Army of the Republic of Vietnam
The Army of the Republic of Vietnam known as the South Vietnamese army, were the ground forces of the South Vietnamese military from its inception in 1955 until the Fall of Saigon in 1975. It is estimated to have suffered 1,394,000 casualties during the Vietnam War; the ARVN began as a post-colonial army trained and affiliated with the United States and had engaged in conflict since its inception. Several dramatic changes occurred throughout its lifetime from a'blocking-force' to a more modern conventional force using helicopter deployment in combat. During the U. S. intervention, the role of the ARVN was marginalised to a defensive role with an incomplete modernisation, transformed again most notably following Vietnamization as it was up-geared and reconstructed to fulfil the role of the departing U. S. forces. By 1974, it had become much more effective with foremost counterinsurgency expert and Nixon adviser Robert Thompson noting that Regular Forces were well-trained and second only to U. S. and IDF forces in the free world and with General Creighton Abrams remarking that 70% of units were on par with the U.
S. Army. However, the withdrawal of American forces through Vietnamization meant the armed forces could not fulfil all the aims of the program and had become dependent on U. S. equipment, given it was meant to fulfill the departing role of the United States. At its peak, an estimated 1 in 9 citizens of South Vietnam were enlisted and it had become the fourth-largest army in the world composed of Regular Forces and more voluntary Regional Militias and Village-level militias. Unique in serving a dual military-civilian administrative purpose in direct competition with the Viet Cong political and armed wing, the PLAF; the ARVN had in addition became a component of political power and notably suffered from continual issues of political loyalty appointments, corruption in leadership, factional in-fighting and occasional open conflict between itself. After the fall of Saigon to the North Vietnamese army, the ARVN was dissolved. While some high-ranking officers had fled the country to the United States or elsewhere, thousands of former ARVN officers were sent to reeducation camps by the communist government of the new, unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Five ARVN generals commit suicide on Black April to avoid captured by PAVN/VC. On March 8, 1949, after the Élysée Accords the State of Vietnam was recognized by France as an independent country ruled by the Vietnamese Emperor Bảo Đại, the Vietnamese National Army was soon created; the VNA fought in joint operations with the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps against the Viet Minh forces led by Ho Chi Minh. The VNA fought in a wide range of campaigns including but not limited to the Battle of Nà Sản, Operation Atlas and the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. Benefiting from French assistance, the VNA became a modern army modelled after the Expeditionary Corps, it included infantry, signals, armored cavalry, airforce, navy and a national military academy. By 1953 troopers as well as officers were all Vietnamese, the latter having been trained in Ecoles des Cadres such as Da Lat, including Chief of Staff General Nguyễn Văn Hinh, a French Union airforce veteran. After the 1954 Geneva agreements, French Indochina ceased to exist and by 1956 all French Union troops had withdrawn from Vietnam and Cambodia.
In 1955, by the order of Prime Minister Diệm, the VNA crushed the armed forces of the Bình Xuyên. On October 26, 1955, the military was reorganized by the administration of President Ngô Đình Diệm who formally established the Army of the Republic of Vietnam on December 30, 1955; the air force was known as the Vietnamese Air Force. Early on, the focus of the army was the guerrilla fighters of the Vietnam National Liberation Front, formed to oppose the Diệm administration; the United States, under President John F. Kennedy sent advisors and a great deal of financial support to aid the ARVN in combating the insurgents. A major campaign, developed by Ngô Đình Nhu and resurrected under another name was the "Strategic Hamlet Program", regarded as unsuccessful by Western media because it was "inhumane" to move villagers from the countryside to fortified villages. ARVN leaders and President Diệm were criticized by the foreign press when the troops were used to crush armed anti-government religious groups like the Cao Đài and Hòa Hảo as well as to raid Buddhist temples, which according to Diệm, were harboring NLF guerrillas.
