"Deșteaptă-te, române!" Romanian pronunciation: is the national anthem of Romania. The lyrics were composed by Andrei Mureșanu and the music was popular, it was written and published during the 1848 revolution with the name “Un răsunet”. It was first sung in late June in the same year in the city of Brașov, on the streets of Șchei quarter, it was accepted as the revolutionary anthem and renamed “Deșteaptă-te, române”. Since this song, which contains a message of liberty and patriotism, has been sung during all major Romanian conflicts, including during the 1989 anti-Ceaușist revolution. After that revolution, it became the national anthem, replacing the communist-era national anthem "Trei culori". July 29 is now "an annual observance in Romania; the song was used on various solemn occasions in the Moldavian Democratic Republic, during its brief existence, between 1917 and 1918. Between 1991 and 1994 it was the national anthem of Moldova as well, but was subsequently replaced by the current Moldovan anthem, “Limba noastră”.
The melody was a sentimental song called “Din sânul maicii mele” composed by Anton Pann after hearing the poem In 1848, Andrei Mureșanu wrote the poem “Un răsunet”, asked Gheorghe Ucenescu, a Scheii Brașovului Church singer, to find him a suitable melody. After Ucenescu sang him several lay melodies, Mureșanu chose Anton Pann’s song. First sung during the uprisings of 1848, “Deșteaptă-te române” has endured as a favorite song and seen play during various historical events, including as part of Romania’s declaration of independence from the Ottoman Empire during the Russo-Turkish War, during the first world war; the song received heavy radio broadcast in the days following the state coup of August 23, 1944, when Romania switched sides, turning against Nazi Germany and joining the Allies side in the war. After the seizure of power by the communists on December 30, 1947, “Deșteaptă-te române” and other patriotic songs associated with the previous regime were outlawed. Ceaușescu’s government permitted the song to be played and sung in public, but it was not given state recognition as the national anthem.
The overall message of the anthem is a “call to action”. This is the reason why Nicolae Bălcescu called it the “Romanian Marseillaise”. Besides this anthem, the Romanians have “Hora Unirii”, written in 1855 by the poet Vasile Alecsandri, sung a great deal on the occasion of the Union of the Principalities and on all occasions when the Romanians aspired to union and harmony among themselves. “Hora Unirii” is sung on the Romanian folk tune of a slow but energetic round dance joined by the whole attendance. The round dance is itself an ancient ritual, symbolizing spiritual communion and the Romanians’ wish for a common life. Romania’s national anthem has eleven stanzas, although only the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 11th are sung on official occasions, as established by Romanian law. At major events, such as the National Holiday, the full version is sung, accompanied by 21-gun salute when the President is present at the event. Note that, in accordance with Romanian law, there are no official translations of the anthem.
1 Awaken thee, wake up from deadly slumber The scourge of inauspicious barbarian tyrannies And now or never to a bright horizon clamber That shall to shame put all your enemies. 2 It’s now or never that we prove to the world That in these veins still flows Roman blood And in our hearts for we glorify a name Triumphant in battles, the name of Trajan. 4 Behold, imperial shadows, Stephen, Corvinus At the Romanian nation, your mighty progeny With arms like steel and hearts of fire impetuous “Live in liberty, or die” that's what they all decree. 11 Priests, raise the cross, as this army is Christian Give it liberty and it's sanctified scope We’d rather die in battle, with honorary glory Than live again enslaved on our ancestral land. 1 Romanian, awaken your Spirit from the sleep of Death Impressed upon you by Tyrannies of barbarians. 2 Now or never, our legacy prove to all, That through our veins still flows the Blood of Ancient Rome That in our chests we proudly hail a Name, Triumphant in battle, the Name of Trajan.
