Gulf Islands National Seashore
Gulf Islands National Seashore offers recreation opportunities and preserves natural and historic resources along the Gulf of Mexico barrier islands of Florida and Mississippi. The protected regions include mainland parts of seven islands; some islands along the Alabama coast were considered for inclusion, but none is part of the National Seashore. The Florida District of the seashore features offshore barrier islands with sparkling white quartz sand beaches, historic fortifications, nature trails. Mainland features near Pensacola, include the Naval Live Oaks Reservation and military forts. All Florida areas are accessible by automobile; the Mississippi District of the seashore features natural beaches, historic sites, wildlife sanctuaries, islands accessible only by boat, nature trails, picnic areas, campgrounds. The Davis Bayou Area is the only portion of the National Seashore in Mississippi, accessible by automobile. Petit Bois, East Ship, West Ship, Cat islands are accessible only by boat.
The 4,080 acres Gulf Islands Wilderness offers special protection, within the seashore, to parts of Petit Bois Island and Horn Island, Mississippi. Considerable damage to public infrastructure occurred as a result of storms during the 2004 and 2005 Atlantic hurricane seasons. In subsequent years, infrastructure was repaired. All roadways, parking areas and visitor centers have been repaired and are operational. A few trails and associated boardwalks and dune crossovers were still under repair as of late 2010 near the Fort Pickens campground. Principal islands in the seashore: Santa Rosa Island - Florida Perdido Key - Florida Petit Bois Island - Mississippi West Petit Bois Island - Mississippi Horn Island - Mississippi East Ship Island - Mississippi West Ship Island - Mississippi Cat Island - Mississippi The national seashore was authorized on January 8, 1971, is administered by the National Park Service; the wilderness area was designated on November 10, 1978. Four visitor centers, staffed by National Park personnel, are located within Gulf Islands National Seashore.
Three are located in Florida, one is located in Mississippi. Florida Visitor Centers Naval Live Oaks Visitor Center and Park Headquarters Building, Gulf Breeze, Florida Fort Barrancas Visitor Center Fort Pickens Visitor Center, Pensacola Beach, FloridaMississippi Visitor Centers William M. Colmer Visitor Center, Ocean Springs, Mississippi Near Fort Massachusetts Two developed campgrounds are located in the National Seashore. Primitive camping is permitted in designated areas. Campground fees are posted at the "Fees and Reservations" website. In Florida, the Pickens Campground is a developed one and provides water and electrical hookups for recreational vehicles and tents. Roads are paved throughout the campground, as well as each campsite; the environment is characterized by sand scrub oaks, small brackish ponds, a remnant pine forest on a barrier island between Pensacola Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Central restrooms and showers are available. A campground store reopened in late 2010. There are no sewer hookups at the campsites.
Reservations can be made through the "ReserveAmerica" website from March through October. From November through February, sites are available on a first-served basis; the campground is located 1.5 miles from Fort Pickens itself. In Mississippi, the Davis Bayou Campground is developed, providing water and electrical hookups for recreational vehicles and tents. Roads are paved throughout the campground, as well as each campsite; the environment is characterized by an oak and pine forest adjacent to a brackish bayou connected to Mississippi Sound. Central restrooms and showers are available. There are no sewer hookups at the campsites. Reservations can be made through the "ReserveAmerica" website. Campsites not reserved for the day are available on a first-come, first-served basis; the campground is located at the end of roadway leading through the Davis Bayou Area. Primitive camping is permitted on several of the barrier islands. Boating or hiking in is required; such camping is allowed on Perdido Key, on government-owned properties on Petit Bois, East Ship, Cat islands in Mississippi.
With several islands in Mississippi designated as "wilderness areas", an unusual opportunity exists along the northern Gulf Coast for a wilderness experience. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill, beginning 20 April 2010, released masses of oil and tar which began washing ashore, in varying amounts, along the Gulf Islands National Seashore on 1 June 2010. On 23 June 2010, wave after wave of oil pools and globs began covering the beaches on Santa Rosa Island, resulting in a fishing and swimming ban; the oil-spill disaster affected every large island in the group. A variety of fees apply to various activities at the National Seashore. Current fees can be viewed at the National Seashore's "Fees and Reservations" website. Entrance fees are charged at the entrance to the Fort Pickens area at Pensacola Beach, as well as the Johnson Beach Area at Perdido Key in Florida; the typical automobile entrance fee is good for seven days. Annual passes can be purchased for US$30; the various forms of the "America the Beautiful - National Parks and Federal Recreational Lands Pass" are accepted.
