The Nguyễn lords known as Nguyễn clan or House of Nguyễn, were a series of rulers of now southern and central Vietnam called Đàng Trong or Inner Land as opposite to Đàng Ngoài or Outer Land, ruled by the Trịnh lords. While they recognized and claimed to be loyal subjects of the Later Lê dynasty, they were de facto kings of Cochinchina, while the Trịnh lords ruled the north, where the emperor remained most of the time a puppet figure, they fought a long, bitter war that lasted 45 years that separated Vietnam into two polities for nearly two centuries. After the Tây Sơn wars, their descendants would rule over the whole of Vietnam as the Nguyễn dynasty and posthumously elevated their titles to emperors, their rule push into Cambodia. The Nguyen lords traced their descent from a powerful clan based in Thanh Hóa Province; the clan supported Lê Lợi in his successful war of independence against the Ming dynasty. From that point on, the Nguyễn were one of the major noble families in Vietnam; the most famous Nguyễn from this time was Nguyễn Thị Anh, the queen-consort for nearly 20 years.
In 1527 Mạc Đăng Dung established a new dynasty. The Trịnh and Nguyễn lords refused to accept the rule of the Mạc. All of the region south of the Red River was under their control, but they were unable to conquer Đông Đô for many years. During this time, the Nguyễn–Trịnh alliance was led by Nguyễn Kim. In 1545 Nguyễn Kim was assassinated. One logical successor to the leadership of the Nguyễn-Trịnh alliance was his eldest son, Nguyễn Uông but instead, Uông was killed and Trịnh Kiểm took control; the younger son Nguyễn Hoàng was sent to the far south to administer the newer province of Ô-châu, in what used to be Champa lands. Governing from the new city of Phú Xuân, the Nguyễn lord, under Nguyễn Hoàng expanded their control to the south while the Trịnh lords waged their war for control over the north of Vietnam. In 1592 Đông Đô was captured the last time by the Trịnh army under Trịnh Tùng, the Mạc Emperor was executed; the next year, Nguyễn Hoàng came north with an army and money to help defeat the remainder of the Mạc forces, but soon afterwards Nguyễn Hoàng refused to obey the orders coming from the new court at Hanoi.
In 1600, a new Lê emperor took Lê Kính Tông. The new emperor, like the previous Lê emperors, was a powerless figurehead under the control of Trịnh Tùng. A revolt broke out in Ninh Bình Province instigated by the Trịnh; as a consequence of these events, Nguyễn Hoàng formally broke off relations with the Court, rightly arguing that it was the Trịnh who ruled, not the Lê emperor. This uneasy state of affairs continued for the next 13 years until Nguyễn Hoàng died in 1613, he had ruled the southern provinces for 55 years. His successor, Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên, continued Nguyễn Hoàng's policy of essential independence from the Court in Hanoi, he initiated friendly relations with the Europeans. A Portuguese trading post was set up in Hội An. By 1615 the Nguyễn were producing their own bronze cannons with the aid of Portuguese engineers. In 1620 the emperor was executed by Trịnh Tùng. Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên formally announced that he would not be sending any money to the Court nor did he acknowledge the new Emperor as the Emperor of the country.
Tensions rose over the next seven years till open warfare broke out in 1627 with the new leader of the Trịnh, Trịnh Tráng. The war lasted until 1673; the Nguyễn not only fought off the Trịnh attacks but continued their expansion southwards along the coast, though the war slowed this expansion. Around 1620, Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên's daughter married a Khmer king. Three years 1623, the Nguyễn formally gained permission for Vietnamese to settle in Prei Nokor, reborn as the city of Saigon; when the war with the Trịnh ended, the Nguyễn were able to put more resources into pushing suppression of the Champa kingdoms and conquest of lands which used to belong to the Khmer Empire. The Dutch brought Vietnamese slaves they captured from Nguyễn lord territories in Quảng Nam Province to their colony in Taiwan; the Nguyen lord Nguyen Phuc Chu had referred to Vietnamese as "Han people" 漢人 in 1712 when differentiating between Vietnamese and Chams. The Nguyen Lords established đồn điền after 1790, it was said "Hán di hữu hạn" 漢夷有限 by the Gia Long Emperor when differentiating between Khmer and Vietnamese.
