OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Anacondas or water boas are a group of large snakes of the genus Eunectes. They are found in tropical South America. Four species are recognized. Although the name applies to a group of snakes, it is used to refer only to one species, in particular, the common or green anaconda, the largest snake in the world by weight, the second longest; the South American names anacauchoa and anacaona were suggested in an account by Peter Martyr d'Anghiera but the idea of a South American origin was questioned by Henry Walter Bates who, in his travels in South America, failed to find any similar name in use. The word anaconda is derived from the name of a snake from Ceylon that John Ray described in Latin in his Synopsis Methodica Animalium as serpens indicus bubalinus anacandaia zeylonibus, ides bubalorum aliorumque jumentorum membra conterens. Ray used a catalogue of snakes from the Leyden museum supplied by Dr. Tancred Robinson, but the description of its habit was based on Andreas Cleyer who in 1684 described a gigantic snake that crushed large animals by coiling around their bodies and crushing their bones.
Henry Yule in his Hobson-Jobson notes that the word became more popular due to a piece of fiction published in 1768 in the Scots Magazine by a certain R. Edwin. Edwin described a'tiger' being crushed to death by an anaconda, when there never were any tigers in Sri Lanka. Yule and Frank Wall noted that the snake was in fact a python and suggested a Tamil origin anai-kondra meaning elephant killer. A Sinhalese origin was suggested by Donald Ferguson who pointed out that the word Henakandaya was used in Sri Lanka for the small whip snake and somehow got misapplied to the python before myths were created; the name used for the anaconda in Brazil is sucuri, sucuriju or sucuriuba. The term "anaconda" has been used to refer to: Any member of the genus Eunectes, a group of large, aquatic snakes found in South America: Eunectes murinus, the green anaconda – the largest species, found east of the Andes in Colombia, the Guianas, Peru, Bolivia and Trinidad and Tobago Eunectes notaeus, the yellow anaconda – a small species, found in eastern Bolivia, southern Brazil and northeastern Argentina Eunectes deschauenseei, the darkly-spotted anaconda – a rare species, found in northeastern Brazil and coastal French Guiana Eunectes beniensis, the Bolivian anaconda – the most defined species, found in the Departments of Beni and Pando in Bolivia The giant anaconda, a mythical snake of enormous proportions said to be found in South America The term was applied imprecisely, indicating any large snake that constricts its prey, though this usage is now archaic.
South American jaguar, a competitor or predator
Wolverine is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics in association with the X-Men. He is a mutant who possesses animal-keen senses, enhanced physical capabilities, powerful regenerative ability known as a healing factor, three retractable claws in each hand. Wolverine has been depicted variously as a member of the X-Men, Alpha Flight, the Avengers; the character appeared in the last panel of The Incredible Hulk #180 before having a larger role in #181. He was created by Marvel editor-in-chief Roy Thomas, writer Len Wein, Marvel art director John Romita Sr. Romita designed the character, although it was first drawn for publication by Herb Trimpe. Wolverine joined a revamped version of the superhero team the X-Men, where writer Chris Claremont and artist-writer John Byrne would play significant roles in the character's development. Artist Frank Miller collaborated with Claremont and helped revise the character with a four-part eponymous limited series from September to December 1982, which debuted Wolverine's catchphrase, "I'm the best there is at what I do, but what I do best isn't nice."
Wolverine is typical of the many tough antiheroes that emerged in American popular culture after the Vietnam War. As a result, the character became a fan favorite of the popular X-Men franchise, has been featured in his own solo comic book series since 1988, he has appeared in most X-Men adaptations, including animated television series, video games, the live-action 20th Century Fox X-Men film series, in which he is portrayed by Hugh Jackman in nine of the ten films. The character is rated in many comics best-of lists, ranked #1 in Wizard magazine's 2008 Top 200 Comic Book Characters. Marvel editor-in-chief Roy Thomas asked writer Len Wein to devise a character named Wolverine, Canadian and of small stature and with a wolverine's fierce temper. John Romita Sr. designed the first Wolverine costume, believes he introduced the retractable claws, saying, "When I make a design, I want it to be practical and functional. I thought,'If a man has claws like that, how does he scratch his nose or tie his shoelaces?'"