There are no entrance fees charged in any other areas
Brice's Cross Roads National Battlefield Site
Brice's Cross Roads National Battlefield Site commemorates the Battle of Brice's Crossroads, in which the Confederate army, under Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest, defeated a much larger Union force on June 10, 1864, to secure supply lines between Nashville and Chattanooga, Tennessee. The Brice's Cross Roads National Battlefield Site, in Lee County, preserves the battlefield at Brice's Cross Roads which extended northward into southwestern Prentiss County; this is the spot. It is located about 6 miles west of Baldwyn, on Highway 370; the site features a memorial erected soon after the battlefield was designated as a historic site in 1929. In addition, on June 11, 2005, a second memorial was dedicated to Confederate Capt. John W. Morton, Chief of Artillery, his battery. Brice's Cross Roads is the only component of the National Park System designated a "battlefield site"; the modern Bethany Presbyterian Church is located on the southeast side of the crossroads. At the time of the battle, this congregation's meeting house was located further south along the Baldwyn Road.
The Bethany Cemetery, adjacent to the battlefield site, predates the Civil War. Many of the area's earliest settlers are buried here; the graves of more than 90 Confederate soldiers killed in the battle are located in this cemetery. Union dead from the battle were buried in common graves on the battlefield, but were reinterred in the Memphis National Cemetery at Memphis, Tennessee; the Brice's Crossroads Visitor Center, located in Baldwyn, is owned and operated by a public commission. Brice's Crossroads National Battlefield Commission, Inc. formed in 1994 by concerned local citizens, is involved in protecting the greater battlefield, considered one of the most beautiful preserved battlefields of the American Civil War. With assistance from the Civil War Trust and the support of federal and local governments, the commission has purchased for preservation 1,423 acres of the original battlefield; the site was established February 21, 1929, transferred from the War Department to the National Park Service on August 10, 1933.
The battlefield was automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. It is administered under the Natchez Trace Parkway. Natchez Trace Parkway National Register of Historic Places listings in Lee County, Mississippi Tupelo National Battlefield The National Parks: Index 2001–2003. Washington: U. S. Department of the Interior. GovernmentOfficial websiteGeneral informationBrice's Cross Roads National Battlefield Site at the American Battlefield Protection Program Brice's Cross Roads National Battlefield Site at the Civil War Trust Brice's Cross Roads National Battlefield Site at the National Park Foundation
Tupelo is a city in, the county seat of, Lee County, United States. With an estimated population of 38,114 in 2017, Tupelo is the seventh-largest city in Mississippi and is considered a commercial and cultural hub of North Mississippi. Tupelo was incorporated in 1867, although the area had earlier been settled as "Gum Pond" along the Mobile and Ohio Railroad. On February 7, 1934, Tupelo became the first city to receive power from the Tennessee Valley Authority thus giving it the nickname "The First TVA City." Much of the city was devastated by a major tornado in 1936 that still ranks as one of the deadliest tornadoes in American history. Following electrification, Tupelo boomed as a regional manufacturing and distribution center and was once considered a hub of the American furniture manufacturing industry. Although many of Tupelo's manufacturing industries have declined since the 1990s, the city has continued to grow due to strong healthcare and financial service industries. Tupelo is the smallest city in the United States, the headquarters of more than one bank with over $10 billion in assets.
Tupelo has a deep connection to Mississippi's music history, being associated with artists as diverse as Elvis Presley, Rae Sremmurd, Diplo. The city is home to multiple art and cultural institutions, including the Elvis Presley Birthplace and the 10,000-seat BancorpSouth Arena, the largest multipurpose indoor arena in Mississippi. Tupelo is the only city in the Southern United States to be named an All-America City five times, most in 2015; the Tupelo micropolitian area contains Lee and Pontotoc counties and had a population of 140,081 in 2017. Indigenous peoples lived in the area for thousands of years; the historic Chickasaw and Choctaw, both Muskogean-speaking peoples of the Southeast, occupied this area long before European encounter. French and British colonists traded with these indigenous peoples and tried to make alliances with them; the French established towns in Mississippi on the Gulf Coast. At times, the European powers came into armed conflict. On May 26, 1736, the Battle of Ackia was fought near the site of present-day Tupelo.
