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Track or Tracks may refer to: Ancient trackway, any track or trail whose origin is lost in antiquity Animal track, imprints left on surfaces that an animal walks across Desire path, a line worn by people taking the shortest/most convenient route across fields, parks or woods Forest track, a track or trail through a forest Fossil trackway, a type of trace fossil preserving a line of animal footprints Trackway, an ancient route of travel or track used by animals Trail Vineyard track, a land estate meant for the growing of vine grapes Tracks, an American film starring Dennis Hopper Tracks, a 2003 animated short film Tracks, an Australian film starring Mia Wasikowska The Track, a 1975 French thriller–drama film Tracks, written by Native American author Louise Erdrich The Tracks, a young adult novel series by J. Gabriel Gates and Charlene Keel Track Records, a record label founded in 1966 in London, England Tracks, 1970 Tracks, 1976 Tracks, 1998 Tracks, 2000 "Track #1", the original title of "Stinkfist", at the time of its release to avoid removal from the band Tool "Tracks", by Gary Numan on his album The Pleasure Principle "Tracks", by Juliana Hatfield on her album Wild Animals "Tracks", by Roam on their album Backbone Audio channel, or track Audio signals recorded in a recording studio Music track, a recorded piece of music Tracks, an episode on the television series Law and Order: UK Tracks, monthly Australian surf Tracks – The Train Set Game, a 2017 video game developed by Whoop Games referred to as Tracks Tracks, a Transformers character "Tracks", an episode of the television series Zoboomafoo Track, consecutive set of sectors on the disc containing a block of data Track, a circular path on the surface of a disk or diskette on which information is recorded and read Tracks in magnetic stripe card All-weather running track, a rubberized surface for track and field competitions Cinder track a refined dirt running track for track and field competitions First tracks, in winter sports, cutting through fresh snow or ice before anyone else does List of bobsleigh and skeleton tracks Long track speed skating Race track Tartan track, a brand of all-weather running track that has become genericized Track and field athletics Track cycling Velodrome, a track for bicycles, track cycling competitions Track, metal tracks on which trains ride Track gauge, the distance between rails Axle track, the distance between centres of roadwheels on an axle of a motor vehicle Continuous track, a belt providing motive traction for a tracked vehicle such as a tank or a bulldozer Course, the path a vessel or aircraft plots over the surface of the Earth Ground track, the path on the surface of the Earth directly below an aircraft or satellite Ocean track, in flight planning, the path of an aircraft as determined by heading and wind effects Conference track, a group of talks on a certain topic that are made in parallel with others Tracks Inc, based in Darwin, Australia Sidetrack Sidetracked TRAC Track and trace Tracker Tracking Transnational Association of Christian Colleges and Schools Trek

Sylvia Brustad

Sylvia Brustad is a former Norwegian politician for the Norwegian Labour Party. Brustad graduated from high school in 1983, attended the media courses at the folk high school in Ringsaker until 1985, she worked as a journalist, among other publications she worked for LO-aktuelt, the news publication of the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions. Brustad was elected to a county council seat in Hedmark following the local elections of 1987. In the 1989 election, she was elected to a seat in the Norwegian Parliament and left county politics. In cabinet Jagland which held office between 1996 and 1997, she was Minister for Children and Family Affairs, she was Minister for Local Government and Regional Development in the first cabinet Stoltenberg between 2000 and 2001. Following the electoral victory of the 2005 elections, Brustad became Minister of Health and Care Services in the second cabinet Stoltenberg, she was moved to the post of Minister of Trade and Industry in June 2008 and left the government in October 2009.

Brustad became known for her role as Minister for Child and Family Affairs in 1996 when a law restricting the opening hours of shops on Sundays and after nine in the evening was passed. Only stores smaller than 100 square metres were allowed to remain open, such shops were somewhat disparagingly nicknamed "Brustadbuer", until the law was repealed in 2003. Brustad herself claimed that she had not advocated the law, but that she was required to follow through on a decision within the Labour Party. "Sylvia Brustad". Storting

Mikhail Kalinin

Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin, known familiarly by Soviet citizens as "Kalinych", was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician. He served as head of state of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and of the Soviet Union from 1919 to 1946. From 1926, he was a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Born to a peasant family, Kalinin worked as a metal worker in Saint Petersburg and took part in the 1905 Russian Revolution as an early member of the Bolsheviks. During and after the October Revolution, he served as mayor of Petrograd. After the revolution, Kalinin became the head of the new Soviet state, as well as a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Politburo. Kalinin remained head of the Soviet Union after the rise of Joseph Stalin, but held little real power or influence, he died in the same year. The former East-Prussian city of Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad after him; the city of Tver was known as Kalinin until the end of the Soviet Union in 1990.

Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin was born to a peasant family of ethnic Russian origin in the village of Verkhnyaya Troitsa, Tver Governorate, Russia. He was the elder brother of Fedor Kalinin. Kalinin worked for a time on a farm, he moved to Saint Petersburg, where he found employment as a metal worker in 1895. He worked as a butler and as a railway worker at Tbilisi depot, where he met Sergei Alliluyev, the father of Stalin's second wife. In 1906, he married the ethnic Jew Ekaterina Lorberg who originated from Estonia (Russian: Екатерина Ивановна Лорберг. Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1898, the year of its foundation, he came to know Stalin through the Alliluyev family. During the Russian Revolution of 1905, Kalinin worked for the Bolshevik party and on the staff of the Central Union of Metal Workers, he became active on behalf of the RSDLP in Tiflis, Reval and Moscow. In April 1906 he served as a delegate at the 4th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.

Kalinin was an early and devoted adherent of the Bolshevik faction of the RSDLP, headed by Vladimir Lenin. He was a delegate to the 1912 Bolshevik Party Conference held in Prague, where he was elected an alternate member of the governing Central Committee and sent to work inside Russia, he did not become a full member. Kalinin was arrested for his political activities in 1916 and freed during the February Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the tsarist state. Kalinin joined the Petrograd Bolshevik committee and assisted in the organization of the party daily Pravda, now legalized by the new regime. In April 1917 Kalinin, like many other Bolsheviks, advocated conditional support for the Provisional Government in cooperation with the Menshevik faction of the RSDLP, a position at odds with that of Lenin, he continued to oppose an armed uprising to overthrow the government of Alexander Kerensky throughout that summer. In the elections held for the Petrograd City Duma in autumn 1917, Kalinin was chosen as mayor of the city, which he administered during and after the Bolshevik Revolution of 7 November.

In 1919, Kalinin was elected a member of the governing Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party as well as a candidate member of the Politburo. He was promoted to full membership on the Politburo in January 1926, a position which he retained until his death in 1946; when Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov died in March 1919,Kalinin replaced him as President of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, the titular head of state of Soviet Russia. The name of this position was changed to Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR in 1922 and to Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet in 1938. Kalinin continued to hold the post without interruption until his retirement at the end of World War II. In 1920, Kalinin attended the Second World Congress of the Communist International in Moscow as part of the Russian delegation, he took an active part in the debates. Kalinin was a factional ally of Stalin during the bitter struggle for power after the death of Lenin in 1924, he delivered a report on Lenin and the Comintern to the Fifth World Congress in 1924.

Kalinin was one of the comparatively few members of Stalin's inner circle springing from peasant origins. The lowly social origins were publicised in the official press, which habitually referred to Kalinin as the "All-Union headman", a term hearkening to the village commune, in conjunction with his role as titular head of state. In practical terms, by the 1930s, Kalinin's role as a decision-maker in the Soviet government was nominal, he held little influence beyond receiving diplomatic letters from abroad. Recalling him, future Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev said, "I don't know what practical work Kalinin carried out under Lenin, but under Stalin he was the nominal signatory of all decrees, while in reality he took part in government business. Sometimes he was made a member of a commission, but people didn't take his opinion into account much, it was embarrassing for us to see this.

Herbert E. Hitchcock

Herbert Emery Hitchcock was a United States Senator from South Dakota. Hitchcock was born in Maquoketa, the son of Harriet M. Lumley and Milando Lansing Hitchcock, he attended public schools in Iowa and San Jose, California, a business college at Davenport, Iowa State College at Ames, the University of Chicago Law School. He moved to South Dakota in 1884, where he attended school and worked as a stenographer, he engaged in banking, was clerk of the South Dakota State Senate in 1896. He was elected as a State's attorney in 1904 and 1906, was elected to the State Senate in 1909, 1911, 1929. Hitchcock was a trustee of Yankton College in 1936 and was president of Mitchell school board from 1924 to 1934. During the 1932 Democratic National Convention he was a delegate and one of fifty five people who wrote the party's national platform and from 1932 to 1936 he served as the chairman of the South Dakota Democratic Party. On December 29, 1936, Hitchcock was appointed to the United States Senate as a Democrat to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Peter Norbeck.