Trousers and tunics on the Chinese pattern in 1774 were ordered by the Vo Vuong Emperor to replace the sarong type Vietnamese clothing. The Chinese Ming dynasty, Tang dynasty, Han dynasty clothing was ordered to be adopted by Vietnamese military and bureaucrats by the Nguyen Lord Nguyễn Phúc Khoát. Pants were mandated by the Nguyen in 1744 and the Cheongsam Chinese clothing inspired the Ao Dai. Chinese clothing started having an impact on Vietnamese dress in the Ly dynasty; the current Ao Dai was introduced by the Nguyen Lords. Cham provinces were seized by the Nguyen Lords. Provinces and districts belonging to Cambodia were taken by Vo Vuong. In 1714 the Nguyễn sent an army into Cambodia to support Keo Fa's claim to the throne against Prea Srey Thomea. Siam joined in siding with the Prea Srey Thomea against the Vietnamese claimant. At Bantea Meas the Vietnamese routed the Siamese armies, but by 1717 the Siamese had gained the
Trịnh Kiểm ruled northern part of Vietnam from 1545 to 1570. Trịnh Kiểm was the founder of the Trịnh Lords or House of Trịnh who ruled Dai Viet while a succession of figurehead Later Lê Emperors took the role as puppet government. During his rule, the war with the Mạc Dynasty continued. Although he was the de facto ruler of Dai Viet during his reign, he never claimed himself title of Lord, hence he is not the first official Trịnh Lord but his son Trịnh Tùng is the first. Trịnh Kiểm was posthumously proclaimed Trịnh Lord by his descendants. Trịnh Kiểm claimed descent from Trịnh Khả, one of the top aides of Lê Lợi and became the top official during the reign of child-king Lê Nhân Tông, his relationship to the General Trịnh who defeated a rebel army in 1511 and led a rebellion of his own in 1517 is unknown. Unknown is his relationship to Trịnh Duy Dai and Trịnh Duy Sản. A second revolt against Mạc Đăng Dung took place not long after Dung usurped the throne and proclaimed himself Emperor of Vietnam in 1527.
This second revolt was led by Nguyễn Kim whose second-in-command was Trịnh Khiêm. The second revolt allowed the Nguyễn-Trịnh army to capture the Western Capital and enthrone Emperor Lê Trang Tông, in 1533; the Nguyễn-Trịnh alliance sent a formal embassy to China that denounced the usurpation of Mạc Đăng Dung and asked for help. In 1536, the Chinese delegation concluded. After hearing the report, the Jiajing Emperor dispatched an army that arrived on the border of Vietnam in 1537. However, with protestations of loyalty to the Ming Dynasty and the offer of a piece of north Vietnam to the Chinese, Mạc Đăng Dung convinced the Chinese to leave; the official position of the Chinese government was that the Mạc Dynasty should rule in the north and the Lê government should rule in the south. The Nguyễn-Trịnh alliance refused continuing the war. In 1541, Mạc died and his grandson, Phước Hải, took over. In 1545, Nguyễn Kim was assassinated by a Mạc supporter. Nguyễn had two young sons but Trịnh Khiêm took control of the Royal army.