Wolverine first appeared in the final "teaser" panel of The Incredible Hulk #180 written by Wein and penciled by Herb Trimpe. The character appeared in a number of advertisements in various Marvel Comics publications before making his first major appearance in The Incredible Hulk #181 again by the Wein–Trimpe team. In 2009, Trimpe said he "distinctly remembers" Romita's sketch and that, "The way I see it, sewed the monster together and I shocked it to life!... It was just one of those secondary or tertiary characters that we were using in that particular book with no particular notion of it going anywhere. We did characters in The Hulk all the time that were in issues and, the end of them." Though credited as co-creator, Trimpe denied having had any role in Wolverine's creation. The character's introduction was ambiguous, revealing little beyond his being a superhuman agent of the Canadian government. In these appearances, he does not retract his claws, although Wein stated they had always been envisioned as retractable.
He appears in the finale to this story in The Incredible Hulk #182. Wolverine's next appearance was in 1975's Giant-Size X-Men #1, written by Wein and penciled by Dave Cockrum, in which Wolverine is recruited for a new squad. Gil Kane incorrectly drew Wolverine's mask with larger headpieces. Dave Cockrum liked Kane's accidental alteration and incorporated it into his own artwork for the actual story. Cockrum was the first artist to draw Wolverine without his mask, the distinctive hairstyle became a trademark of the character. A revival of X-Men followed, beginning with X-Men #94, drawn by Cockrum and written by Chris Claremont. In X-Men and Uncanny X-Men, Wolverine is overshadowed by the other characters, although he does create tension in the team as he is attracted to Cyclops' girlfriend, Jean Grey; as the series progressed and Cockrum considered dropping Wolverine from the series. Byrne modeled his rendition of Wolverine on actor Paul D’Amato, who played Dr. Hook in the 1977 sports film Slap Shot.
Byrne created Alpha Flight, a group of Canadian superheroes who try to recapture Wolverine due to the expense their government incurred training him. Stories establish Wolverine's murky past and unstable nature, which he battles to keep in check. Byrne designed a new brown-and-tan costume for Wolverine, but retained the distinctive Cockrum cowl. Cockrum had introduced a new costume for Wolverine in the final issue of his run, but it was dropped one issue into Byrne's run because he and Cockrum alike found it painfully difficult to draw. Following Byrne's departure, Wolverine remained in X-Men; the character's growing popularity led to a solo, four-issue, Wolverine, by Claremont and Frank Miller, followed by the six-issue Kitty Pryde and Wolverine by Claremont and Al Milgrom. Marvel launched an ongoing solo book
DK known as Dorling Kindersley, is a British multinational publishing company specialising in illustrated reference books for adults and children in 62 languages. It is an imprint of Penguin Random House, a subsidiary of German media conglomerate Bertelsmann and British publishing company Pearson plc. Established in 1974, DK publishes a range of titles in genres including travel and crafts, history, gaming, gardening and fitness, natural history, parenting and reference, they publish books for children and babies, covering such topics as history, the human body and activities, as well as licensed properties such as LEGO, Disney and DeLiSo, licensor of the toy Sophie la Girafe. DK has offices in New York, London, New Delhi and Toronto. DK was founded as a book-packaging company by Christopher Dorling and Peter Kindersley in London in 1974, in 1982 moved into publishing; the first book published under the DK name was a First Aid Manual for the British voluntary medical services. DK Inc. began publishing in the United States in 1991.
