second marriage of Constantius Chlorus and Theodora, leaving only Constantius and his brothers Constantine II and Constans I, their cousins and Gallus, as the surviving males related to Emperor Constantine.
Constantius II, Constans I, Constantine II were proclaimed joint emperors, each ruling a portion of Roman territory. Julian and Gallus were excluded from public life, were guarded in their youth, given a Christian education, they were saved by their youth and at the urging of the Empress Eusebia. If Julian's writings are to be believed, Constantius would be tormented with guilt at the massacre of 337. Growing up in Bithynia, raised by his maternal grandmother, at the age of seven Julian was under the guardianship of Eusebius of Nicomedia, the semi-Arian Christian Bishop of Nicomedia, taught by Mardonius, a Gothic eunuch, about whom he wrote warmly. After Eusebius died in 342, both Julian and Gallus were exiled to the imperial estate of Macellum in Cappadocia. Here Julian met the Christian bishop George of Cappadocia, who lent him books from the classical tradition. At the age of 18, the exile was lifted and he dwelt in Constantinople and Nicomedia, he became a lector, a minor office in the Christian church, his writings show a detailed knowledge of the Bible acquired in his early life.
Julian's conversion from Christianity to paganism happened at around the age of 20. Looking back on his life in 362, Julian wrote that he had spent twenty years in the way of Christianity and twelve in the true way, i.e. the way of Helios. Julian began his study of Neoplatonism in Asia Minor in 351, at first under Aedesius, the philosopher, his Aedesius' student Eusebius of Myndus, it was from Eusebius that Julian learned of the teachings of Maximus of Ephesus, whom Eusebius criticized for his more mystical form of Neoplatonic theurgy. Eusebius related his meeting with Maximus, in which the theurgist invited him into the temple of Hecate and, chanting a hymn, caused a statue of the goddess to smile and laugh, her torches to ignite. Eusebius told Julian that he "must not marvel at any of these things as I marvel not, but rather believe that the thing of the highest importance is that purification of the soul, attained by reason." In spite of Eusebius' warnings regarding the "impostures of witchcraft and magic that cheat the senses" and "the works of conjurers who are insane men led astray into the exercise of earthly and material powers", Julian was intrigued, sought out Maximus as his new mentor.
According to the historian Eunapiu
Batavi (Germanic tribe)
The Batavi were an ancient Germanic tribe that lived around the modern Dutch Rhine delta in the area that the Romans called Batavia, from the second half of the first century BC to the third century AD. The name is applied to several military units employed by the Romans that were raised among the Batavi; the tribal name a derivation from batawjō, refers to the region's fertility, today known as the fruitbasket of the Netherlands. Finds of wooden tablets show; the Batavi themselves are not mentioned by Julius Caesar in his commentary Commentarii de Bello Gallico, although he is thought to have founded his dynasty's Germanic bodyguard, at least in generations dominated by Batavi. But he did mention the "Batavian island" in the Rhine river; the island's easternmost point is at a split in the Rhine, one arm being the Waal the other the Lower Rhine/Old Rhine. Much Tacitus wrote that they had been a tribe of the Chatti, a tribe in Germany never mentioned by Caesar, who were forced by internal dissension to move to their new home.
The time when this happened is unknown, but Caesar does describe forced movements of tribes from the east in his time, such as the Usipetes and Tencteri. Tacitus reports that before their arrival the area had been "an uninhabited district on the extremity of the coast of Gaul, of a neighbouring island, surrounded by the ocean in front, by the river Rhine in the rear and on either side"; this view, however, is contradicted by the archeological evidence, which shows continuous habitation from at least the third century BC onward. The strategic position, to wit the high bank of the Waal offering an unimpeded view far into Germania Transrhenana, was recognized first by Drusus, who built a massive fortress and a headquarters in imperial style; the latter was in use until the Batavian revolt. Archeological evidence suggests they lived in small villages, composed of six to 12 houses in the fertile lands between the rivers, lived by agriculture and cattle-raising. Finds of horse skeletons in graves suggest a strong equestrian preoccupation.
On the south bank of the Waal a Roman administrative center was built, called Oppidum Batavorum. An Oppidum was a fortified warehouse, where a tribe's treasures were guarded; this centre was razed during the Batavian Revolt. The first Batavi commander we know of is named Chariovalda, who led a charge across the Vīsurgis river against the Cherusci led by Arminius during the campaigns of Germanicus in Germania Transrhenana. Tacitus described the Batavi as the bravest of the tribes of the area, hardened in the Germanic wars, with cohorts under their own commanders transferred to Britannia, they retained the honour of the ancient association with the Romans, not required to pay tribute or taxes and used by the Romans only for war: "They furnished to the Empire nothing but men and arms", Tacitus remarked. Well regarded for their skills in horsemanship and swimming—for men and horses could cross the Rhine without losing formation, according to Tacitus. Dio Cassius describes this surprise tactic employed by Aulus Plautius against the "barbarians"—the British Celts— at the battle of the River Medway, 43: The barbarians thought that Romans would not be able to cross it without a bridge, bivouacked in rather careless fashion on the opposite bank.