3 Raise your strong brow and gaze around you As trees stand in a forest, brave youths, a hundred thousand An order they await, ready to pounce, as wolves among the sheep Old men, young, from mountains high and open plains. 4 Gaze mightily, glorious shadows, Stephen, Corvine The Romanian nation, your descendants, With weapons in their hands, with your Fire burning “Life in Liberty or Death”, all shout together. 5 You were vanquished by the evils of envy By the blind disunity at the Milcov and Carpathians But we, our Spirit touched by saintly Liberty, Swear allegiance, to be forever Brothers. 6 A widowed mother from the time of Michael the Great Asks of her sons a helping hand today And curses, with tears in her eyes, whosoever In times of such great danger, proves to be a traitor. 7 May lightning bolts and brimstone kill Whoever retreats from the glorious battle When motherland or mother, with a tender heart, Will ask us to pass through sword and flame. 8 Is not enough the yatagan of the barbaric crescent Whose fa
A national anthem is a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. The majority of national anthems are hymns in style; the countries of Latin America, Central Asia, Europe tend towards more ornate and operatic pieces, while those in the Middle East, Oceania and the Caribbean use a more simplistic fanfare. Some countries that are devolved into multiple constituent states have their own official musical compositions for them. A national anthem is most in the national or most common language of the country, whether de facto or official, there are notable exceptions. Most states with more than one national language may offer several versions of their anthem, for instance: The "Swiss Psalm", the national anthem of Switzerland, has different lyrics for each of the country's four official languages; the national anthem of Canada, "O Canada", has official lyrics in both English and French which are not translations of each other, is sung with a mixture of stanzas, representing the country's bilingual nature.
The song itself was written in French. "The Soldier's Song", the national anthem of Ireland, was written and adopted in English, but an Irish translation, although never formally adopted, is nowadays always sung instead. The current South African national anthem is unique in that five of the country's eleven official languages are used in the same anthem, it was created by combining two different songs together and modifying the lyrics and adding new ones. One of the two official national anthems of New Zealand, "God Defend New Zealand", is now sung with the first verse in Māori and the second in English; the tune is the same but the words are not a direct translation of each other. "God Bless Fiji" has lyrics in Fijian which are not translations of each other. Although official, the Fijian version is sung, it is the English version, performed at international sporting events. Although Singapore has four official languages, with English being the current lingua franca, the national anthem, "Majulah Singapura" is in Malay and by law can only be sung with its original Malay lyrics, despite the fact that Malay is a minority language in Singapore.
This is because Part XIII of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore declares, “the national language shall be the Malay language and shall be in the Roman script ” There are several countries that do not have official lyrics to their national anthems. One of these is the national anthem of Spain. Although it had lyrics those lyrics were discontinued after governmental changes in the early 1980s after Francisco Franco's dictactorship. In 2007 a national competition to write words was held. Other national anthems with no words include "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica", the national anthem of San Marino, that of Bosnia and Herzegovina and that of Kosovo, entitled "Europe"; the national anthem of India, "Jana Gana Mana", the official lyrics are in the Devnagari. The lyrics were adopted from a Bengali poem written by Rabindranath Tagore. Despite the most common language in Wales being English, the Welsh regional anthem "Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau" is sung in the Welsh language; the national anthem of Finland, was first written in Swedish and only translated to Finnish.
It is nowadays sung in both languages as there is a Swedish speaking minority of about 6% in the country. National anthems rose to prominence in Europe during the 19th century, but some originated much earlier; the presumed oldest national anthem belongs to the Netherlands and is called the "Wilhelmus". It was written between 1568 and 1572 during the Dutch Revolt and its current melody variant was composed shortly before 1626, it was a popular orangist march during the 17th century but it did not become the official Dutch national anthem until 1932. The Japanese national anthem, "Kimigayo", has the oldest lyrics, which were taken from a Heian period poem, yet it was not set to music until 1880; the Philippine national anthem "Lupang Hinirang" was composed in 1898 as wordless incidental music for the ceremony declaring independence from the Spanish Empire. The Spanish poem "Filipinas" was written the following year to serve as the anthem's lyrics. "God Save the Queen", the national anthem of the United Kingdom and the royal anthem reserved for use in the presence of the Monarch in some Commonwealth realms, was first performed in 1619 under the title "God Save the King".
