Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. is a Japanese multinational engineering, electrical equipment and electronics company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. MHI is one of the core companies of the Mitsubishi Group. MHI's products include aerospace components, air conditioners, automotive components, forklift trucks, hydraulic equipment, machine tools, power generation equipment, printing machines and space launch vehicles. Through its defense-related activities it is the world's 23rd-largest defense contractor measured by 2011 defense revenues and the largest based in Japan. On November 28, 2018, the company was ordered by the South Korea Supreme Court to pay compensation for forced labor which the company oversaw during the Japanese occupation of Korea. In 1857, at the request of the Tokugawa Shogunate, a group of Dutch engineers began work on the Nagasaki Yotetsusho, a modern, Western-style foundry and shipyard near the Dutch settlement of Dejima, at Nagasaki; this was renamed Nagasaki Seitetsusho in 1860, construction was completed in 1861.
Following the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the shipyard was placed under control of the new Government of Meiji Japan. The first dry dock was completed in 1879. In 1884, Yataro Iwasaki, the founder of Mitsubishi, leased the Nagasaki Seitetsusho from the Japanese government, renamed it the Nagasaki Shipyard & Machinery Works and entered the shipbuilding business on a large scale. Iwasaki purchased the shipyards outright in 1887. In 1891, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries - Yokohama Machinery Works was started as Yokohama Dock Company, Ltd, its main business was ship repairs, to which it added ship servicing by 1897. The works was renamed Mitsubishi Shipyard of Mitsubishi Goshi Kaisha in 1893 and additional dry docks were completed in 1896 and 1905; the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries - Shimonoseki Shipyard & Machinery Works was established in 1914. It produced industrial merchant ships; the Nagasaki company was renamed Mitsubishi Shipbuilding & Engineering Company, Ltd. in 1917 and again renamed as Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in 1934.
It became the largest private firm in Japan, active in the manufacture of ships, heavy machinery and railway cars. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries merged with the Yokohama Dock Company in 1935. From its inception, the Mitsubishi Nagasaki shipyards were involved in contracts for the Imperial Japanese Navy; the largest battleship Musashi was completed at Nagasaki in 1942. The company housed the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, the Akunoura Engine Works, Mitsubishi Arms Plant, Mitsubishi Electric Shipyards, Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works, which employed 90% of the city's labor force, accounted for 90% of the city's industry; these connections made Nagasaki a legitimate target for strategic bombing during World War II by the Allied air forces, which dropped an atomic bomb on the city on August 9, 1945. This attack, followed by the atomic bombing of Hiroshima three days earlier, dealt a devastating blow to the Japanese leadership, contributing to the surrender of Japan six days later.
The Kobe Shipyard of Mitsubishi Goshi Kaisha was established in 1905. The Kobe Shipyard merged with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in 1934; the Kobe Shipyard constructed the ocean liner Argentina Maru, the submarines the I-19 and I-25. Following the dissolution of the zaibatsu after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II, Mitsubishi divided into three companies. Mitsubishi Nagasaki became Ltd.. The Nagasaki Shipyard was renamed Mitsubishi Shipbuilding & Engineering Co. Ltd. in 1952. The Mitsubishi Kobe Shipyard became Central Japan Heavy Industries, Ltd. in 1950. In 1964, the three independent companies from the 1950 break-up were merged again into one company under the name of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd; the Nagasaki works was renamed the Nagasaki Engine Works. The Kobe works was renamed the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries - Kobe Machinery Works. In 1970, MHI's automobile parts department became an independent company as Mitsubishi Motors. In 1974, its Tokyo headquarters was targeted in a bombing.
MHI participated in a ¥540 billion emergency rescue of Mitsubishi Motors in January 2005, in partnership with Mitsubishi Corporation and Mitsubishi Tokyo Financial Group. As part of the rescue, MHI acquired ¥50 billion of Mitsubishi Motors stock, increasing its ownership stake to 15 percent and making the automaker an affiliate again. In October 2009, MHI announced an order for up to 100 regional jets from the United States-based airline Trans States Holdings. MHI entered talks with Hitachi in August 2011 about a potential merger of the two companies, in what would have been the largest merger between two Japanese companies in history; the talks subsequently were suspended. In November 2012, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Hitachi agreed to merge their thermal power generation businesses into a joint venture to be owned 65% by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and 35% by Hitachi; the joint venture began operations in February 2014. In June 2014 Siemens and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries announced their formation of joint ventures to bid for Alstom's troubled energy and transportation businesses.