The Nguyễn-Trịnh alliance, now under the command of Trịnh Khiêm, continued to fight the Mạc. A new king was enthroned as Lê Trung Tông in 1548 another Lê king, Lê Anh Tông, was enthroned in 1556. In 1558 the eldest son of Kim, Nguyễn Hoàng, was sent to the south to take control over the conquered province of Quảng Nam. By 1665, the Royal army had captured all provinces south of the Red River and were threatening Hanoi. In 1569, in failing health, Trịnh Khiêm passed power to Trịnh Coi. In 1570, Trịnh Khiêm died. In the same year, Trịnh Coi was defeated by a Mạc army and was replaced by his younger, more capable brother, Trịnh Tùng. Lê Dynasty List of Vietnamese dynasties Annam and its Minor Currency Chapter 16 A Glimpse of Vietnams History Genealogy of the Royal Nguyễn Family
The Trịnh–Nguyễn Civil War was a long war waged between the two ruling families in Vietnam. Both the Trịnh and the Nguyễn families were descended from close friends and aides to the hero-Emperor Lê Lợi who liberated Đại Việt from Chinese rule of Ming Dynasty and started the Lê Dynasty in 1428. By 1520 a succession of weak emperors had brought the country into a state of civil war. For the next 20 years the Trịnh and Nguyễn clans fought as allies against the usurper Mạc Đăng Dung who took the throne of the emperor Lê Cung Hoàng; when Lê dynasty was restored in 1533,The Mạc dynasty still in the power and retreated to Cao Bang gradually. Both Trịnh and Nguyễn joined together as the alliance to against the Mạc dynasty to restore territory of Đại Việt to Lê. In theory, they both were fighting on behalf of the Lê Emperor Lê Trang Tông but in reality, the Emperor was a figurehead with little or no power; the prime mover in the period from 1525 onwards was Nguyễn Kim. His daughter married the young head of the Trịnh family Trịnh Kiểm.
Around 1530, the rebels of Lê Dynasty royalist were forced into exile in Lan Xang but they gathered a new army and captured some southern provinces of Đại Việt. In 1545, Nguyễn Kim and subsequently his eldest son Nguyễn Uông was assassinated and his son-in-law, Trịnh Kiểm, took control over the Royal army after that. 13 years Trịnh Kiểm gave the rulership over the southernmost province of Quảng Nam to Nguyễn Hoàng, the second son of Nguyễn Kim and his wife's brother. The suspicious causes of death of his father and brother and the takeover of his brother in law caused bitter resentment in Nguyễn Hoàng and the rivalry between the 2 families. For the next 55 years, Nguyễn Hoàng ruled Quảng Nam, he asserted his control over the province and extended his control south into the remaining Champa lands. Periodically, he sent military forces north to help the Trịnh in their long fight against the Mạc dynasty. In 1570 Trịnh Kiểm died and was succeeded by his second son Trịnh Tùng, a vigorous leader who captured Hanoi from the Mạc king in 1572.
However, the Mạc emperor recaptured the city the next year. 20 years Trịnh Tùng, again captured Hanoi and executed Mạc Mậu Hợp in 1592. In 1593, Nguyễn Hoàng went to the court, bringing money and an army to help destroy the remaining Mạc armies. Once the Mạc were defeated, Nguyễn Hoàng held the office of Grand Vizier for the next 7 years. However, his nephew Trịnh Tùng became wary of Nguyễn Hoàng's influence in the court and tried to put him under surveillance by having Hoàng near him at all time. Hoàng adopted Tùng's 2 important generals as his nephews and incited them to rebel against their commander; when the rebels stormed the court, Tùng fled with the Emperor while Hoàng took to the Southern Provinces, never to return. In 1600 the old Nguyen ruler titled himself as the Vương. Hoang died in 1613; the new leader of the Nguyễn, Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên, continued his father's policy of defiance, but initiated friendly relations with the Europeans sailing into the area. A foreign trading post was set up in Hội An.
By 1615 the Nguyễn were producing their own bronze cannons with the aid of Portuguese engineers. In 1620, Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên refused to send taxes to the court in Hanoi. A formal demand was made to the Nguyễn to submit to the authority of the court, it was formally refused. In 1623 Trịnh Tùng was succeeded by his son Trịnh Tráng. Now Trịnh Tráng made a formal demand for submission, again Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên refused. In 1627 open warfare broke out between the Trịnh and the Nguyễn. For four months a large Trịnh army were unable to defeat them; the result of this war was that Vietnam had been partitioned into northern and southern regions, with the Trịnh controlling most of the north and the Nguyễn controlling most of the south. This border was close to the Seventeenth parallel, imposed as the border between North Vietnam and South Vietnam during the Partition of Vietnam. While the Trịnh ruled over a much more populous territory, the Nguyễn had several advantages. First, they were on the defensive. Second, the Nguyễn were able to take advantage of their contacts with the Europeans the Portuguese, to purchase advanced European weapons and hire European military experts in fortifications.