It is not the national anthem of the UK, though it became such through custom and usage. Spain's national anthem, the "Marcha Real", written in 1761, was among the first to be adopted as such, in 1770. Denmark adopted the older of its two national anthems, "Kong Christian stod ved højen mast", in 1780. Serbia became the first Eastern European nation to have a national anthem – "Rise up, Serbia!" – in 1804."Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu", the national anthem of Kenya, is one of the first national anthems to be specifical
Vasile Alecsandri was a Moldavian poet, playwright and diplomat. He collected Romanian folk songs and was one of the principal animators of the 19th-century movement for Romanian cultural identity and union of Moldavia and Wallachia. Alecsandri was born to a family of landowners, his parents were Vasile Alecsandri and Elena Cozoni, his mother was the daughter of a Greek Romanian merchant. His parents had seven children, of which three survived: one daughter and two sons, Iancu — a future army colonel – and Vasile; the family prospered in the lucrative business of salt and cereals trade. In 1828, they purchased a large estate in a village near Siret River; the young Vasile spent time there studying with a devout monk from Maramureș, Gherman Vida, playing with Vasile Porojan, a Gypsy boy who became a dear friend. Both characters would appear in his work. Between 1828 and 1834, he studied at the Victor Cuenim'pensionnat', an elite boarding school for boys in Iași, he moved to Paris in 1834, where he dabbled in chemistry and law, but soon abandoned all in favor of what he called his "lifelong passion", literature.
He penned his first literary essays in 1838 in French, which he had mastered to perfection during his stay in Paris. After a brief return home, he left for Western Europe again, visiting Italy and southern France. A year Alecsandri attended a party celebrating the name day of Costache Negri, a family friend, he there fell in love with Negri's sister. The 21-year-old and not long divorced Elena Negri responded enthusiastically to the 24-year-old youngster's love declarations. Alecsandri began writing love poems until a sudden illness forced Elena to head abroad to Venice, he met her there. They cruised to Austria, to Alecsandri's former romping grounds, France. Elena's chest illness aggravated in Paris, after a brief stint in Italy, they both boarded a French ship to return home 25 April 1847. Tragedy struck on the ship. Alecsandri channeled his mourning into a poem, "Steluța", he dedicated his "Lăcrimioare" collection of poems to her. In 1848, he became one of the leaders of the revolutionary movement based in Iași.
He wrote a read poem urging the public to join the cause, "Către Români" renamed "Deșteptarea României". Together with Mihail Kogălniceanu and Costache Negri, he wrote a manifesto of the revolutionary movement in Moldavia, "Dorințele partidei naționale din Moldova". However, as revolution failed, he fled Moldavia through Transylvania and Austria, moving on to Paris, where he continued to write political poems. After two years, he returned to a triumphant staging of his new comedy, "Chiriţa în Iaşi", he toured the Moldavian countryside, collecting and arranging a vast array of Romanian folklore, which he published in two installments, in 1852 and 1853. The poems included in these two enormously popular collections became the cornerstone of the emerging Romanian identity the ballads "Miorița", "Toma Alimoș", "Mânăstirea Argeșului", "Novac și Corbul." His volume of original poetry, "Doine și Lăcrămioare", further cemented his reputation. Broadly revered in Romanian cultural circles, he oversaw the establishment of "România Literară", to which writers from both Moldavia and Wallachia contributed.
He was one of the most vocal unionists, supporting the union the two Romanian provinces and Wallachia. In 1856, he published in Mihail Kogălniceanu's newspaper, Steaua Dunării, the poem "Hora Unirii", which became the anthem of the unification movement; the end of 1855 saw Alecsandri pursuing a new romantic interest, in spite of promises made to Elena Negri on her deathbed. At age 35, the now renowned poet and public figure fell in love with the young Paulina Lucasievici, the daughter of an innkeeper; the romance moved at a lightning pace: they moved in together to Alecsandri's estate at Mirceşti and, in 1857, their daughter Maria was born. Alecsandri found satisfaction in the advancement of those political causes he had long championed; the two Romanian provinces united and he was appointed minister of External Affairs by Alexandru Ioan Cuza. He toured the West, pleading to some of his friends and acquaintances in Paris to acknowledge the newly formed nation and support its emergence in the turbulent Balkan area.