A rival bid by General Electric has been criticized by French government sources, who consider Alstom's operations as a "vital national interest" at a moment when the French unemployment level stands above 10% and some voters are turning towards the far-right. MHI has aerospace facilities in Nagoya, Komaki and Mississauga, Canada. In the 1950s the company began to re-enter the aeros
In a motor vehicle, the powertrain or powerplant comprises the main components that generate power and deliver it to the road surface, water, or air. This includes the engine, drive shafts and the final drive. More in hybrid powertrains the battery, the electric motor and the control algorithm are seen as elements of the powertrain. A motor vehicle's driveline or drivetrain consists of the parts of the powertrain excluding the engine, it is the portion of a vehicle, after the prime mover, that changes depending on whether a vehicle is front-wheel, rear-wheel, or four-wheel drive, or less-common six-wheel or eight-wheel drive. In a wider sense, the powertrain includes all of its components used to transform stored energy into kinetic energy for propulsion purposes; this includes non -- wheel-based vehicles. The most recent developments in powertrain are driven by the electrification of it in multiple components. Electrical energy needs to be provided this leads to larger batteries. Electrical engines can be found as part of other elements, e.g. the axle.
In hybrid powertrains the torque generated by the combustion engine and the electric motor have to be brought together and distributed to the wheels. The control of this process can be quite involved but the rewards are improved acceleration and much lower emissions. Powertrain development for diesel engines involves the following: exhaust gas recirculation, advanced combustion. Spark ignition engine development include: fuel injection, including the gasoline direct injection variant, as well as improving volumetric efficiency by using multi-valves per cylinder, variable valve timing, variable length intake manifolds, turbocharging. Changes include new fuel qualities to allow new combustion concepts. So-called "combined combustion systems" or "diesotto" cycles are based on synthetic fuels. BEVs, FCEVs and PHEV powertrains are expected to reach parity with ICE powertrains in 2025; the manufacturing of powertrain components and systems is important to industry, including the automotive and other vehicle sectors.
Competitiveness drives companies to engineer and produce powertrain systems that over time are more economical to manufacture, higher in product quality and reliability, higher in performance, more fuel efficient, less polluting, longer in life expectancy. In turn these requirements have led to designs involving higher internal pressures, greater instantaneous forces, increased complexity of design and mechanical operation; the resulting designs in turn impose more severe requirements on parts shape and dimension. Quality control over these parameters is achieved through metrology technology applied to all of the steps in powertrain manufacturing processes. In automotive manufacturing, the frame plus the "running gear" makes the chassis. A body, not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. Commercial vehicle manufacturers may have "chassis only" and "cowl and chassis" versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies; these include buses, motor homes, fire engines, etc.
The frame plus the body makes a glider. The final drive is the last in the set of components. In a road vehicle, it incorporates the differential. In a railway vehicle, it sometimes incorporates the reversing gear. Examples include the Self-Changing Gears RF 28 and RF 11 used in the British Rail Class 03 and British Rail Class 04 diesel shunting locomotives. Car safety Electric vehicle Electric vehicle conversion Giubo Gear train Hybrid vehicle drivetrain New powertrain technologies conference, 27 and 28- March-2007. Http://www.caradvice.com.au/105/car-frame-chassis/ Honda F1 Race Car Frame. Drivetrain Quiz HIL Test Bench Technical Paper: A Closed-Loop Drive-train Model
Suzuki Motor Corporation is a Japanese multinational corporation headquartered in Minami-ku, Hamamatsu. Suzuki manufactures automobiles, four-wheel drive vehicles, all-terrain vehicles, outboard marine engines, wheelchairs and a variety of other small internal combustion engines. In 2016, Suzuki was the eleventh biggest automaker by production worldwide. Suzuki has over 45,000 employees and has 35 production facilities in 23 countries, 133 distributors in 192 countries; the worldwide sales volume of automobiles is the world's tenth largest, while domestic sales volume is the third largest in the country. Suzuki’s domestic motorcycle sales volume is the third largest in Japan. In 1909, Michio Suzuki founded the Suzuki Loom Works in the small seacoast village of Hamamatsu, Japan. Business boomed. In 1929, Michio Suzuki invented a new type of weaving machine, exported overseas; the company's first 30 years focused on the production of these machines. Despite the success of his looms, Suzuki believed that his company would benefit from diversification and he began to look at other products.