The most notorious of these attacks occurred on the night of August 21, 1963, during the Xá Lợi Pagoda raids conducted by the Special Forces, which caused a death toll estimated to range into the hundreds. In 1963 Ngô Đình Diệm was killed in a coup d'état carried out by ARVN officers and encouraged by American officials such as Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. In the confusion that followed, General Dương Văn Minh took control, but he was only the first in a succession of ARVN generals to assume the presidency of South Vietnam. During these years, the United States began taking more control of the war against the NLF and the role of the ARVN became less and less significant, they were plagued by continuing problems of severe corruption amongst the officer corps. Although the US was critical of the ARVN, it continued to be US-armed and funded. Although the American news media has portrayed the Vietnam War as a American and North Vietnamese conflict, the ARVN carried the brunt of the fight before and after large-scale American involvement, participated in many major operations with American troops.
Đồng Tâm Base Camp
Đồng Tâm Base Camp is a former U. S. Army and Navy and Army of the Republic of Vietnam base west of Mỹ Tho in the Mekong Delta, southern Vietnam. Đồng Tâm Base Camp was established on the banks of the Mekong 7 km west of Mỹ Tho upon the U. S. Commander in South Vietnam General William Westmoreland's decision to gain full control over the Upper Mekong Delta Region and he took part in site selection; the name Đồng Tâm meaning "united hearts and minds" or "singleness of mind, in thoughts, actions" in Vietnamese was chosen by Westmoreland. The total construction price for the Army and Navy ran close to $8,000,000. Due to lack of available dry land, the base was created by dredging from the river. Dredging work to create the base commenced in August 1966 and involved the reclamation of 600 acres of swampland; the Vietcong attempted to sabotage the base construction sinking the dredgeship Jamaica Bay on 9 January 1967 with the loss of 3 crewmembers. In January 1967 the 3rd Battalion, 60th Infantry was deployed to Đồng Tâm to provide base and construction security followed in March by Headquarters, 2nd Brigade, 9th Infantry Division which moved from Bearcat Base.
In April the US Navy River Assault Squadron 9 was deployed to Đồng Tâm to support operations. On 1 June 1967, the Mobile Riverine Force comprising the 2nd Brigade, 9th Infantry Division and the US Navy River Assault Squadrons 9 and 11 was established at Đồng Tâm. By this time the base occupied 12 square kilometres and included a 500m runway and a loading basin for boats. From June–December 1967 base facilities grew providing improved support and rest and recreation for the MRF; the Vietcong harassed the base with mortar fire. Other units stationed at Đồng Tâm included: 1st Battalion, 11th Artillery 3rd Surgical Hospital Đồng Tâm was a base for the ARVN 7th Division until April 1975; when President Dương Văn Minh announced the unconditional surrender of South Vietnam on 30 April 1975, ARVN Brigadier General Trần Văn Hai committed suicide at the base The base was abandoned and turned over to farmland and housing while the harbour area is used for fishing and transport vessels. Harbor area as of Tet of 2018 is government controlled and leases facilities for civilian marine construction purposes.
Access to this area requires government approval
Cần Thơ is the fourth largest city in Vietnam, the largest city in the Mekong Delta. It is noted for its floating market, rice paper-making village, picturesque rural canals, it had a population of 1.2 million as of 2011, it has population of 1,520,000 until June 2018, is located on the south bank of the Hau River, a distributary of the Mekong River. In 2007, about 50 people died when the Cần Thơ Bridge collapsed, causing Vietnam's worst engineering disaster. In 2011, Can Tho International Airport opened; the city is nicknamed the "western capital", is located 169 kilometres from Ho Chi Minh City. The city is an independent municipality at the same level as provinces of Vietnam, it was created in the beginning of 2004 by a split of the former Cần Thơ Province into two new administrative units: Cần Thơ City and Hậu Giang Province. Cần Thơ is subdivided into nine district-level sub-divisions: 5 urban districts: 4 rural districts: They are further subdivided into five commune-level towns, 36 communes, 44 wards.
