The stavraton or stauraton was a type of silver coin used during the last century of the Byzantine Empire. The name stavraton first appears in the mid-11th century for a gold histamenon showing the Byzantine emperor holding a cross-shaped scepter, but in its more specific sense, it denotes the large silver coins introduced by Emperor John V Palaiologos in circa 1367 and used for the last century of Byzantine history; the late Byzantine coin was named after the cross that featured in its presumed model, the double gigliato of Naples and the Provence. The coin was designed to replace the defunct gold hyperpyron as the highest-denomination coin in circulation. Hence it was made heavier than any previous Byzantine silver coin, or, for that matter, any contemporary European coin, weighing 8.5 grams but falling to 7.4 grams. It still had only half the value of the hyperpyron however, which remained in use as a notional currency; the stavraton was complemented both in silver. The half-stavraton weighed 4.4 grams and declined to 3.7.
Quarter-stavrata were not minted, the silver Venetian ducats were used instead. All these coins featured a bust of Christ on an imperial bust on the reverse; the inscriptions are uniform, with the reverse featuring an inner and an outer inscription: "+ ΔΕCΠΟΤΙC Ο ΠΑΛΕΟΛΟΓΟC / ΘV ΧΑΡΙΤΙ ΒΑCΙΛΕVC ΡWΜΑΙWN", i.e. "Lord the Palaiologos / by God's Grace, Emperor of the Romans". In the stavrata of John V's reign, the inscriptions were in reverse order, under Manuel II, the inner inscription used the term Autokrator instead: "ΘV ΧΑΡΙΤΙ AVTOKΡΑΤOΡ"; until 1990, when a hoard of ninety coins appeared, with the exception of two half-stavrata, no silver coins of the last Byzantine emperor, Constantine XI, were known to have survived. Grierson, Philip. Byzantine Coinage. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 978-0-88402-274-9. Hendy, Michael F.. Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy c. 300–1450. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24715-2. Kazhdan, Alexander, ed.. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium.
New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6. Grierson, Philip. Byzantine Coins. London: Methuen. ISBN 978-0-416-71360-2
The tremissis or tremis was a small solid gold coin of Late Antiquity. Its name, meaning "a third of a unit", formed by analogy with semissis, indicated its value relative to the solidus, it was introduced into Roman currency in the 380s by the Emperor Theodosius I and weighed 8 siliquae. Roman tremisses continued to be minted into the reign of Leo III, but thereafter they were only struck in the east of the empire only for ceremonial uses, until the reign of Basil I, after which they disappeared; the coin continued in common use in the Sicilian theme until the fall of Syracuse in 878. The trachy, introduced in the 11th century, was equivalent in value to the old tremissis. Although it was not made of gold, it was one third of the standard golden hyperpyron, it was not, called tremissis. Outside of the Roman empire, tremisses were minted by the Anglo-Saxons, Franks, Lombards, Ostrogoths and Visigoths between the 5th and 8th centuries; the word tremissis was borrowed into Old English as thrymsa.
In Frankish sources, the tremissis is sometimes called a triens, a term meaning "a third", which referred to a bronze coin worth a third of an as. The historian and bishop Gregory of Tours calls the Frankish tremissis a treans; the German form dremise is attested. In French historiography the term tiers or tiers de sou is used; the French, in general, prefer to call the coin of the Merovingian kings a triens, while British scholarship prefers tremissis. Metcalf, William E; the Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press, 2012
The tornesel, tornesol, or tornese was a silver coin of Europe in the late Middle Ages and the early modern era. It took its name from the denier of Tours. Marco Polo referred to the tornesel in recounts of his travels to East Asia when describing the currencies of the Yuan Empire, his descriptions were based on the conversion of 1 bezant = 133 1/3 tornesel. The tornese was a subunit of the Neapolitan and Two Sicilies ducats
The miliaresion, was a name used for a number of Byzantine silver coins. In its most specific sense, it refers to a type of silver coin struck in the 8th–11th centuries; the name was given to a series of silver coins issued in the 4th century that were struck 72 to the pound and were the equivalent of 1,000 nummi. Thereafter and until the 7th century, the Byzantines did not use silver coins. In the 7th century, miliaresion was the name given to the hexagram-type coins, from circa 720 on for a new type and thinner than the hexagram, instituted by the Byzantine emperor Leo III the Isaurian; this latter type, for which the term miliaresion is preserved among numismatists, were struck 144 to the pound, with an initial weight of circa 2.27 grams, although in the Macedonian period that increased to 3.03 grams. In the first century of its issue, it appears to have been issued as a ceremonial coin on the occasion of the appointment of a co-emperor, hence always features the names of two Byzantine emperors.