Based on consumer demand, he decided that building a small car would be the most practical new venture. The project began in 1937, within two years Suzuki had completed several compact prototype cars; these first Suzuki motor vehicles were powered by a then-innovative, liquid-cooled, four-stroke, four-cylinder engine. It had a cast aluminum crankcase and gearbox and generated 13 horsepower from a displacement of less than 800cc. With the onset of World War II, production plans for Suzuki's new vehicles were halted when the government declared civilian passenger cars a "non-essential commodity." At the conclusion of the war, Suzuki went back to producing looms. Loom production was given a boost when the U. S. government approved the shipping of cotton to Japan. Suzuki's fortunes brightened, but the joy was short-lived as the cotton market collapsed in 1951. Faced with this colossal challenge, Suzuki returned to the production of motor vehicles. After the war, the Japanese had a great need for reliable personal transportation.
A number of firms began offering "clip-on" gas-powered engines that could be attached to the typical bicycle. Suzuki's first two-wheeled vehicle was a bicycle fitted with a motor called, the "Power Free." Designed to be inexpensive and simple to build and maintain, the 1952 Power Free had a 36 cc, one horsepower, two-stroke engine. The new double-sprocket gear system enabled the rider to either pedal with the engine assisting, pedal without engine assist, or disconnect the pedals and run on engine power alone; the patent office of the new democratic government granted Suzuki a financial subsidy to continue research in motorcycle engineering. By 1954, Suzuki was producing 6,000 motorcycles per month and had changed its name to Suzuki Motor Co. Ltd. Following the success of its first motorcycles, Suzuki created an more successful automobile: the 1955 Suzuki Suzulight; the Suzulight sold with front-wheel drive, four-wheel independent suspension and rack-and-pinion steering, which were not common on cars until three decades later.
Volkswagen held a 19.9% non-controlling shareholding in Suzuki between 2009 and 2015. An international arbitration court ordered Volkswagen to sell the stake back to Suzuki. Suzuki paid $3.8bn to complete the stock buy-back in September 2015. The company was founded by Michio Suzuki. Michio Suzuki was intent on making better, more user-friendly looms and, for 30 years his focus was on the development of these machines. Michio's desire to diversify into automotive products was interrupted by World War II. Before it began building four-stroke engines, Suzuki Motor Corp. was known for its two-stroke engines. After the war, Suzuki made a two-stroke motorized bicycle, but the company would be known for Hayabusa and GSX-R motorcycles, for the QuadRunner, for dominating racetracks around the world. After producing its first car in 1955 the company didn't have an automobile division until 1961. Today Suzuki is among the world's largest automakers, a major brand name in important markets, including Japan and India, but no longer sells cars in North America.
1909: Michio Suzuki founds Suzuki Loom Works founded in Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. 1920: incorporated, capitalized at ¥500,000 as Suzuki Loom Manufacturing Co. with Michio Suzuki as president. 1937: Suzuki begins a project to diversify into manufacturing small cars. Within two years several innovative prototypes are completed, but the government declares civilian passenger cars a "non-essential commodity" at the onset of World War II, thwarting production plans. 1940: Takatsuka Plant is built in Kami-mura, Hamana-gun, Japan. 1945: Plants close due to severe war damage. Company offices move to the Takatsuka Plant site. 1947: Head office moves to the present address. 1949: Company lists on the Tokyo and Nagoya Stock Exchanges. 1950: Company has financial crisis due to labor difficulties. 1952: "Power Free" motorized bicycle marketed. 1953: Introduction of Diamond Free 60cc, 2-cycle motorized bicycle, displacement subsequently increases to 70cc. 1954: Company name changed to Suzuki Motor Co. Ltd. 1955: Introduction of Colleda COX 125cc 4-stroke single-cylinder, Colleda ST 125cc, two-stroke single-cylinder motorcycles.