Thence the Britons retired to the river Thames at a point near where it empties into the ocean and at flood-tide forms a lake. This they crossed because they knew where the firm ground and the easy passages in this region were to be found. However, the Germans swam across again and some others got over by a bridge a little way up-stream, after which they assailed the barbarians from several sides at once and cut down many of them, it is uncertain. The late 4th century writer on Roman military affairs Vegetius mentions soldiers using reed rafts, drawn by leather leads, to transport equipment across rivers, but the sources suggest the Batavi were able to swim across rivers wearing full armour and weapons. This would only have been possible by the use of some kind of buoyancy device: Ammianus Marcellinus mentions that the Cornuti regiment swam across a river floating on their shields "as on a canoe". Since the shields were wooden, they may have provided sufficient buoyancy The Batavi were used to form the bulk of the Emperor's personal Germanic bodyguard from Augustus to Galba.
They provided a contingent for their indirect successors, the Emperor's horse guards, the Equites singulares Augusti. A Batavian contingent was used in an amphibious assault on Ynys Mon, taking the assembled Druids by surprise, as they were only expecting Roman ships. Numerous altars and tombstones of the cohorts of Batavi, dating to the 2nd century and 3rd century, have been found along Hadrian's Wall, notably at Castlecary and Carrawburgh, Yugoslavia, Hungary and Austria. Despite the alliance, one of the high-ranking Batavi, Julius Paullus, to give him his Roman name, was executed by Fonteius Capito on a false charge of rebellion, his kinsman Gaius Julius Civilis was paraded in chain
The Eburones, were a Gallic-Germanic tribe who lived in the northeast of Gaul, in what is now the southern Netherlands, eastern Belgium, the German Rhineland, in the period before this region was conquered by Rome. Though living in Gaul, they were described as being both Belgae, Germani; the Eburones played a major role in Julius Caesar's account of his "Gallic Wars", as the most important tribe within the Germani cisrhenani group of tribes, i. e. Germani living west of the Rhine amongst the Belgae. Caesar claimed that the name of the Eburones was wiped out after their failed revolt against his forces during the Gallic Wars. Whether any significant part of the population lived on in the area as Tungri, the tribal name found here is uncertain but considered likely. Caesar is the primary source for the location of the Eburones; the exact borders are difficult to be certain about, but the region that they and their fellow Germani inhabited corresponds to some extent with the Roman district of Germania Inferior, enclosed by the northern bend of the river Rhine, including a stretch of the Meuse river stretching from the Ardennes until the river deltas of the Rhine and Meuse.
In the early medieval church this evolved into the original church province of Cologne, which included the Diocese of Liège that had evolved from the Civitas Tungrorum. This large area included large parts of what are now the southern Netherlands, eastern Belgium, the German Rhineland. At one point Caesar reported that the greatest part of the Eburones settled between the Mosa and the Rhine, and "on this basis German scholars place them in the northern Eifel". On the other hand, Caesar places Atuatuca, the fort of the Eburones, about the middle of the territory of the Eburones. More Caesar's description of a narrow defile to its west, suitable for ambush, is a type of landscape less common as one goes north in this region, towards the low-lying Campine. In the same passage, Caesar describes the Segni and Condrusi as being south of the Eburones, between them and the Treviri, who lived near the Moselle; this is difficult to reconcile with a territory near the Eifel because the Condrusi are the origin of the name of the Condroz region in the Ardennes, south of the Meuse, west of the Eifel.
"No cultural groupings can be isolated to suit the Eburones in the north Eifel" according to Edith Mary Wightman. In contrast, she writes that Belgian archaeologists identify them with the cultural group in northern Limburg and Kempen which showed such strong continuity in Urnfield times; this would account for the propinquity of Eburones and Menapii mentioned by Caesar. Furthermore, to the north and northwest, the Eburones bordered on the Menapii, who lived near the mouth of the Rhine river, though "protected by one continued extent of morasses and woods", had ties of hospitality with them, and at one point Caesar indicates that when the Eburones went into hiding, they not only dispersed into the Ardennes and morasses, but "those who were nearest the ocean concealed themselves in the islands which the tides form". This is seen to indicate that at least part of the Eburones lived west of the Maas, closer to the river deltas. Nico Roymans has argued, based on concentrations of coin finds, that there were Eburones as far north as the eastern part of the Dutch river-area, an area inhabited by Batavians, a Roman-era Germanic group who may have included remnants of the older Eburonic population.
When the Tencteri and Usipetes, who were Germanic tribes, crossed the Rhine from Germania in 55 BCE, Caesar reported that they first fell on the Menapii crossed the Maas towards a tribe called the Ambivariti and advanced into the territories of the Eburones and Condrusi, who were both "under the protection of" the Treveri to the south. Apart from being under the protection of the Treveri, the Eburones had close dealings with the Nervii, a large Belgic tribe to the west of them, who much had their Roman provincial capital in Bavay. Neighbouring both the Nervii and the Eburones between them, were the Aduatuci. Caesar reported that Ambiorix had been forced to pay tribute to them before the Romans came, that his own son and nephew had been kept by them as hostages in slavery and chains, it was with these two tribes, that the Eburones could form a military alliance against Caesar's forces. The location of the Aduatuci is not clear, but their name appears to be related to the names of both the capital of the Eburones "Aduatuca" and the capital of the Tungri "Aduatuca Tungrorum" which may have been the same place.
Caesar reports that during his conflict with them, the Eburones had some sort of alliance, organized via their allies the Treveri, with the Germanic tribes over the Rhine. Linguist Maurits Gysseling proposed that placenames such as Avendoren, Averdoingt and Avernas may be derived from the Eburones. Caesar's forces clashed with an alliance of Belgic tribes in 57 BCE in the Battle of the Sabis. Before that battle, information from th