That same year, Microsoft bought a 26 percent stake in DK. In 1999 it overestimated the market for Star Wars books and was left with millions of unsold copies, resulting in crippling debt; as a direct result, DK was taken over the following year by the Pearson plc media company and made part of Penguin Group, which owned the Penguin Books label. DK has continued to sell Star Wars books after the takeover. In 2013 Bertelsmann and Pearson completed a merger to form Penguin Random House. Bertelsmann Pearson 47 % of the company. Penguin's trade publishing activity continued to include DK under the newly formed Penguin Random House. DK publishes a range of titles internationally for children. Most of the company's books are produced by teams of editors and designers who work with freelance writers and illustrators; some are endorsed by "imprimaturs": well-known and respected organisations such as the British Medical Association, the Royal Horticultural Society and the British Red Cross. Some DK books produced by celebrity authors such as Carol Vorderman are ghostwritten by the company's own writers and editors.
BradyGames is a publishing company in the United States operating as a DK imprint, which specializes in video game strategy guides, covering multiple video game platforms. It published their first strategy guide in November 1993 as a division of MacMillan Computer Publishing. In 1998, Simon & Schuster divested BradyGames as part of its educational division to Pearson plc. BradyGames has grown to publish 90-100 guides per year. On 1 June 2015, BradyGames merged with Prima Games, future strategy guides made by the publishing company will be published under the Prima Games label. During the 1990s, the company published educational videos and a successful range of educational CD-ROMs under the brand DK Multimedia. During the late 1990s CD-ROMs were rebranded as DK Interactive Learning to reflect a changed emphasis toward the educational sector. Following dwindling sales and increasing competition from websites, the company tried to rebrand the digital part of its business as DK Online before opting to sell the UK publishing rights to its CD-ROM backlist in 2000 to an separate company, Global Software Publishing, part of the Avanquest Software Group.
The DK Online section of the business transferred into development work on the anglicised version of the Pearson Education KnowledgeBox product. In December 2010 DK opened an app store, selling digital versions of some of its books as well as products from other publishers. DK commenced publishing books aimed at teens with the release of Heads Up Psychology in May 2014 and further titles following every two to three months. Reception of the first title was favorable with Publishers Weekly writing "Attention-getting headers should hook curious readers, while the findings of psychological studies should deepen their understanding of this field. Infographics and photos both create an inviting visual layout and underscore the concepts discussed." While Booklist called it an "attractive book" and "a busy but appealing companion for high-school psychology textbooks." Other book series published include: DK Eyewitness Travel Guides The Big Ideas RHS Encyclopedia Doodlepedia The Little Courses Line of World Atlases.
Pocket Genius Touch & Feel Follow the Trail Peekaboo! Baby Sparkle Sophie la girafe My First Nature Explorers Ultimate Sticker Books Ultimate Factivity Collection DK Knowledge Encyclopedia All About DK Braille Made History DK Eyewitness Pocket Eyewitness Eyewitness Activities Utterly Amazing Eyewonder DKfindout! Alpha DK Eyewitness Travel Cartopedia DK website DK Travel DK Findout! DK English for Everyone BradyGames' official website Official YouTube channel
Phil Jimenez is an American comics artist and writer, known for his work as writer/artist on Wonder Woman from 2000 to 2003, as one of the five pencilers of the 2005–2006 miniseries Infinite Crisis, his collaborations with writer Grant Morrison on New X-Men and The Invisibles. Phil Jimenez was born and raised in Los Angeles and Orange County, California, he moved to New York City to attend college at the School of Visual Arts, where he majored in cartooning. He graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in 1991. After graduating from SVA, Jimenez was hired by DC Comics Creative Director Neal Pozner at age 21, with his first published work illustrating four pages in the 1991 miniseries War of the Gods. Pozner was HIV-positive when he and Jimenez started dating, was hesitant about dating someone younger and HIV-negative. Nonetheless, Jimenez became both Pozner's partner and caretaker, saying: Neal Pozner was my first editor, he was my greatest mentor at DC Comics, he was an talented man, with some strong opinions about the way things should be done.