The diplomatic tours tired him. In 1860, he settled in Mirceşti for, he married Paulina more than a decade and a half in 1876. Between 1862 and 1875, Alecsandri wrote 40 lyrical poems, including "Miezul Iernii, "Serile la Mircești, "Iarna," "La Gura Sobei", "Oaspeții Primăverii", "Malul Siretului." He dabbled in epic poems, collected in the volume "Legende", he dedicated a series of poems to the soldiers who participated in the Romanian War of Independence. In 1879, his "Despot-Vodă" drama received the award of the Romanian Academy, he continued to be a prolific writer, finishing a fantastic comedy, "Sânziana și Pepelea," and two dramas, "Fântâna Blanduziei" and "Ovidiu". In 1881, he wrote Trăiască Regele, which became the national anthem of the Kingdom of Romania until the abolition of monarchy in 1947. Long suffering from cancer, Alecsandri died in 1890 at his estate in Mirceşti. Alecsandri had an important political career, he was one of the supporters of slave emanicipation. He was Antisemitic though his father was of Jewish descent, claiming that to refuse citizenship to the Jews "means to refuse suicide by our people"
United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia
The United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia was the official name of the personal union which became Romania, adopted on 24 January 1859 when Alexandru Ioan Cuza was elected as the Domnitor of both principalities, which were autonomous but still vassals of the Ottoman Empire. On 22 January 1862, the Principality of Moldavia and the Principality of Wallachia formally united to create the Romanian United Principalities, the core of the Romanian nation state. In 1866 a new constitution came into effect; the new state remained nominally a vassal of the Ottoman Empire. However, it only acknowledged the suzerainty of the Sublime Porte in a formal way, it had its own flag and currency, conducted its own foreign policy. On 9 May 1877, Romania proclaimed itself independent, on 14 March 1881, it became the Kingdom of Romania. After the First World War and other territories were included; as a historical term designating the pre-Union Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, sometimes including the Principality of Transylvania, the term "Romanian Principalities" dates back to the beginnings of modern Romanian history in the mid-19th century.
It was subsequently used by Romanian historians as an alternative to the much older term "Romanian Lands". English use of "Romanian Principalities" is documented from the second half of the 19th century. In the period between the late 18th century and the 1860s, Danubian Principalities was used, a term that sometimes included Serbia, but not Transylvania. In contrast, use of "Romanian Principalities" never Serbia; the aftermath of the Russian Empire's defeat in the Crimean War brought the 1856 Treaty of Paris, which started a period of common tutelage for the Ottomans and a Congress of Great Powers—the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Second French Empire, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, the Austrian Empire, and, though never again Russia. While the Moldavia-Wallachia unionist campaign, which had come to dominate political demands, was accepted with sympathy by the French, Russians and Sardinians, it was rejected by the Austrian Empire, looked upon with suspicion by Great Britain and the Ottomans.
Negotiations amounted to an agreement on a minimal formal union. Though internationally formally recognized only after the period of Cuza's reign, the Union was cemented by Ioan Cuza's unsanctioned interventions in the text of previous "Organic Law". In addition, the circumstances of his deposition in 1866, together with the rapid election of Prussian Prince Carol of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and the Austro-Prussian War in the same time, made applying measures against the Union impossible. Following the Romanian War of Independence in 1877-78, Romania shook off formal Ottoman rule but clashed with its Russian ally over its demand for the South Bessarabia region. Romania was awarded Northern Dobruja in exchange for Southern Bessarabia; the Kingdom of Romania subsequently emerged in 1881 with Prince Carol being crowned as King Carol I of Romania. Alexandru Ioan Cuza took steps to unify the administrations of the two Romanian Principalities and gain international recognition for the Union, he adopted several reforms, including the secularization of church lands, introduction of free primary education, a French-inspired civil code and penal code as well as a limited agrarian reform and one in the army.
Opposition from the large-land-owners dominated parliament to Cuza resulted in a coup against him in 1864. He subsequently instituted authoritarian rule but his popular support, strong at the time of the coup waned as the land reform failed to bring prosperity to the peasant majority. Cuza was forced to abdicate in 1866 by the two main political groups, the Conservatives and the Liberals, who represented the interests of former large-land-owners. Although the event sparked some anti-unionist turmoil in Cuza's native province of Moldavia, it was suppressed by the central authorities; the new governing coalition appointed Carol of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen as the new Ruling Prince of Romania in a move rejected by the European powers but on accepted. In the first year of Carol's reign Romania adopted its first constitution; this instrument provided for a hereditary constitutional monarchy, with a Parliament being elected through censitary suffrage although the country remained under Ottoman suzerainty.