Third, the geography was favorable to them, as the flat land suitable for large organized armies is narrow at this point of Vietnam. After the first assault, the Nguyễn built two massive fortified lines which stretched a few miles from the sea to the hills; the walls were built north of Huế near the city of Đồng Hới. The Nguyễn defended these lines against numerous Trịnh offensives which lasted till 1672; the story from this time is that the great military engineer was a Vietnamese general, hired away from the Trịnh court by the Nguyễn. This man is given the credit in Vietnam for the successful design of the Nguyễn walls. Against the walls the Trịnh mustered an army of 100,000 men, 500 elephants, 500 large ships; the initial attacks on the Nguyễn wall was unsuccessful. The attacks lasted for several years. In 1633 the Trịnh tried an amphibious assault on the Nguyễn to get around the wall; the Trịnh fleet was defeated by the Nguyễn fleet at the battle of Nhat-Le. Around 1635 the Trịnh copied the Nguyễn and sought military aid from the
Đàng Ngoài known as Bắc Hà, was an area in northern Vietnam during the 17th century Trịnh–Nguyễn War. The word "Đàng Ngoài" first appeared in the Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum by Alexandre de Rhodes. Đàng Ngoài was ruled by Trịnh lords. It was bordered by Đàng Trong along the Linh River; the name was fading out from the people's memory after Nguyễn Huệ's conquering of the north. Đàng Ngoài was mentioned as ān nán guó in Chinese records. Đàng Trong Tonkin
Cao Cao, courtesy name Mengde, was a Chinese warlord and the penultimate Chancellor of the Eastern Han dynasty who rose to great power in the final years of the dynasty. As one of the central figures of the Three Kingdoms period, he laid the foundations for what was to become the state of Cao Wei and the Jin dynasty, was posthumously honoured as "Emperor Wu of Wei", he is portrayed as a cruel and merciless tyrant in subsequent literature. During the fall of the Eastern Han dynasty, Cao Cao was able to secure the most populated and prosperous cities of the central plains and northern China. Cao Cao had much success as the Han chancellor, but his handling of the Han Emperor Xian was criticised and resulted in a continued and escalated civil war. Opposition directly gathered around warlords Liu Sun Quan, whom Cao Cao was unable to quell. Cao Cao was skilled in poetry and martial arts and wrote many war journals. Cao Cao was born in Qiao in 155, his father Cao Song was a foster son of Cao Teng, who in turn was one of the favourite eunuchs of Emperor Huan.
Some historical records, including the Biography of Cao Man, claim that Cao Song's original family name was Xiahou. However, recent studies show. Cao was known for his craftiness as an adolescent. According to the Biography of Cao Man, Cao Cao's uncle complained to Cao Song about Cao Cao's indulgence in hunting and music with Yuan Shao. In retaliation, Cao Cao feigned a fit before his uncle, who rushed to inform Cao Song; when Cao Song went to see his son, Cao Cao behaved normally. When asked, Cao Cao replied, "I have never had a fit, but I lost the love of my uncle, therefore he deceived you." Afterwards, Cao Song ceased to believe his brother regarding Cao Cao, thus Cao Cao became more blatant and insistent in his wayward pursuits. At that time, there was a man named Xu Shao who lived in Runan and was famous for his ability to evaluate a person's potentials and talents. Cao Cao paid him a visit in hopes of receiving an evaluation. At first, Xu Shao refused to make a statement. Cao Cao left. There are two other versions of this comment in other unofficial historical records.
At the age of 20, Cao Cao was appointed district captain of Luoyang. Upon taking up the post, he placed rows of multicolored stakes outside his office and ordered his deputies to flog those who violated the law, regardless of their status. An uncle of Jian Shuo, one of the most powerful and influential eunuchs under Emperor Ling, was caught walking in the city after the evening curfew by Cao Cao's men and was flogged; this prompted Jian Shuo and other higher authorities to ostensibly promote Cao Cao to the post of governor of Dunqiu County while moving him out of the imperial capital. Cao Cao remained in this position for little more than a year, being dismissed from office in 178 for his distant family ties with the disgraced Empress Song. Around 180, Cao Cao returned to court as a Consultant and presented two memoranda against the eunuchs' influence in court and government corruption during his tenure, to limited effect; when the Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out in 184, Cao Cao was recalled to Luoyang and appointed Captain of the Cavalry and sent to Yingchuan in Yu Province to suppress the rebels.