I developed a crush on him the minute I met him, I wanted to know more about him, I wanted to be with him all the time. So I'd hang out with him at work, in the offices, far than I had any reason to. I would buy clothes, and I mustered the nerve to ask him on a date. And he was 15 years older, and he had been my boss. And so, against his better judgement, he said yes, and it ended up being a wonderful relationship. Following Neal Pozner's death in 1994, Jimenez wrote and illustrated the 1996 DC miniseries, based on a character from Pozner's late-1980s Aquaman series. In the last issue, Jimenez dedicated the miniseries to Pozner, wrote an editorial page in which he came out publicly for the first time. "It got over 150 letters," he says, "including the classic letter from the kid in Iowa:'I didn't know there was anyone else like me.' That's. It meant a lot to people."Much of Jimenez's work is related to works by George Pérez, whose art influenced Jimenez. Jimenez has worked on several Teen Titans-related series, was the main artist of Infinite Crisis, a sequel to Crisis on Infinite Earths, did a long run as writer/artist of Wonder Woman beginning with issue #164.
Pérez had worked on the series in the late 1980s to early 1990s. Pérez and Jimenez would co-write a two–part story together in Wonder Woman issues #168–169 in 2001. Jimenez would leave as series writer/artist with issue #188 in March 2003. Jimenez and Pérez have worked together in 2005–2006 in the miniseries Infinite Crisis and DC Special: The Return of Donna Troy. Jimenez is known for his work on various titles for DC Entertainment's "mature readers" imprint, including Swamp Thing, The Invisibles with writer Grant Morrison, his own creator-owned series, the sci-fi/fantasy mashup Otherworld. In 2003, Jimenez drew several story arcs of Morrison's New X-Men run, it was announced at the 2007 San Diego Comic-Con that Jimenez had signed an exclusive contract with Marvel Comics. He was one of the four artists working on Marvel's flagship title, The Amazing Spider-Man, the company's sole Spider-Man title, in which Marvel upped its frequency of publication to three issues monthly, inaugurated the series with the "back to basics" story arc "Brand New Day" at the beginning of 2008.
His first work on Spider-Man was in the Free Comic Book Day 2007: Spider-Man #1 comic book, with writer Dan Slott, which served as a prelude to "Brand New Day". Jimenez and writer Bob Gale co-created the Freak in The Amazing Spider-Man #552. Ana Kravinoff, the daughter of Kraven the Hunter, was introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man #565 by Jimenez and Marc Guggenheim. During his run, Jimenez drew the cover for The Amazing Spider-Man # 583. In 2009, Marvel Editor-in-Chief Joe Quesada announced that Jimenez would become the artist of Astonishing X-Men beginning with issue #31. Jimenez co-wrote the book The Essential Wonder Woman Encyclopedia with John Wells for Del Rey Books in 2010 and updated through Random House in 2015, he returned to DC Comics, illustrating a brief stint on Adventure Comics featuring the Legion of Super-Heroes, Fairest, a spin-off of Bill Willingham's series Fables. He appeared at the White House for the National Design Awards to present original art to First Lady Michelle Obama.
Jimenez appeared in a panel discussion on diversity in sci-fi/fantasy fandom in the March 19, 2015 episode of the Comedy Central humor and commentary program The Nightly Show with Larry Wilmore, along with Marvel Comics' director of content and character Sana Amanat, hip-hop artist Jean Grae and comedian Mike Lawrence. During the discussion, Jimenez commented, "It feels strange to me that we would partition race and nerd as if they were distinct things... All human beings are this combination of experiences and ideologies... Everybody's get some nerd in them, but the idea that, being a nerd is separate from one’s religious or moral or political beliefs is strange to me. We all bring everything to our decision-making on a daily basis."As part of the DC Rebirth relaunch of DC's titles, Jimenez was the writer and artist of the Superwoman series from 2016 to 2017. He got involved with Rebirth when he was assigned to be the artist of Superman but after DC changed their publishing plan, he was asked to work on Superwoman.