He served until January 3, 1939. He campaigned in 1938 as the incumbent for the Democratic nomination to fill the seat for a full term, but was defeated by former Governor Tom Berry in the primary election who went on to be defeated by Republican Chan Gurney in the general election. In 1940 he was selected as one of South Dakota's Democratic presidential electors, but the state was won by Republican Wendell Willkie, he resumed the practice of law until his death in Mitchell, South Dakota on February 17, 1958 and was interned at Graceland Cemetery in Chicago, Illinois. In his will he left $112,000 various institutions including charities. United States Congress. "Herbert E. Hitchcock". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress


Cytokeratins are keratin proteins found in the intracytoplasmic cytoskeleton of epithelial tissue. They are an important component of intermediate filaments, which help cells resist mechanical stress. Expression of these cytokeratins within epithelial cells is specific to particular organs or tissues, thus they are used clinically to identify the cell of origin of various human tumors. The term "cytokeratin" began to be used in the late 1970s, when the protein subunits of keratin intermediate filaments inside cells were first being identified and characterized. In 2006 a new systematic nomenclature for mammalian keratins was created, the proteins called "cytokeratins" are called keratins. For example, cytokeratin-4 has been renamed keratin-4. However, they are still referred to as cytokeratins in clinical practice. There are two categories of cytokeratins: the acidic type I cytokeratins and the basic or neutral type II cytokeratins. Within each category, cytokeratins are numbered in order of decreasing size, from low molecular weight to high molecular weight.

Cytokeratins are found in heterodimeric pairs of acidic and basic subunits of similar size. Expression of these cytokeratins is organ or tissue specific; the subsets of cytokeratins which an epithelial cell expresses depends on the type of epithelium, the moment in the course of terminal differentiation and the stage of development. Thus a specific cytokeratin expression profile allows the identification of epithelial cells. Furthermore, this applies to the malignant counterparts of the epithelia, as the cytokeratin profile is retained, thus the study of cytokeratin expression by immunohistochemistry techniques is a tool of immense value used for tumor diagnosis and characterization in surgical pathology. The cytokeratins are encoded by a family encompassing 30 genes. Among them, 20 are epithelial the remaining 10 are specific for trichocytes. All cytokeratin chains are composed of a central α-helix-rich domain with non-α-helical N- and C-terminal domains; the α-helical domain has 310-150 amino acids and comprises four segments in which a seven-residue pattern repeats.

Into this repeated pattern, the first and fourth residues are hydrophobic and the charged residues show alternate positive and negative polarity, resulting in the polar residues being located on one side of the helix. This central domain of the chain provides the molecular alignment in the keratin structure and makes the chains form coiled dimers in solution; the end-domain sequences of type I and II cytokeratin chains contain in both sides of the rod domain the subdomains V1 and V2, which have variable size and sequence. The type II presents the conserved subdomains H1 and H2, encompassing 36 and 20 residues respectively; the subdomains V1 and V2 contain residues enriched by glycines and/or serines, the former providing the cytokeratin chain a strong insoluble character and facilitating the interaction with other molecules. These terminal domains are important in defining the function of the cytokeratin chain characteristic of a particular epithelial cell type. Two dimers of cytokeratin group into a keratin tetramer by anti-parallel binding.

This cytokeratin tetramer is considered to be the main building block of the cytokeratin chain. By head-to-tail linking of the cytokeratin tetramers, the protofilaments are originated, which in turn intertwine in pairs to form protofibrils. Four protofibrils give place to one cytokeratin filament. In the cytoplasm, the keratin filaments conform a complex network which extends from the surface of the nucleus to the cell membrane. Numerous accessory proteins are involved in the maintenance of such structure; this association between the plasma membrane and the nuclear surface provides important implications for the organization of the cytoplasm and cellular communication mechanisms. Apart from the static functions provided in terms of supporting the nucleus and providing tensile strength to the cell, the cytokeratin networks undergo rapid phosphate exchanges mediated depolymerization, with important implications in the more dynamic cellular processes such as mitosis and post-mitotic period, cell movement and differentiation.