Carol was not unanimously accepted, a rise in republican sentiment culminated with an uprising in Ploiești in 1870 and a revolt in Bucharest in 1871, both of which were quelled by the army. In April 1877, in the wake of a new Russo-Turkish war, Romania signed a convention by which Russian troops were allowed to pass through Romanian territory in their advance towards the Ottoman Empire. On May 9, the Romanian parliament declared the independence of the principality, joined the war on the Russian side. After several Romanian victories south of the Danube and the ultimate victory of the Russian-led side in the war, the European powers recognized Romania's independence under the 1878 Treaty of Berlin. Romania was made to exchange Southern Bessarabia for Northern Dobruja, all
The Romanians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language, descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well. Romanians are an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central Eastern Europe in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars and the Romanian Academy as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, Vlachs in Serbia, in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Inhabited by the ancient Dacians, part of today's territory of Romania was conquered by the Roman Empire in 106, when Trajan's army defeated the army of Dacia's ruler Decebalus. The Roman administration withdrew two centuries under the pressure of the Goths and Carpi. Two theories account for the origin of the Romanian people. One, known as the Daco-Roman continuity theory, posits that they are descendants of Romans and Romanized indigenous peoples living in the Roman Province of Dacia, while the other posits that the Romanians are descendants of Romans and Romanized indigenous populations of the former Roman provinces of Illyria, Moesia and Macedon, the ancestors of Romanians migrated from these Roman provinces south of the Danube into the area which they inhabit today. According to the first theory, the Romanians are descended from indigenous populations that inhabited what is now Romania and its immediate environs: Thracians and Roman legionnaires and colonists. In the course of the two wars with the Roman legions, between AD 101–102 and AD 105–106 the emperor Trajan succeeded in defeating the Dacians and the greatest part of Dacia became a Roman province.
The colonisation with Roman or Romanized elements, the use of the Latin language and the assimilation of Roman civilisation as well as the intense development of urban centres led to the Romanization of part of the autochthonous population in Dacia. This process was concluded by the 10th century when the assimilation of the Slavs by the Daco-Romanians was completed. According to the south-of-the-Danube origin theory, the Romanians' ancestors, a combination of Romans and Romanized peoples of Illyria and Thrace, moved northward across the Danube river into modern-day Romania. Small population groups speaking several versions of Romanian still exist south of the Danube in Greece, Macedonia and Serbia, but it is not known whether they themselves migrated from more northern parts of the Balkans, including Dacia; the south-of-the Danube theory favours northern Albania and/or Moesia as the more specific places of Romanian ethnogenesis. Small genetic differences were found among Southeastern European populations and those of the Dniester–Carpathian region.
Despite this low level of differentiation between them, tree reconstruction and principal component analyses allowed a distinction between Balkan–Carpathian and Balkan Mediterranean population groups. The genetic affinities among Dniester–Carpathian and southeastern European populations do not reflect their linguistic relationships. According to the report, the results indicate that the ethnic and genetic differentiations occurred in these regions to a considerable extent independently of each other. During the Middle Ages Romanians were known as Vlachs, a blanket term of Germanic origin, from the word Walha, used by ancient Germanic peoples to refer to Romance-speaking and Celtic neighbours. Besides the separation of some groups during the Age of Migration, many Vlachs could be found all over the Balkans, in Transylvania, across Carpathian Mountains as far north as Poland and as far west as the regions of Moravia, some went as far east as Volhynia of western Ukraine, the present-day Croatia where the Morlachs disappeared, while the Catholic and Orthodox Vlachs took Croat and Serb national identity.