Ninh Kiều, which has the well-known port Ninh Kiều port, is the center district and the most populated and wealthiest of these districts. The city borders the provinces of Hậu Giang, Kiên Giang, Vĩnh Long and Đồng Tháp. Cần Thơ is connected to the rest of the country by National Route 1A and Can Tho International Airport; the city's bridge, now completed, is the longest cable-stayed bridge in south-east Asia. The six-lane Saigon–Cần Thơ Expressway is being built in parts from Hồ Chí Minh City to Mỹ Tho; the hydrofoil express boat links this city with Ho Chi Minh City.. There are many vehicles here such as: taxi, grab bikes, van, coaches and so on; the Mekong Delta is considered to be the "rice basket of Vietnam", contributing more than half of the nation's rice production. People say of Cần Thơ: Cần Thơ is famous for its floating markets, where people sell and buy things on the river, as well as the bird gardens and the port of Ninh Kiều; the city offers a wide range of tropical fruits such as pomelo, jackfruit, guava, rambutan, dragon fruit and durian.
The Cần Thơ City Museum has exhibits on the city's history. Tourist attractions Cần Thơ Bridge Thiền viện Trúc Lâm Phương Nam - Buddhist Temple Nam Nhã Pagoda Bình Thủy Temple BInh Thuy Ancient House Ninh Kiều Quay Cần Thơ pedestrian bridge Cái Răng Floating Market, Phong Điền Floating Market Bằng Lăng Stork Sanctuary Canal Tour Cantho Cathedral Ông Chinese Pagoda Pitu Khôsa Răngsey Khmer Pagoda Quang Duc Pagoda Long Quang Pagoda Phat Hoc Pagoda My Khanh tourist village Can Tho seminary Academic institutions in the city are Cần Thơ University, Cần Thơ Department of Education and Training, Cần Thơ University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Tây Đô University, Nam Cần Thơ University, Cần Thơ College, College of Foreign Economic Relations – Cần Thơ Branch, Medical College, Can Tho Technical Economic College and Vocational College, with its well-known College of Agriculture and Mekong Delta Rice Research Institute, Cần Thơ University of Technology Cần Thơ's climate is tropical and monsoonal with two seasons: rainy, from May to November.
Average annual humidity is 83%, rainfall 1,635 mm and temperature 27 °C. After 120 years of development, the city now is the delta's most important center of economics, culture and technology, it has two industrial parks. Nice, France Shantou, China Phnom Penh, Cambodia Amol, Iran Riverside, California Jeollanamdo, Korea
Vietnamese personal names consist of three parts: one patrilineal family name, one or more middle name, one given name, used in that order. The "family name first" order follows the system of Chinese names and is common throughout the Chinese cultural sphere. However, it is different from Chinese and Japanese names in the usage of "middle names", as they are less common in China and Korea and do not exist in Japan. Persons can be referred to by the whole name, the given name or a hierarchic pronoun, which connotes a degree of family relationship or kinship, in normal usage. Due to the frequency of the major family names such as Nguyễn, Trần, Lê, persons are referred to by their middle name along with their given name in Vietnamese media and youth culture; the Vietnamese language is tonal, so are Vietnamese names. Names with the same spelling but with different tones are different names, which can confuse non-Vietnamese people when the diacritics are dropped, as is done outside Vietnam. Anyone applying for Vietnamese nationality must adopt a Vietnamese name.
The family name is passed on by the father to his children. It is estimated that there are around 100 family names in common use, but some are far more common than others; the name Nguyễn is estimated to be used by 40% of the Vietnamese population. The top three names are so popular because people tended to take family names of emperors to show their loyalty. Over many generations, family names became permanent; the most common family names among the Vietnamese are the following. Altogether, the 14 names account for 90% of the people. Nguyễn 阮 Trần 陳 Lê 黎 Phạm 范 Huỳnh/Hoàng 黃 Phan 潘 Vũ/Võ 武 Đặng 鄧 Bùi 裴 Đỗ 杜 Hồ 胡 Ngô 吳 Dương 楊 Lý 李 The following include other less-common surnames in alphabetical order: In Vietnamese cultural practice, women always keep their family names once they marry, just as in other East Asian cultures, including Chinese culture to the north and the northeast. In formal contexts, people are referred to by their full name. In more casual contexts, people are always on a "first name basis", which involves their given names, accompanying with proper kinship terms.