Only from the reign of Emperor Theophilos did the coin become regular issue, struck throughout an emperor's reign. The coins were inspired by the contemporary silver Islamic dirham, in common with it featured no human representations, sporting instead the names and titles of the emperor or emperors on the reverse and a cross on steps on the obverse. In the 10th century, Emperor Alexander introduced a bust of Christ on the obverse, Romanos I added an imperial bust to the center of the cross; this process culminated in the 11th century, when images of emperors and the Virgin Mary began to appear. In the 11th century, 2⁄3 and 1⁄3 fractions of the miliaresion began to be minted, but the military and financial collapse of the 1070s–1080s affected its quality, it was discontinued except as a money of account equal to 1⁄12 of the nomisma. Under the Komnenian emperors, it was replaced by a low-grade billon trachy coin worth a quarter of a miliaresion but much devalued; the miliaresion was revived in the form of the basilikon issued from circa 1300 onwards.
The name passed into Western European languages, where milliarès was used for various kinds of Muslim silver coins. Grierson, Philip. Byzantine Coinage. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 978-0-88402-274-9. Archived from the original on 2010-06-13. Kazhdan, Alexander, ed.. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6. Grierson, Philip. Byzantine Coins. London: Methuen. ISBN 978-0-416-71360-2. Hendy, Michael F.. Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy c. 300–1450. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24715-2. Lauritzen, Frederick. "The Miliaresion Poet: The Dactylic Inscription on a Silver Coin of Romanos III Argyros". Byzantion. 79: 231–240. ISSN 0378-2506. Media related to Miliaresion at Wikimedia Commons
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft and ductile metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper is one of the few metals; this led to early human use in several regions, from c. 8000 BC. Thousands of years it was the first metal to be smelted from sulfide ores, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c. 4000 BC and the first metal to be purposefully alloyed with another metal, tin, to create bronze, c. 3500 BC. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, the origin of the name of the metal, from aes сyprium corrupted to сuprum, from which the words derived and copper, first used around 1530.
The encountered compounds are copper salts, which impart blue or green colors to such minerals as azurite and turquoise, have been used and as pigments. Copper used in buildings for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris. Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are used as bacteriostatic agents and wood preservatives. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobin in fish and other vertebrates. In humans, copper is found in the liver and bone; the adult body contains between 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight. Copper and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table; the filled d-shells in these elements contribute little to interatomic interactions, which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds.
Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in copper are lacking a covalent character and are weak. This observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of copper. At the macroscopic scale, introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice, such as grain boundaries, hinders flow of the material under applied stress, thereby increasing its hardness. For this reason, copper is supplied in a fine-grained polycrystalline form, which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms; the softness of copper explains its high electrical conductivity and high thermal conductivity, second highest among pure metals at room temperature. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature originates from scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice, which are weak in a soft metal; the maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is 3.1×106 A/m2 of cross-sectional area, above which it begins to heat excessively. Copper is one of a few metallic elements with a natural color other than silver.
Pure copper acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these shells corresponds to orange light; as with other metals, if copper is put in contact with another metal, galvanic corrosion will occur. Copper does not react with water, but it does react with atmospheric oxygen to form a layer of brown-black copper oxide which, unlike the rust that forms on iron in moist air, protects the underlying metal from further corrosion. A green layer of verdigris can be seen on old copper structures, such as the roofing of many older buildings and the Statue of Liberty. Copper tarnishes when exposed to some sulfur compounds, with which it reacts to form various copper sulfides. There are 29 isotopes of copper. 63Cu and 65Cu are stable, with 63Cu comprising 69% of occurring copper. The other isotopes are radioactive, with the most stable being 67Cu with a half-life of 61.83 hours.