The French, under Louisiana governor Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, had sought to link Louisiana with Acadia and the other northern colonies of New France. In the early 19th century, after years of trading and encroachment by European-American settlers from the United States, conflicts increased as the US settlers tried to gain land from these nations. In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act and authorized the relocation of all the Southeast Native Americans west of the Mississippi River, completed by the end of the 1830s. In the early years of settlement, European-Americans named this town Gum Pond due to its numerous tupelo trees, known locally as blackgum; the city still hosts the annual Gumtree Arts Festival. During the Civil War and Confederate forces fought in the area in 1864 in the Battle of Tupelo. Designated the Tupelo National Battlefield, the battlefield is administered by the National Park Service. In addition, the Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield, about ten miles north, commemorates another American Civil War battle.
After the war, a cross-state railroad for northern Mississippi was constructed through the town, which encouraged industry and growth. With expansion, the town changed its name in honor of the battle, it was incorporated in 1870. By the early twentieth century, the town had become a site of cotton textile mills, which provided new jobs for residents of the rural area. Under the state's segregation practices, the mills employed only white children. Reformers attempted to protect them through labor laws; the last known bank robbery by Machine Gun Kelly, a Prohibition-era gangster, took place on November 30, 1932 at the Citizen's State Bank in Tupelo. After the robbery, the bank's chief teller said of Kelly, "He was the kind of guy that, if you looked at him, you would never thought he was a bank robber."During the Great Depression, Tupelo was electrified by the new Tennessee Valley Authority, which had constructed dams and power plants throughout the region to generate hydroelectric power for the large, rural area.
The distribution infrastructure was built with federal assistance as well, employing many local workers. In 1935, President Franklin Roosevelt visited this "First TVA City". In 2007, the nearby village of Blue Springs was selected as the site for Toyota's eleventh automobile manufacturing plant in the United States. In 2013 Gale Stauffer of the Tupelo Police Department died in a shootout following a bank robbery the first officer killed in the line of duty in the Department's history; the spring of 1936 brought Tupelo one of its worst-ever natural disasters, part of the Tupelo-Gainesville tornado outbreak of April 5–6 in that year. The storm leveled 48 city blocks and over 200 homes, killing 216 people and injuring more than 700 persons, it struck at night. Among the survivors was Elvis Presley a baby. Obliterating the Gum Pond neighborhood, the tornado dropped most of the victims' bodies in the pond; the storm has since been rated F5 on the modern Fujita scale. The Tupelo Tornado is recognized as one of the deadliest in U.
S. history. The Mississippi State Geologist estimated a final death toll of 233 persons, but 100 whites were still reported as hospitalized at the time; because the white newspapers did not publish news about blacks until the 1940s and 1950s, historians have had difficulty learning the fates of blacks i
Mississippi is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd most 34th most populous of the 50 United States, it is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Alabama to the east, the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana to the south, Arkansas and Louisiana to the west. The state's western boundary is defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson, with a population of 167,000 people, is both the state's capital and largest city; the state is forested outside the Mississippi Delta area, the area between the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. Before the American Civil War, most development in the state was along riverfronts, as the waterways were critical for transportation. Large gangs of slaves were used to work on cotton plantations. After the war, freedmen began to clear the bottomlands to the interior, in the process selling off timber and buying property. By the end of the 19th century, African Americans made up two-thirds of the Delta's property owners, but timber and railroad companies acquired much of the land after the financial crisis, which occurred when blacks were facing increasing racial discrimination and disfranchisement in the state.
Clearing of the land for plantations altered the Delta's ecology, increasing the severity of flooding along the Mississippi by taking out trees and bushes that had absorbed excess waters. Much land is now held by agribusinesses. A rural state with agricultural areas dominated by industrial farms, Mississippi is ranked low or last among the states in such measures as health, educational attainment, median household income; the state's catfish aquaculture farms produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United States. Since the 1930s and the Great Migration of African Americans to the North and West, the majority of Mississippi's population has been white, although the state still has the highest percentage of black residents of any U. S. state. From the early 19th century to the 1930s, its residents were majority black, before the American Civil War that population was composed of African-American slaves. Democratic Party whites retained political power through disfranchisement and Jim Crow laws.
In the first half of the 20th century, nearly 400,000 rural blacks left the state for work and opportunities in northern and midwestern cities, with another wave of migration around World War II to West Coast cities. In the early 1960s, Mississippi was the poorest state in the nation, with 86% of its non-whites living below the poverty level. In 2010, 37% of Mississippians were African Americans, the highest percentage of African Americans in any U. S. state. Since regaining enforcement of their voting rights in the late 1960s, most African Americans have supported Democratic candidates in local and national elections. Conservative whites have shifted to the Republican Party. African Americans are a majority in many counties of the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta, an area of historic slave settlement during the plantation era; the state's name is derived from the Mississippi River. Settlers named it after the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi. Mississippi is bordered to the north by Tennessee, to the east by Alabama, to the south by Louisiana and a narrow coast on the Gulf of Mexico.
In addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big Black River, the Pearl River, the Yazoo River, the Pascagoula River, the Tombigbee River. Major lakes include Ross Barnett Reservoir, Arkabutla Lake, Sardis Lake, Grenada Lake with the largest lake being Sardis Lake. Mississippi is composed of lowlands, the highest point being Woodall Mountain, in the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains, 807 feet above sea level; the lowest point is sea level at the Gulf Coast. The state's mean elevation is 300 feet above sea level. Most of Mississippi is part of the East Gulf Coastal Plain; the coastal plain is composed of low hills, such as the Pine Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations. Yellow-brown loess soil is found in the western parts of the state; the northeast is a region of fertile black earth. The coastline includes large bays at Bay St. Louis and Pascagoula, it is separated from the Gulf of Mexico proper by the shallow Mississippi Sound, sheltered by Petit Bois Island, Horn Island and West Ship Islands, Deer Island, Round Island, Cat Island.
The northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. The plain widens north of Vicksburg; the region has rich soil made up of silt, deposited by the flood waters of the Mississippi River. Areas under the management of the National Park Service include: Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site near Baldwyn Gulf Islands National Seashore Natchez National Historical Park in Natchez Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail in Tupelo Natchez Trace Parkway Tupelo National Battlefield in Tupelo Vicksburg National Military Park and Cemetery in Vicksburg Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 20,000 but fewer than 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 10,000 but fewer than 20,000: Mississippi has a humid
Natchez National Historical Park
Natchez National Historical Park commemorates the history of Natchez, is managed by the National Park Service. The park consists of three separate sites: Fort Rosalie is the site of a former fortification from the 18th century, built by the French, it was renamed Fort Panmure and controlled in turn by Great Britain and the United States. The fort site is not open to the public; the William Johnson House was the home of William Johnson, a 19th-century free African American barber and resident of Natchez whose diary has been published. Melrose was the estate of John T. McMurran, a lawyer, state senator, planter who lived in Natchez from 1830 until the Civil War. Both Melrose and the William Johnson House contain furnishings related to life in antebellum Natchez and other exhibits; the collection at Melrose's two-story Greek Revival mansion and its slave quarters include painted floor cloths, mahogany, a punkah, a set of Rococo Revival parlor furniture, a set of Gothic Revival dining room chairs, bookcases with books dating to the 18th century.
These were collected including the McMurran family. The collection in the Johnson house includes furnishings from his family. Archaeological objects found in the park are on display; the National Historical Park was authorized on October 7, 1988. The William Johnson House was added to it on September 28, 1990; as with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Fort Rosalie was included in the National Register as part of the 1972 NRHP-listed Natchez Bluffs and Under-the-Hill Historic District. Melrose is located about two miles southwest of Fort Rosalie; the National Parks: Index 2001–2003. Washington: U. S. Department of the Interior. Official NPS website: Natchez National Historical Park
Tupelo National Battlefield
Tupelo National Battlefield commemorates the American Civil War battle of Tupelo known as the Battle of Harrisburg, fought from July 14 to 15, 1864, near Tupelo, Mississippi. The Union victory over Confederate forces in northeast Mississippi ensured the safety of Sherman's supply lines during the Atlanta Campaign; the Tupelo National Battlefield was established as "Tupelo Battlefield Site" on February 21, 1929. The site was transferred from the United States War Department to the National Park Service on August 10, 1933, boundary changed on August 10, 1961. In 1936, the Tupelo-Gainesville Tornado destroyed the concrete monument to the battle, ripping it out of the ground and shattering it; the site was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Natchez Trace Parkway National Register of Historic Places listings in Lee County, Mississippi Bearss, Edwin C.. Protecting Sherman's Lifeline: The Battles of Brices Cross Roads and Tupelo 1864.
Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office – via Internet Archive. National Park Service; the National Parks: Index 2001–2003. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office – via Internet Archive. GovernmentOfficial websiteGeneral informationTupelo National Battlefield at the American Battlefield Protection Program Tupelo National Battlefield at the Civil War Trust Tupelo National Battlefield at the National Park Foundation