Suzulight front wheel dri
Subaru Legacy (third generation)
Subaru launched the third generation Japanese and world-market Legacy in June 1998, while the North American model was introduced in May 1999 for the 2000 model year. In all markets except for the United States, production lasted through 2002, with a limited production Blitzen model sold mid-cycle under the 2003 model year in Japan. Production in the United States lasted through 2004. At its introduction in 1999, it won the Automotive Researchers' and Journalists' Conference Car of the Year award in Japan. All models were equipped with standard. World-market and Japanese models ranged from a aspirated 2.0 liter flat-4 to the EZ30 in the 3.0R model. Though dimensions became mid-sized, it was still rated by the EPA as a compact car. Flat roof wagons are no longer manufactured worldwide, instead the raised roof is used for both the Legacy wagon and Legacy Outback. In 2001 the EZ30, a newly designed 3.0 L H6 was offered in the Outbacks. The Legacy is the only vehicle in this class; the Blitzen model was the result of a collaboration with design house Porsche Design, featured many unique parts and paint schemes, was the top level luxury sport package from Subaru, using items from their STi performance division.
The wheels, body kit, interior were all designed by this German group. It featured an implementation of Aisin Seiki's new sequential automatic gearbox, the first use of sequential-shifting on a production Subaru model; the model was refreshed in 2002 with an updated design. The model was refreshed again in 2003 with the interior designed by Andreas Zapatinas; the B4 model was introduced for the third generation, was a sedan-only model. The RSK featured the familiar DOHC, twin-turbo 2.0 litre engine rated 280 bhp. This results in a 0–60 mph time of 5.2 s for the Manual and 5.8 s for the automatic. This engine was popular with Japanese buyers due to reduced tax liability based on Japanese vehicle size legislation; the B4 moniker applied to aspirated models, such as the 2.0L TS-R. Australia models were detuned to run on lower octane fuel and were rated 258 PS for the manual and 239 PS for the automatic models; this results in a 0–60 mph time of 5.6 s for the Manual and 6.6 s for the automatic. A B4 TS-R model was equipped with a less powerful aspirated 2.0 L DOHC AVCS engine, but shared many of the body and suspension components of the more powerful RSK.
In 2001, a B4 RS25 model was introduced with a aspirated 2.5 L DOHC engine. In 2002, the B4 RS30 was introduced with a aspirated 3.0 L EZ30 DOHC flat-six engine. B4 Engine Structure The B4 is powered by a'phase 2' all-alloy DOHC, 16-valve, intercooled turbo 2-litre boxer four. According to official Subaru literature, there are several advantages to the boxer design. Due to the balance afforded by horizontally opposed cylinders, the crankshaft requires less weighting and there is no need to install balance shafts; this results in reduced noise and less power loss. Strength is an advantage of the boxer design – the crankshaft is sandwiched between the left and right hand crankcases and is supported by 5 main bearings; the low and wide engine structure lowers the vehicle's centre of gravity and improves mass distribution. Working from the crankcases out, the'phase 2' engine sees the crank thrust bearing relocated to the rear of the shaft – this reduces transfer of natural frequencies to the transmission, resulting in improved NVH.
Pistons are all-new in the B4. Despite being made from forged aluminium, the pistons are heavier and incorporate solid skirts, reduced piston pin offset, a molybdenum coating, reduced top-land to cylinder clearance and flat-top combustion surfaces. Improved off-boost torque comes from a raised static compression ratio – 9.0:1 compared to the Impreza WRX's 8.0:1. The two DOHC, 16-valve heads incorporate a fuel-efficient, low-emission design, with a'tumble swirl air' motion created by a specially shaped intake port and increased valve angle and lift; the belt-driven camshafts act directly on hollow valve stems. Intake valves are hollow and the exhaust valves are sodium-filled for more efficient heat transfer. Sequential Turbo Staging The B4 uses a sequentially staged primary and secondary turbocharger to deliver good throttle response and a wide torque spread; the primary turbo delivers boost in the low rpm and load ranges to deliver 278Nm at 2000 rpm, while the secondary turbo joins in above 4000–4500 rpm.