Seven metastable isotopes have been characterized. Isotopes with a mass number above 64 decay by β−, whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β+. 64Cu, which has a half-life of 12.7 hours, decays both ways.62Cu and 64Cu have significant applications. 62Cu is used in 62Cu-PTSM as a radioactive tracer for positron emission tomography. Copper is produced in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust in a proportion of about 50 parts per million. In nature, copper occurs in a variety of minerals, including native copper, copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite, digenite and chalcocite, copper sulfosalts such as tetrahedite-tennantite, enargite, copper carbonates such as azurite and malachite, as copper or copper oxides such as cuprite and tenorite, respectively; the largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan, US. Native copper is a polycrystal
Scyphate is a term used in numismatics to refer to the concave or "cup-shaped" Byzantine coins of the 11th–14th centuries. This usage emerged in the 19th century, when the term scyphatus, attested in south Italian documents of the 11th and 12th centuries, was erroneously interpreted as deriving from the Greek word skyphos. In reality, the term derives from the Arabic word shafah, "edge, rim", refers to the distinctive and conspicuous border of the early histamena gold coins. Due to this misunderstanding, the term "scyphate" has been applied to the concave gold and copper coins of the late Byzantine Empire and the foreign issues imitating it; these coins are more properly designated as trachea. Grierson, Philip. Byzantine Coinage. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 978-0-88402-274-9. Kazhdan, Alexander, ed.. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6
Theodore Mangaphas or Mankaphas was a nobleman from Philadelphia who assumed the title of Byzantine emperor twice, first during the reign of Isaac II Angelos, secondly after the sacking of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade. He was given the sobriquet Morotheodoros meaning "Theodore the Fool", by the Greek chroniclers after his repeated failed usurpations. In circa 1188, Theodore already the ruler of his native Philadelphia, secured the allegiance of the larger part of the city's inhabitants, but of the surrounding areas of Lydia and the support of the Armenian communities in the Troad, he proclaimed himself emperor in opposition to Isaac II Angelos, minted his own silver coinage. As the revolt gained ground, its progress alarmed Isaac so much that the emperor marched against Theodore in person. After some initial skirmishes, Theodore was besieged in Philadelphia, but Isaac learned of the rapid approach of the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick Barbarossa, on his way to take part in the Third Crusade.
This made Isaac anxious to conclude the war against Theodore, so he agreed to pardon Mangaphas, on the condition that the usurper submitted himself to Isaac and agreed to lay aside the imperial symbols and surrender hostages. He was allowed to retain control of Philadelphia as its governor. In circa 1193, Basil Vatatzes, the doux of the Thracesian theme and megas domestikos of the Byzantine army, forced him to flee to the court of the Seljuk Turks at Iconium. There, the Sultan Ghīyāth al-Dīn Kaykhusraw allowed Theodore to enroll troops among the nomadic tribes, with these bands he ravaged the frontier lands of the Byzantine Empire in 1195–1196. In late 1196, the new emperor, Alexios III Angelos, bought Mangaphas from the sultan, on condition that his life was to be spared, that he would not spend the rest of his life in prison, he remained in prison for an unknown period of time before he was released and returned to Philadelphia. In the chaos of the Fourth Crusade and the eventual fall of Constantinople in 1204, a number of individuals took advantage of the situation to proclaim themselves independent or lay claim to the vacant imperial throne.
Mangaphas may have returned to Philadelphia before or after the fall of the city, re-established his dominant position there, founding an independent state in the area. After securing Philadelphia, he decided to take on Henry of Flanders, one of the Crusader chieftains and future Latin Emperor, encamped at Adramyttium and, attempting to crush the remaining Byzantine resistance in Anatolia. Although he managed to take Henry by surprise, his forces were no match for the Latin heavy cavalry and were crushed at the Battle of Adramyttium on 19 March 1205. Retreating back to Philadelphia, he remained there until his remaining territories were overrun by Theodore Laskaris of Nicaea in 1205. Nothing more is heard of him, it is presumed that he died in captivity in the Nicaean court. Theodore's surname, Mangaphas, is not Greek, represents a Hellenized form of the Turkish mankafa meaning fool or idiot, it is hence possible that it was not his actual surname, but a translation into Turkish of his Greek sobriquet Morotheodoros, adopted by the Greek chroniclers.
There is, however evidence for the existence of other members of the Mangaphas family in the 11th and 13th centuries independently of Theodore. In addition, a number of silver coins found in a hoard in Aphrodisias, and, attributed to Mangaphas, seems to include "M" as if it were his proper surname. Coins of the Byzantine Empire: Theodore Mangaphas, Usurper in Philadelphia, 1189–1190 and 1204–1205