He was successful and was sent to Ji'nan as Chancellor to prevent the spread of Yellow Turban influence there. In Ji'nan, Cao Cao aggressively enforced the ban on unorthodox cults, destroyed shrines, supported state Confucianism, he offended the local leading families in the process, resigned on grounds of poor health around 187, fearing that he had put his family in danger. He was offered the post of Administrator of Dong Commandery, but he declined and returned to his home in Pei County. Around that time, Wang Fen tried to recruit Cao Cao to join his coup to replace Emperor Ling with the Marquis of Hefei, but Cao Cao refused; the plot came to nothing, Wang Fen killed himself. After 18 months in retirement, Cao Cao returned to the capital Luoyang in 188; that year, he was appointed Colonel Who Arranges the Army, fourth of eight heads of a newly established imperial army, the Army of the Western Garden. The effectiveness of this new force was never tested, since it was disbanded the next year.
In 189, Emperor Ling died and was succeeded by his eldest son, although state power was controlled by Empress Dowager He and her advisors. The empress dowager's brother, General-in-Chief He Jin, plotted with Yuan Shao to eliminate the Ten Attendants, he Jin summoned Dong Zhuo, a seasoned general of Liang Province, to lead an army into Luoyang to pressure the empress dowager to surrender power, braving accusations of Dong's "infamy". Before Dong Zhuo arrived, He Jin was assassinated by the eunuchs and Luoyang was thrown into chaos as Yuan Shao's supporters fought the eunuchs. Dong Zhuo's army rid the palace grounds of opposition. After he deposed Emperor Shao, Dong Zhuo placed the puppet Emperor Xian on the throne, since he deemed that Emperor Xian was more capable than the original puppet Emperor Shao. After rejecting Dong Zhuo's offer of appointment, Cao Cao left Luoyang for Chenliu, where he built an army; the next year, regional warlords formed a military alliance un
Đại Việt is the name of Vietnam for the periods from 1054 to 1400 and 1428 to 1804. Beginning with the rule of Lý Thánh Tông, the third emperor of the Lý Dynasty, until the rule of Gia Long, the first emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty, it was the second-longest used name for the country after "Văn Lang". Beginning with the rule of Đinh Tiên Hoàng, the country had been referred to as Đại Cồ Việt; the term "Việt" is the same as the Chinese word "Yue", a name in ancient times of various non-Chinese groups who lived in what is now northern/southern China and northern Vietnam. In 1010 Lý Thái Tổ, founder of the Lý Dynasty, moved the capital of Đại Cồ Việt to Thăng Long and built the Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long where the Hanoi Citadel would stand. In 1054, Lý Thánh Tông – the third Lý emperor – renamed the country Đại Việt. In 1149 the Lý dynasty opened Vân Đồn seaport in the modern north-eastern province of Quảng Ninh to foreign trade; the Dai Viet stopped attacks by the Khmer Empire under Suryavarman II in 1128, 1132, 1138.
A final expedition in 1150 had to withdraw. The Mongolians of the Yuan Dynasty were defeated; the last battle, the Battle of Bach Dang, was a decisive defeat for the Mongolians. Dai Viet's victories against the Mongols prevented the Mongolians from conquering South East Asia, prevented the fourth Mongolian invasion of Japan, as their fleet was destroyed during Bach Dang; this became one the greatest victories in Vietnamese military history. In 1400, the founder of the Hồ dynasty, Hồ Quý Ly, changed the country's name to "Đại Ngu". In 1407, Vietnam fell under Ming dynasty domination, which lasted until 1427; the Ming renamed the area "Giao Chỉ". In 1428, Lê Lợi, the founder of the Lê dynasty, liberated Giao Chỉ once again restored the kingdom as "Đại Việt"; the name "Đại Việt" came to end. The country's name was changed yet again, in 1804, this time to "Việt Nam" by Gia Long; the name Đại Việt was taken by one of the nationalist factions in 1936. Names of Vietnam List of monarchs of Vietnam Google Books search State formation on China’s southern frontier: Vietnam as a shadow empire and hegemon, by Tuong Vu
A prince is a male ruler ranked below a king and above a duke or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. Prince is a title of nobility hereditary, in some European states; the feminine equivalent is a princess. The English word derives, via the French word prince, from the Latin noun princeps, from primus and capio, meaning "the chief, most distinguished, prince"; the Latin word prīnceps, became the usual title of the informal leader of the Roman senate some centuries before the transition to empire, the princeps senatus. Emperor Augustus established the formal position of monarch on the basis of principate, not dominion, he tasked his grandsons as summer rulers of the city when most of the government were on holiday in the country or attending religious rituals, for that task, granted them the title of princeps. The title has generic and substantive meanings: generically, prince refers to a member of a family that ruled by hereditary right, the title referring either to sovereigns or to cadets of a sovereign's family.