There is no such thing as family name basis, in Vietnam. Most Vietnamese have one middle name, but it is quite possible to have either two or more of them or to have no middle name at all. In the past, the middle name was selected by parents from a narrow range of options. All women had Thị as their middle name, many men had Văn. More a broader range of names have been used, people named Thị sometimes omit their middle name. Thị is by far the most common female middle name; that word expresses possession. For example, "Trần Thị Mai Loan" is a person who has the given name of "Mai Loan" and the surname "Trần", the combination "Trần Thị" means "a female person belonging to the Trần family." The combination is similar to Western surname formation like "Van" in "Van Helsing", "Mac" in "MacCartney", etc. Male middle names include Văn, Hữu, Đức, Thành, Công, Quang; the middle name can have three uses: To indicate a person's generation. Brothers and sisters share the same middle name, which distinguish them from the generation before them and the generation after them.
To separate branches of a large family: "Nguyễn Hữu", "Nguyễn Sinh", "Trần Lâm". However, this usage is still controversial; some people consider them to be dual family names, not family name + middle name. Some families may, set up arbitrary rules about giving a different middle name to each generation. To indicate a person's position in the family; this usage is less common than others. However, most middle names now do not have those uses, they can have a meaning or only make the full name sound better. In most cases, the middle name is formally part of the given name. For example, the name "Đinh Quang Dũng" is separated into the surname "Đinh" and the given name "Quang Dũng". In a normal name list, those two parts of the full name are put in two different columns. However, in daily conversation, the last word in a given name with a title before it is used to address a person: "Ông Dũng", "Anh Dũng", etc. with "Ông" and "Anh" being words to address the person and depend on age, social position, etc.
The given name is the primary form of address for Vietnamese. It is chosen by parents and has a literal meaning in the Vietnamese language. Names represent beauty, such as bird or flower names, or attributes and characteristics that the parents want in their child, such as modesty. Vietnamese will be addressed with their given name in formal situations, although an honorific equivalent to "Mr.", "Mrs.", etc. will be added when necessary. That contrasts with the situation in many other cultures in which the family name is used in formal situations, but it is a practice similar to usage in Icelandic usage and, to some degree, Polish, it is similar to the Latin-American and southern European custom of referring to women as "Doña" and men as "Don", along with their first name. Addressing someone by the family name is rare. In the past, married women in the north were called with Thị as a suffix. In recent years, doctors are more than any other social group to be addressed by their family name, but that form of reference is more common in the north than in the south.
Some famous people are sometimes ref
Mỹ Tho is the capital city, center of economics and technology of Tiền Giang Province, located in the Mekong Delta region of South Vietnam. It has a population of 169,000 in 2006 and 220,000 in 2012; the majority ethnic group is the Kinh, some of the Chinese, the Cham and the Khmer. Boat rides on the Mỹ Tho River are popular with tourists, the city is known for hủ tiếu Mỹ Tho, a type of rice noodle soup. Mỹ Tho was founded in the 1680s by Chinese refugees fleeing China, when the entire country became a colony of the Manchu-led Qing Empire in 1683; the area, at the time, was once part of the former Khmer Empire and it was annexed to Vietnam in the 18th century. The city is named after the Mỹ Tho River. In Sino-Vietnamese script, the name is given as 美萩. Due to its proximity to Saigon, Mỹ Tho was the traditional gateway to the Mekong Delta. In the 17th century, the city had become one of the biggest commercial hubs in today's Southern Vietnam. In 1860s, Mỹ Tho, along with Saigon, was a major strategic city during the French colonial campaign towards Vietnam.