With both turbos boosting, a 320Nm torque peak arrives at 4800 rpm and maximum power is seen at 6000 rpm. Note that Japanese-market B4s – running on 100-octane fuel – are rated at 206 kW; the primary turbo delivers boost in the low rpm and load range, while the secondary turbo comes in to aid mid-to-high range breathing. During the primary turbo stage, boost pressure is controlled by a conventional arrangement of an ECU-controlled duty-cycle solenoid and an internal wastegate; the secondary turbo remains inoperative during this stage, as a separate exhaust control valve remains closed. This valve prevents. During the 4000–4500 rpm transitional stage, the exhaust control valve is opened, bringing the secondary turbo up to near-operating speed; the ECU – working with another duty solenoid and vacuum diaph
Marusho Motor Co. Ltd. was a company that manufactured motorcycles from 1948 to 1967. The company's Lilac model motorcycle was recognized by the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, who include the 1950 Marusho Lilac ML as one of their 240 Landmarks of Japanese Automotive Technology. Masashi Itō started Marusho in Hamamatsu, Japan, in 1948 after being apprenticed with Soichiro Honda; the company produced shaft driven models like the Lilac, showcased its technical prowess to the world in the Mount Asama Volcano Race, competing well against the likes of Honda, Meguro and Suzuki. Company founder Masashi Itō died in 2005 at the age of 92. Dragon Lancer AQ UY BR PV LS ML 1950 150cc 2.43 kW/4000rpm LB 1952 150cc KD 1952 150cc LS38 Lilac. Lancer. MkV 1959 250cc 14.92 kW/8000rpm DP90 New. Baby. Lilac 1958 90cc 2.94 kW/5000rpm LS18 MkII 1960 250cc 13.1 kW/6800rpm C130 1964 125cc 10.9 kW/11000rpm JF Baby. Lilac 1953 90cc 2.4 kW/5500rpm Lilac. R92 Marusho. ST 1964 500cc 26.2 kW/6300rpm Lilac. R92 Marusho.
Magnum. Electra 1966 500cc 27.9 kW/7000rpm Lilac. CF40 1960 125cc 7.72 kW/8000rpm Lilac. Lance. SW 1955 400cc 8.82 kW/4800rpm Lilac. Lance. SY 1955 250cc 6.25 kW/4700rpm
Ɛ̃fini was a luxury vehicle division of Japanese automaker Mazda that operated between 1991 and 1997 in Japan only. Its inception as a brand emerged in the late 1980s when Mazda diversified its sales channels in the Japanese market with the launch of three new marques; the company created Autozam, ɛ̃fini, in addition to the Mazda and Ford brands marketed there. This selective marketing experiment ended in the mid-1990s due to economic conditions attributed to the collapse of the Japanese asset price bubble in 1991; as a brand, ɛ̃fini encompassed most, if not all dealers under Mazda's "Auto" dealer chain. Pronounced like the French word infini, the name is written with a tilde over the lowercase Greek ε, can therefore be assumed to be IPA, the pronunciation symbols universally taught in Japan, quite used in product naming; the ɛ̃fini marque was a luxury-oriented brand, as opposed to the more mainstream, fun to drive Eunos brand, traditional Mazda, entry level Autozam. The vehicles sold didn't comply with Japanese government exterior and engine displacement regulations which classed all vehicles sold as ɛ̃fini as exclusive luxury products.
The length of the MS-6 was the same as the MS-8 at 4,695 mm. Both shared the V6 2.0 L, while the MS-6 offered the convenience of a hatchback bodystyle, the MS-8 offered space efficiency of bench seats for both front and rear passengers and the open-air feeling of a hardtop sedan bodystyle. The ɛ̃fini name and logo are not to be confused with several limited-edition second generation RX-7s, the "Infini" edition, from the late 1980s. From 1991 until 1997, when the ɛ̃fini dealership was integrated into Mazda locations, Citroën products were sold to Japanese buyers, as well as Mazda's Eunos locations. There are a few Japanese Mazda dealerships that still maintain the sales channels, but sell Mazda-branded products. Ɛ̃fini MS-6 hatchback — 1991–1994 ɛ̃fini MS-8 sedan — 1992–1997 ɛ̃fini MS-9 sedan — 1991–1993 ɛ̃fini RX-7 coupe — 1991–1997 ɛ̃fini MPV minivan — 1991–1997 Citroën XM Citroën Xantia Mazda RX-7 History
Infiniti is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese automaker Nissan. Infiniti started selling vehicles on November 8, 1989, in North America; the marketing network for Infiniti-branded vehicles includes dealers in over 50 countries. In January 2018 chief executive Hiroto Saikawa announced that the Infiniti brand would be transformed into an electric brand, with all new vehicles either being hybrid or all electric by 2021. In 2012, Infiniti moved its global headquarters from the Nissan corporate building in Yokohama and incorporated in Hong Kong as Infiniti Global Limited, with Carlos Ghosn intending for Infiniti to have a greater focus on the burgeoning luxury market in mainland China as it forecast the country to become the largest luxury car market. Nissan appointed Roland Krüger, former head of BMW's Asian division, as president of Infiniti in September 2014. With its QX60 crossover Infiniti began to produce vehicles outside Japan. In 2014, it started producing two models in Xiangyang, China, a plant operated by Nissan's joint venture with Dongfeng Motor.