The term may be broadly used of persons in various continents or eras. In Europe, it is the title borne by dynastic cadets in monarchies, borne by courtesy by members of reigning dynasties. as a substantive title, a prince was a monarch of the lowest rank in post-Napoleonic Europe, e.g. Princes of Andorra, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Monaco and Pyrmont, etc. substantively, the title was granted by popes and secular monarchs to specific individuals and to the heads of some high-ranking European families who, never exercised dynastic sovereignty and whose cadets are not entitled to share the princely title, viz the Princes de Beauvau-Craon, von Bismarck, von Dohna-Schlobitten, von Eulenburg, de Faucigny-Lucinge, von Lichnowsky, von Pless, Ruffo di Calabria, von Sagan, van Ursel, etc. generically, cadets of some non-sovereign families whose head bears the non-dynastic title of prince were sometimes authorized to use the princely title, e.g. von Carolath-Beuthen, de Broglie, Demidoff di San Donato, Lieven, de Merode, Radziwill, von Wrede, etc. substantively, the heirs apparent in some monarchies use a specific princely title associated with a territory within the monarch's realm, e.g. the Princes of Asturias, Grão Pará, Viana, etc. substantively, it became the fashion from the 17th century for the heirs apparent of the leading ducal families to assume a princely title, associated with a seigneurie in the family's possession.
These titles were borne by courtesy and preserved by tradition, not law, e.g. the princes de Bidache, Tonnay-Charente, Poix, Léon, The original, but now less common use of the word, originated in the application of the Latin word princeps, from late Roman law, the classical system of government that gave way to the European feudal society. In this sense, a prince is a ruler of a territory, sovereign, or quasi-sovereign, i.e. exercising substantial prerogatives associated with monarchs of independent nations, such as the immediate states within the historical boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire. In medieval and Early Modern Europe, there were as many as two hundred such territories in Italy and Gaelic Ireland. In this sense, "prince" is used of all rulers, regardless of actual title or precise rank; this is the Renaissance use of the term found in Il Principe. As a title, by the end of the medieval era, prince was borne by rulers of territories that were either smaller than or exercised fewer of the rights of sovereignty than did emperors and kings.
A lord of a quite small territory might come to be referred to as a prince before the 13th century, either from translations of a native title into the Latin princeps, or when the lord's territory was allodial. The lord of an allodium owned his lands and exercised prerogatives over the subjects in his territory owing no feudal homage or duty as a vassal to a liege lord, nor being subject to any higher jurisdiction. Most small territories designated as principalities during feudal eras were allodial, e.g. the Princedom of Dombes. Lords who exercised lawful authority over territories and people within a feudal hierarchy were sometimes regarded as princes in the general sense if they held the rank of count or higher; this is attested in some surviving styles for e.g. British earls and dukes are still addressed by the Crown on ceremonial occasions as high and noble princes. In parts of the Holy Roman Empire in which primogeniture did not prevail, all legitimate agnates had an equal right to the family's hereditary titles.
While this meant that offices, such as emperor and elector could only be occupied by one dynast at a time, holders of such other titles as duke, landgrave, count palatine, prince could only differentiate themselves by adding the name of their appanage to the family's original title. Not only did this tend to proliferate unwieldy titles, but as agnatic primogeniture became the norm in the Holy Roman Empire by the end of the 18th century, another me