Because of the migrations that followed – such as those of Slavs, Bulgars and Tatars – the Romanians were organised in agricultural communes, developing large centralised states only in the 14th century, when the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia emerged to fight the Ottoman Empire. During the late Middle Ages, prominent medieval Romanian monarchs such as Bogdan of Moldavia, Stephen the Great, Mircea the Elder, Michael the Brave, or Vlad the Impaler took part in the history of Central Europe by waging tumultuous wars and leading noteworthy crusades against the continuously expanding Ottoman Empire, at ti
Ministry of National Defence (Romania)
The Ministry of National Defence is one of the fifteen ministries of the Government of Romania. The current Minister of National Defence is Gabriel Leş; the Ministry of National Defence is the specialized body of the central public administration submitted to the Government conducting the national defence activity according to the stipulations of law and to the strategy of national security, with a view to safeguarding national sovereignty, state independence and unity, territorial integrity and constitutional democracy. The Ministry of National Defence is responsible to the Parliament, the Supreme Council of National Defence and the Government for implementation of provisions of the Constitution, laws in force, decisions of the Supreme Council of National Defence and of the Government, of international treaties ratified by Romania in fields of its activity; the Ministry of National Defence is structured on central structures. MoND central structures subordinated to the minister of National Defence: Department of Euro-Atlantic Integration and Defence PolicyCoordinates the Euro-Atlantic integration process and the development of military international relations, is in charge of the defence policy enforcement, ensures the integrated defence planning and controls the research activity in its area of responsibility.
Department of Relations with the Parliament, Legislative Harmonization and Public Relations,Gabriel Leș Ensures the relations with the Parliament, other public authorities and NGOs, coordinates the legislative activity, presents the drafts of laws in the Parliament, coordinates the process of harmonization with defence stipulations of the NATO and UE members, coordinates the public relations and the research activity in its area of responsibility. Armaments DepartmentIs in charge with military acquisitions and coordinates the research in its area of responsibility. General StaffEnsures the military management of the Armed Forces, is in charge with the combat capacity of the Armed Forces, fulfills the programs of Euro-Atlantic integration and political-military cooperation for its own structures and controls the research activity in its area of responsibility; the General Staff is headed by the chief of the General Staff, named by the President of Romania at the suggestion of the minister of National Defence and the Prime Minister's approval.
The chief of the General Staff is the highest military rank in the Armed Forces. A Committee of chiefs of staffs with deliberative role is established at the General Staff level, its organization and function are established by the rule approved by order of the minister of National Defence. Inspectorate of the Ministry of National DefenceThe structure through which the minister of National Defence exercises the control and evaluates the activities developed in the Armed Forces; the Inspectorate organizes and controls the environment and labor protection and metrological overwatch. The Inspectorate is managed by the general inspector designated by order of minister of National Defence. General SecretariatControls the subordinated directorates and services established by order of minister of National Defence and ensures the secretariat and protocol works at the minister level; the General Secretariat is headed by the general secretary, a civil servant, nominalized by order of minister of National Defence.
Defence Intelligence General DirectorateThe specialized structure for gathering, confirming and evaluating the internal and external military and non military risks and threats affecting the national security. Defence Intelligence General Directorate is headed by a general director appointed by the decision of the Prime Minister at the recommendation of the Minister of National Defence. Human Resources Management DirectorateThe specialised structure in elaborating the politics and rules in professionalised human resources management. Financial-Accounting DirectorateThe MoND specialized structure ensuring the fulfillment of economic, financial-accounting activities of the minister as the chief accountant. Internal Audit DirectorateThe specialized structure of endogenous and expost verifications on patrimony administration and use of the public money according to the criteria of efficiency and economy; the minister of National Defence has in his subordination: - counselors of minister. - The Military Courts Directorate and the Military Prosecutor's Section are subordinated to the minister of National Defence only regarding the aspects established by common order of minister of National Defence, minister of Justice and General Prosecutor.