Fiction broadly refers to any narrative, derived from the imagination—in other words, not based on history or fact. It can refer, more narrowly, to narratives written only in prose, is used as a synonym for the novel. In its most narrow usage fiction refers to novels, but it may denote any "literary narrative", including novels and short stories. More broadly, fiction has come to encompass imaginative storytelling in any format, including writings, theatrical performances, films, television programs, games, so on. A work of fiction implies the inventive act of constructing an imaginary world, so its audience does not expect it to be faithful to the real world in presenting only characters who are actual people or descriptions that are factually true. Instead, the context of fiction understood as not adhering to the real world, is more open to interpretation. Characters and events within a fictional work may be set in their own context separate from the known universe: an independent fictional universe.
Fiction's traditional opposite is non-fiction, a narrative work whose creator assumes responsibility for presenting only the historical and factual truth. The distinction between fiction and non-fiction however can be unclear in some recent artistic and literary movements, such as postmodern literature. Traditionally, fiction includes novels, short stories, legends, fairy tales and narrative poetry, plays. However, fiction may encompass comic books, many animated cartoons, stop motions, manga, video games, radio programs, television programs, etc; the Internet has had a major impact on the creation and distribution of fiction, calling into question the feasibility of copyright as a means to ensure royalties are paid to copyright holders. Digital libraries such as Project Gutenberg make public domain texts more available; the combination of inexpensive home computers, the Internet and the creativity of its users has led to new forms of fiction, such as interactive computer games or computer-generated comics.
Countless forums for fan fiction can be found online, where loyal followers of specific fictional realms create and distribute derivative stories. The Internet is used for the development of blog fiction, where a story is delivered through a blog either as flash fiction or serial blog, collaborative fiction, where a story is written sequentially by different authors, or the entire text can be revised by anyone using a wiki. Types of literary fiction in prose include: Short story: A work of at least 2,000 words but under 7,500 words; the boundary between a long short story and a novella is vague. Novella: A work of at least 7,500 words but under 50,000 words. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness is an example of a novella. Novel: A work of 50,000 words or more. Fiction is broken down into a variety of genres: subsets of fiction, each differentiated by a particular unifying tone or style, narrative technique, media content, or popularly defined criterion. Science fiction, for example, predicts or supposes technologies that are not realities at the time of the work's creation: Jules Verne's novel From the Earth to the Moon was published in 1865 and only in 1969 did astronaut Neil Armstrong first land on the moon.
Historical fiction places imaginary characters into real historical events. In the early historical novel Waverley, Sir Walter Scott's fictional character Edward Waverley meets a figure from history, Bonnie Prince Charlie, takes part in the Battle of Prestonpans; some works of fiction are or re-imagined based on some true story, or a reconstructed biography. When the fictional story is based on fact, there may be additions and subtractions from the true story to make it more interesting. An example is Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried, a series of short stories about the Vietnam War. Fictional works that explicitly involve supernatural, magical, or scientifically impossible elements are classified under the genre of fantasy, including Lewis Carroll's Alice In Wonderland, J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series, J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. Creators of fantasy sometimes introduce imaginary beings such as dragons and fairies. Literary fiction is a term used in the book-trade to distinguish novels that are regarded as having literary merit, from most commercial or "genre" fiction.
Neal Stephenson has suggested that while any definition will be simplistic there is today a general cultural difference between literary and genre fiction. On the one hand literary authors nowadays are supported by patronage, with employment at a university or a similar institution, with the continuation of such positions determined not by book sales but by critical acclaim by other established literary authors and critics. On the other hand, he suggests, genre fiction writers tend to support themselves by book sales. However, in an interview, John Updike lamented that "the category of'literary fiction' has sprung up to torment people like me who just set out to write books, if anybody wanted to read them, the more the merrier.... I'm a genre writer of a sort. I write literary fiction, like spy fiction or chick lit". On The Charlie Rose Show, he argued that this term, when applied to his work limited him and his expectations of what might come of his writing, so he does not like it, he suggested that all his works are literary be