Cytokeratins interact with desmosomes and hemidesmosomes, thus collaborating to cell-cell adhesion and basal cell-underlying connective tissue connection. The intermediate filaments of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, which the cytokeratins are one of its three components, have been probed to associate with the ankyrin and spectrin complex protein network that underlies the cell membrane. Cytokeratin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings

Robotnik Automation

Robotnik Automation S. L. L. is a Spanish company based in Valencia, specialized in robot product development and robotics R&D projects. The company's main specialities are: Mobile Robotics Products. Mobile Robotics Projects:. Robotnik was founded in 2002 as a company focused on service robots. In 2004, Robotnik began a line of collaboration with Universities, Research Centers and European companies by means of the participation in the VI European Framework Program; the successful development of Robotrans allowed Robotnik to be partners of the European projects MASMICRO and RESCUER where we developed some of the first mobile platforms of the company. In 2005, Robotnik signed partnership agreements with international companies in the robotic sector as Barrett Technology and Schunk. Subsequently, these agreements have been extended to companies like Kinova and Aldebaran Robotics. Robotnik has developed and manufactured service robots for: Logistics Inspection Nuclear industry Security and militaryRobotnik is involved in several projects in the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Union.

Robotnik has taken part in several FP6 & FP7 EU Projects: MASMICRO: “Integration of manufacturing systems for mass-manufacture of miniature/micro products” RESCUER: “Improvement of emergency risk management through secure mobile mechatronic support to bomb disposal” GUARDIANS: “Group of Unmanned Assistant Robots Deployed In Aggregative Navigation supported by Scent detection” ACROBOTER: “Autonomous Collaborative Robots to Swing and Work in Everyday EnviRonment”. PV-Servitor: “Autonomous cleaning robot for large scale photovoltaic power plants in Europe resulting in 5% cost reduction of electricity” SRS: “Multi-Role Shadow Robotic System for Independent LivingRubicon: “Robotic UBIquitous COgnitive Network” Flexitool: "Flexible Tooling for the manufacture of free-form architectural cladding and façades" MoorInspect: “Development of an advanced medium range ultrasonic technique for mooring chains inspection in water” Robofoot:”Smart Robotics for High Added Value Footwear Industry” AutoWinSpec:”Autonomous Windmill Inspection.

Novel inspection technique and apparatus based on Acousto - Ultrasonics, to enable accurate estimation of the mechanical properties of the blades and their remaining lifespan.” Robo-spect:”ROBotic System with Intelligent Vision and Control for Tunnel Structural INSPECTion and Evaluation.” Vinbot:”Vineyard Robot. Powerful precision viticulture tool to break traditional yield estimation in vineyards.” Rawfie:”Road-, Air-, Water- based Future Internet Experimentation.” Radio:”Unobtrusive, efficient and modular solutions for independent ageing." I-Support:”A service robotics system for bathing tasks." Bots2Rec:”Robots to Re-Construction. Introducing and validating an operational process for the automated removal of asbestos contamination at a real world rehabilitation site using a robotic system.” Injerobot:”Universal Robotic System for Grafting of Seedling." Badger:”RoBot for Autonomous unDerGround trenchless opERations and navigation.” Roborder:”autonomous swarm of heterogeneous RObots for BORDER surveillance.”

CPSwarm:”Applications of swarm algorithms in Cyber-Physical Systems."Other researches: Hybrid Robot - UGV-UAV Logistic and indoor robot transport through autonomous AGVs navigation Thermal metal spray process improvement and optimization RISING: Robotic Intervention System Including assessment and awareness for National police Groups Patents: Methods and device for regenerating the interior surfaces of conduits by means of thermal spraying metals. Robotnik takes part of the following collaboration groups: CEA: "Spanish Robotics Network" CEEI: "European Centre of Innovation Companies" AER-ATP: "Spanish Association of Robotics and Automation Technologies of Production" EURON: "European Robotics Research Network" EUROP: "European Robotic Platform" OSRF: "Open Source Robotics Foundation" Official website