At the same time Nissan Motor Manufacturing UK expanded in Sunderland, England, to produce a new compact car named Q30 in 2015. The Infiniti marque is not used in Japan. However, the Infiniti Q50 is sold as a Nissan Skyline in Japan and retains Infiniti badging, though without the Infiniti brand or name. Most Infiniti models have direct equivalents in the Japanese domestic market Nissan lineup. Examples include the Infiniti G as the Nissan Skyline sedan and coupe and the Nissan Primera, Infiniti M as the Nissan Fuga and the Nissan Leopard, Infiniti EX as the Nissan Skyline crossover, the Infiniti Q45 as the Nissan Cima; the Infiniti FX is not sold in Japan. The Infiniti brand was introduced in the United States in 1989; the marketing strategy was to target the premium vehicle segments in the United States that would not have otherwise fit in with Nissan's more mainstream image, influenced by the Plaza Accord of 1985. The brand was created around the same time as Japanese rivals Toyota and Honda developed their Lexus and Acura premium brands.
The Japanese government imposed voluntary export restraints for the U. S. market, so it was more profitable for automakers to export more expensive cars to the U. S; the Infiniti marque was launched with two models, the Q45, the M30 that were sold at Japanese Nissan Motor Store dealership networks. The Q45 was based on the all new second generation JDM Nissan President on a five millimeter shorter wheelbase platform at 2,875 mm. Starting with model year 1992, the wheelbase matched the President's wheelbase at 2880 mm; the Q45 included a 278 hp V8 engine, four wheel steering, active suspension system offered on the first generation Q45t. The car's features would have made it competitive in the full-sized "luxury" segment against the Mercedes S-Class, BMW 7 Series, Jaguar XJ and Cadillac Fleetwood. A second model was introduced in the 2-door M30, a badge engineered Nissan Leopard, it remained in production for three years as an alternative to the Lexus SC. The powertrain was an automatic transmission.
The M30 coupe was underpowered for its stock weight of 3,333 lb. The M30 convertible weighed more, due to the required body and chassis reinforcements; the appearance of the M30 had no resemblance to the larger Q45, the interior was completely different. Infiniti did not offer a mid-luxury sedan to match the first Japanese luxury sedan introduced to North America, the Acura Legend, joined by the Lexus GS. Infiniti's first offering in the entry-level luxury segment was the Infiniti J30, which had to compete with the revised 1992 Lexus ES and was unsuccessful owing to its small interior and unusual styling to which it was succeeded in 1996 by the Infiniti I series introduced in April 1995, related to the Nissan Maxima and in 2002 by the Infiniti G35. According to the company, the Infiniti badge has a double meaning, as stylized representations of both a road extending into the horizon and of Mount Fuji, reflecting its Japanese origins. In September 1990, Infiniti introduced a third model, the Infiniti G20, derived from the compact and European-focused Nissan Primera.
In 1992 for the 1993 model year, Infiniti introduced a four-door coupé J30 with only one engine option, the 210 hp VG30DE. This engine was from the 222 hp 300ZX, the JDM Nissan Cedric, Nissan Gloria and the Nissan Cima, was the North American version of the third generation JDM Nissan Leopard. Infiniti sales were slow; the company's initial campaign aimed to bring about brand awareness with Zen-influenced spots that focused on nature and tranquility, without showing the actual cars. Designers decided not to adorn the interiors with wood accents and chrome brightwork, opting instead for a monochrome and rounded surface appearance, focusing on padded leather and vinyl throughout; some buyers had faux wood appliques added to areas surrounding the center console and around the interior door handles. The only item that had a bright appearance was the centrally installed analog clock in all models, a design, maintained by the designers. By the mid-1990s, Infiniti was lagging behind Acura in sales; the Q45 had retreated from its focused, taut rendition of a sporty full-size luxury sedan, having become a recognizable, ponderously handling sedan that earned the nickname "The Japanese Lincoln".
In the summer of 1998, Infiniti revived the G20, based on the JDM Nissan Primera, a compact sport sedan. The second generation G20 was marketed as a compe