The Ministry of National Defence subordinates the service staffs, directorates and research institutes and other structures. The Ministry of National Defence is represented by the minister of National Defence; the minister of National Defence in exercising the leadership is assisted by State Secretaries and chief of the General Staff. At the Ministry of National Defence level exist: - College of Ministry of National Defence with consultative role. Romania used the Julian calendar until 1919; the following party abbreviations are used: Romanian Armed Forces Direcția Generală de Informații a Apărării Detașamentul de Intervenție Rapidă Official site Ministry of National Defence on Facebook Official site of the Government of Romania MApN website
Kingdom of Romania
The Kingdom of Romania was a constitutional monarchy at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It existed from 1881, when prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was crowned as King Carol I of Romania, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Romanian parliament proclaimed Romania a socialist republic. From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities under a single prince to an autonomous principality with a Hohenzollern monarchy; the country gained its independence from the Ottoman Empire during the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War, when it received Northern Dobruja in exchange for the southern part of Bessarabia. The kingdom's territory during the reign of King Carol I, between 14 March 1881 and 27 September 1914 is sometimes referred as the Romanian Old Kingdom, to distinguish it from "Greater Romania", which included the provinces that became part of the state after World War I. With the exception of the southern halves of Bukovina and Transylvania, these territories were ceded to neighboring countries in 1940, under the pressure of Nazi Germany or the Soviet Union.
Following a disastrous World War II campaign on the side of the Axis powers and name change, Romania joined the Allies in 1944, recovering Northern Transylvania. The influence of the neighboring Soviet Union and the policies followed by Communist-dominated coalition governments led to the abolition of the monarchy, with Romania becoming a People's Republic on the last day of 1947; the 1859 ascendancy of Alexandru Ioan Cuza as prince of both Moldavia and Wallachia under the nominal suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire united an identifiably Romanian nation under a single ruler. On 5 February 1862 the two principalities were formally united to form the Principality of Romania, with Bucharest as its capital. On 23 February 1866 a so-called Monstrous coalition, composed of Conservatives and radical Liberals, forced Cuza to abdicate; the German prince Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was appointed as Prince of Romania, in a move to assure German backing to unity and future independence. He adopted the Romanian spelling of his name and his descendants would rule Romania until the overthrow of the monarchy in 1947.
Following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, Romania was recognized as an independent state by the Treaty of Berlin, 1878 and acquired Dobruja, although it was forced to surrender southern Bessarabia to Russia. On 15 March 1881, as an assertion of full sovereignty, the Romanian parliament raised the country to the status of a kingdom, Carol was crowned as king on 10 May; the new state, squeezed between the Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, Russian Empires, with Slavic populations on its southwestern and northeastern borders, the Black Sea due east, Hungarian neighbors on its western and northwestern borders, looked to the West France, for its cultural and administrative models. Abstaining from the Initial Balkan War against the Ottoman Empire, the Kingdom of Romania entered the Second Balkan War in June 1913 against the Tsardom of Bulgaria. 330,000 Romanian troops moved into Bulgaria. One army occupied Southern Dobrudja and another moved into northern Bulgaria to threaten Sofia, helping to bring an end to the war.
Romania thus acquired the ethnically-mixed territory of Southern Dobrudja, which it had desired for years. In 1916 Romania entered World War I on the Entente side. Romania engaged in a conflict against Bulgaria but as a result Bulgarian forces, after a series of successful battles, regained Dobruja, ceded from Bulgaria by the treaty of Bucharest and the Berlin congress. Although the Romanian forces did not fare well militarily, by the end of the war the Austrian and Russian empires were gone; the Romanian Old Kingdom is a colloquial term referring to the territory covered by the first independent Romanian nation state, composed of the Danubian Principalities — Wallachia and Moldavia. It was achieved when, under the auspices of the Treaty of Paris, the ad hoc Divans of both countries - which were under Imperial Ottoman suzerainty at the time - voted for Alexander Ioan Cuza as their prince, thus achieving a de facto unification; the region itself is defined by the result of that political act, followed by the inclusion of Northern Dobruja in 1878, the proclamation of the Kingdom of Romania in 1881, the annexation of Southern Dobruja in 1913.
The term came into use after World War I, when the Old Kingdom was opposed to Greater Romania, which included Transylvania, Banat and Bukovina. Nowadays, the term has a historical relevance, is otherwise used as a common term for all regions in Romania included in both the Old Kingdom and present-day borders. Romania delayed in entering World War I, but declared war on the Central Powers in 1916; the Romanian military campaign ended in stalemate when the Central Powers crushed the country's offensive into Transylvania and occupied Wallachia and Dobruja, including Bucharest and the strategically important oil fields, by the end of 1916. In 1917, despite fierce Romanian resistance at Mărăşeşti, due to Russia's withdrawal from the war following the October Revolu