In 1862, France's capture of Mỹ Tho is regarded as the conclusion to the establishment of the French colony of Cochinchina, a development that inaugurated nearly a century of French colonial dominance in Vietnam. During the colonization period, the economy continued to prosper, attracting more immigrants from Teochew and Minnan. Mỹ Tho City is recognized as a grade II in October 7, 2005. Mỹ Tho is divided to 11 wards and 6 communes.6 communes: Đạo Thạnh Mỹ Phong Phước Thạnh Tân Mỹ Chánh Thới Sơn Trung An Phước Thạnh Mỹ Tho is connected to the rest of the country by National Route 1A and Tiền River. In here, people use motorcycles and boats for transportation. Mỹ Tho has the first railway route in Vietnam, one of the most modern transport means in the world linking Saigon and Mỹ Tho, put into use in 1885. However, it was destroyed in 1960s. By road, Mỹ Tho City is 70 km from Vĩnh Long Province, 70 km from Ho Chi Minh City, 103 km from Cần Thơ, 179 km from Châu Đốc, 182 km from Rạch Giá, 132 km from Long Xuyên.
Mỹ Tho and Bến Tre are connected by Rạch Miễu Bridge. By river, there are many short boat trips to various islands, Bến Tre, floating markets in the surrounding areas, it has overnight long boats to Châu Đốc and Long Xuyên. Vĩnh Tràng Temple, Cao Dai Temple, Dong Tam Snake Farm. There are four islands in the Tien River between Mỹ Tho and Bến Tre: Dragon, Tortoise and Unicorn Islands; the Mekong Delta is considered to be the "rice basket of Vietnam", contributing more than half of the nation’s rice production. Mỹ Tho is well known as floating markets, where people sell and buy things on the river, as well as Ben Tam Ngua and Mỹ Thuận market. Mỹ Tho was the first town in southern Vietnam to have a high school; the Collège de Mỹ Tho, opened in March 1879, is now called Nguyễn Đình Chiểu High School. It was one of the first schools Vietnam had, now is still known for its education quality among Southern schools. Another school called "School for Gifted Students of Tien Giang" opened in Mỹ Tho city. Though the total area is limited compared to other schools in the province, quality of education there is considered one of the best.
The curriculum they use is modified so that students learn more of their core subjects than in other schools. For instance, students from a Math class do all the required materials like any other classes, more of Chemistry and Physics because they are in the Natural Science block, a lot more of Math. Preparation for national exams and entrance examination to the university are prioritized there. Schools in Mỹ Tho are named with famous Vietnamese writers and national heroes such as Nguyễn Trãi, Thu Khoa Huan is known as Nguyen Huu Huan, Xuân Diệu, Lê Ngọc Hân, Nguyễn Đình Chiểu, Trần Hưng Đạo. Tiền Giang College which became Tiền Giang University in 2005 is located at Mỹ Tho. Today the economy is based on tourism and agricultural products such as coconuts and longans. During World War II the French Vichy government interned foreign nationals in Mỹ Tho. In May 1945, the Japanese seized control of the camps fearing an allied attack. Foreign nationals were confined throughout the war; as the regional capital Mỹ Tho is the main market dealing in all the produce from the region as well as fish and seafood from Mỹ Tho's large ocean-going fishing fleet.
The large and exuberant market is one of South Vietnam's biggest sources for dried fish and other dried seafood products such as Kho Muc. At night the market is dedicated to the dealing and sorting of Mekong River fish catfish for Hồ Chí Minh City's wholesale markets. Produce fruit and vegetables, is delivered by boat directly to markets, it is a popular starting point for tourists to take a boat trip on the Mekong River. Mỹ Tho was the subject of "The Lesson", a chapter in a memoir by Tobias Wolff, In Pharaoh's Army: Memories of the Lost War, describing the events of the 1968 Tet Offensive there. In 2010, there are total 17 markets located in wards and commune in Mỹ Tho. West and North: Chợ Gạo District East: Châu Thành District, Tiền Giang South: Tiền River and Bến Tre Province Nguyễn Thị Thập - Chairman of the Women's Federation of Vietnam from 1956–1974 General Nguyễn Khánh - former Prime Minister and Ambassador of South Vietnam. General Nguyễn Hữu Hạnh - served in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam Madame Thiệu, the last serving First Lady of South Vietnam from 1967 to 1975 and wife of the President of South Vietnam Nguyễn Văn Thiệu.
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions