A velodrome is an arena for track cycling. Modern velodromes feature steeply banked oval tracks, consisting of two 180-degree circular bends connected by two straights; the straights transition to the circular turn through a moderate easement curve. The first velodromes were constructed during the mid-late 19th century; some were purpose-built just for cycling, others were built as part of facilities for other sports. Reflecting the then-lack of international standards, sizes varied and not all were built as ovals: for example, the oldest velodrome in the world, at Preston Park, Brighton, is 579 m long and features four straights linked by banked curves, while the 536 m Portsmouth velodrome, in Portsmouth, has a single straight linked by one long curve. Early surfaces included cinders or shale, though concrete and tarmac became more common. Indoor velodromes were common in the late 19th and early 20th century. For example, the Vélodrome d'hiver was built in Paris in 1909 and featured a 250 m indoor track with a wooden surface.
International competitions such as the Olympic Games led to more standardisation: two-straight oval tracks became the norm, lap lengths reduced. The Vélodrome de Vincennes, used for the 1896 Games was 500 m per lap, while Antwerp's Vélodrome d'Anvers Zuremborg, used in 1920, Helsinki Velodrome, used in 1952, were both 400 m. By the 1960s, tracks of 333.33 m length were used for international competitions. Since 1990, such events are held on velodromes with 250 m laps. London's 2012 Olympic velodrome and a new velodrome in Turkmenistan's capital city Ashgabat both have a 250 m track and a 6,000-seat spectator capacity. Banking in the turns, called superelevation, allows riders to keep their bikes perpendicular to the surface while riding at speed; when travelling through the turns at racing speed, which may exceed 85 km/h, the banking attempts to match the natural lean of a bicycle moving through that curve. At the ideal speed, the net force of the centrifugal force and gravity is angled down through the bicycle, perpendicular to the riding surface.
Riders are not always travelling at a specific radius. Most events have riders all over the track. Team races have some riders at speed and others riding more slowly. In match sprints riders may come to a stop by performing a track stand in which they balance the bicycle on the sloped surface while keeping their feet locked into the pedals. For these reasons, the banking tends to be 10 to 15 degrees less; the straights are banked 10 to 15 degrees more than physics would predict. These compromises make the track ridable at a range of speeds. From the straight, the curve of the track increases into the circular turn; this section of decreasing radius is called the easement transition. It allows bicycles to follow the track around the corner at a constant radial position, thus riders can concentrate on tactics rather than steering. Bicycles for velodromes have no brakes, they employ a single fixed rear gear, or cog. This helps maximise speed, reduces weight, avoids sudden braking while allowing the rider to slow by pushing back against the pedals.
Modern velodromes are constructed by specialised designers. The Schuermann architects in Germany have built more than 125 tracks worldwide. Most of Schuermann's outdoor tracks are made of wood trusswork with a surface of strips of the rare rain-forest wood Afzelia. Indoor velodromes are built with less expensive pine surfaces; the track is measured along a line 20 cm up from the bottom. Olympic and World Championship velodromes must measure 250 m. Other events on the UCI International Calendar may be held in velodromes that measure between 133 m and 500 m, with a length such that a whole or half number of laps give a distance of 1 km; the velodrome at Calshot, Hampshire, UK is only 142 m and has steep banking because it was built to fit inside an aircraft hangar. Forest City Velodrome in London, Canada, is the world's shortest at 138 m. Built to fit a hockey arena, it too has steep banking; the smaller the track, the steeper the banking. A 250 m track banks around 45°, while a 333.33 m track banks around 32°.
Some older velodromes were built to imperial standards. The Dick Lane Velodrome in East Point, Georgia USA, is 321.9 m. Velodrome tracks can be surfaced with different materials, including timber and concrete. Shorter and Olympic quality tracks tend to be timber or synthetics. Important cycling events are held on tracks which have lines laid out in a specified arrangement; some other tracks follow these protocols, but others have a different arrangement of lines to suit their facility and to assist riders in holding a straight line and in avoiding drifting onto the flatter section below the bankings where they risk their tyres sliding out. Between the infield and the actual track is the blue band, 10% of the surface; the blue band is not technically a part of the track.
The hour record is the record for the longest distance cycled in one hour on a bicycle from a stationary start. Cyclists attempt this record alone on the track without other competitors present, it is considered the most prestigious record in all of cycling. Over history, various cyclists ranging from unknown amateurs to well-known professionals have held the record, adding to its prestige and allure. There is now one unified record for upright bicycles meeting the requirements of the Union Cycliste Internationale. Hour-record attempts for UCI bikes are made in a velodrome; the first universally accepted record was in 1876 when the American Frank Dodds rode 26.508 km on a penny-farthing. The first recorded distance was set in 1873 by James Moore in Wolverhampton, riding an Ariel 49" high wheel bicycle; the first recognised record was set by Henri Desgrange at the Buffalo Velodrome, Paris in 1893 following the formation of the International Cycling Association, the forerunner of the modern-day UCI.
Throughout the run up to the First World War, the record was broken on five occasions by Frenchmen Oscar Egg and Marcel Berthet, due to the attempts being popular and guaranteeing rich attendances, it is said that each ensured they did not beat the record by too much of a margin, enabling further lucrative attempts by the other. The hour was attempted sporadically over the following 70 years, with most early attempts taking place at the Buffalo Velodrome in Paris, before the Velodromo Vigorelli in Milan became popular in 1930s and 1940s sparking attempts from leading Italian riders and former Giro d'Italia winners such as Fausto Coppi and Ercole Baldini. Coppi's record set in 1942, during the Second World War, despite Milan being bombed nightly by Allied forces, was broken in 1956 by Jacques Anquetil on his third attempt. In 1967, 11 years Anquetil again broke the hour record, with 47.493 km, but the record was disallowed because he refused to take the newly introduced post-race doping test.
He had objected to what he saw as the indignity of having to urinate in a tent in front of a crowded velodrome and said he would take the test at his hotel. The international judge ruled against the idea, a scuffle ensued that involved Anquetil's manager, Raphaël Géminiani. In 1968, Ole Ritter broke the record in Mexico City, the first attempt at altitude since Willie Hamilton in 1898; the women's hour record was first established in 1893 by Mlle de Saint-Sauveur at the Vélodrome Buffalo in Paris, setting a total distance of 26.012 km. The record was improved several times over the next years, until Louise Roger reached 34.684 km in 1897 at Vélodrome Buffalo. In 1911, Alfonsina Strada set a new women's record of 37.192 km. From 1947 to 1954, Élyane Bonneau and Jeannine Lemaire set several new hour records, the last of, 39.735 km by Lemaire in 1952. The first women's hour record approved by the UCI was by Tamara Novikova in 1955. In 1972, Eddy Merckx set a new hour record at 49.431 km in Mexico City at an altitude of 2,300 m where he proclaimed it to have been "the hardest ride I have done".
The record would stand for 12 years until in January 1984, Francesco Moser set a new record at 51.151 km. This was the first noted use of disc wheels, which provided an aerodynamic gain as well as Moser wearing a skin suit. Moser's record would be moved in 1997 to "best human effort" In 1993 and 1994, Graeme Obree, who built his own bikes, posted two records with his hands tucked under his chest. In 1994, Moser set the veteran's record at 51.840 km in Mexico City. Moser beat his 1984 record, using bullhorn handlebars, steel airfoil tubing, disk wheels and skinsuit, it was faster than Obree's first record in 1993. Following the outlawing of the "praying mantis" style by the UCI in May 1994, Spaniard Miguel Indurain and Swiss Tony Rominger broke the record using a more traditional tri-bar setup with Rominger setting a distance of 55.291 km. Chris Boardman took up the challenge using a modified version of the Lotus 110 bicycle, a successor to the earlier Lotus 108 bicycle he'd ridden to victory at the 1992 Olympic Games.
South African company Aerodyne Technology built the frame. Boardman set the UCI Absolute record of 56.375 km in 1996, using another position pioneered by Obree, his arms out in front in a "Superman" position. This too was considered controversial by the UCI, while the record was allowed to stand, the position was banned making Boardman's record set in 1996 unbeatable using traditional bike position. With the increasing gap between modern bicycles and what was available at the time of Merckx's record, the UCI established two records in 1997: UCI Hour Record: which restricted competitors to the same equipment as Merckx, banning time trial helmets, disc or tri-spoke wheels, aerodynamic bars and monocoque frames. Best Human Effort: known as the UCI "Absolute" Record in which modern equipment was permitted; as a result of the 1997 rule change, all records since 1972, including Boardman's 56.375 km in 1996, were moved to Best Human Effort and the distance of Eddie Merckx set in 1972 once more became the official UCI benchmark.
In 2000, Boardman attempted the UCI record on a traditional bike, rode 49.441 km, topping Merckx by 10 metres, an improvement of 0.02%. In 2005, Ondřej Sosenka improved Boardman's performance at 49.700 km using a 54×13 gear. However, Sosenka failed a doping control in 2001 and again in 2008, the latter resulting in a c
Jason Francis Kenny, is a British track cyclist, specialising in the individual and team sprints. After winning multiple World and European Junior titles in 2006 and achieving medals in the under 23 European championships in 2007, Kenny was selected ahead of Ross Edgar to compete for Great Britain at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. Along with Chris Hoy and Jamie Staff, he won a gold medal in the team sprint, breaking the world record in the qualifying round, he finished behind team-mate Chris Hoy in the final of the individual sprint, gaining a silver medal. In January 2012, he gained his first world championship title, after Grégory Baugé's results were nullified after a backdated 12-month ban for missing a drugs test, the Union Cycliste Internationale promoted Kenny to the gold medal. At the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, he won gold medals in both the team sprint and in the individual sprint, beating Baugé in the final. At the 2016 Summer Olympics Kenny repeated his 2012 wins in the Team Sprint and the Individual Sprint, won a Gold Medal the Keirin, Kenny is the joint holder of the highest number of Olympic Golds for a British athlete alongside fellow track cyclist Chris Hoy.
Kenny's six Olympic gold medals place him the joint 25th in terms of gold medals won in the modern Summer Olympic games since 1896 with only Michael Phelps and Usain Bolt winning more since the Games of the new millennium in 2000. Kenny was born on 23 March 1988, he has Craig. He was educated at Mount St Joseph School in Farnworth. In the run-up to the London 2012 Olympic Games Kenny visited the school and praised the support he had received from his PE teachers. Kenny's first taste of major track competition came when he competed in the Future Stars series, a junior competition held as part of the Revolution series at the Manchester Velodrome. Kenny competed in a number of the ad-hoc events during the first season of the Revolution in 2003/2004. In the second season, he competed in the first fledged Future Series competition, taking part in a number of sprint and endurance events for 15- and 16-year-olds, during the season of 4 track meetings; the series gives youngsters the chance to compete in front of a crowd from an early age, it is noted for showcasing the majority of Britain's young talent.
When the 2004/2005 season finished in February 2005, the 16-year-old Kenny finished in the top 10 in the final standings. During the 2005/2006 racing season, Kenny went on to compete for Great Britain at a junior level as a sprinter and won world titles at the junior world championships. In the 2006/2007 season, he competed at a senior level for the team and took part in a number of World Cup Classics events across the world and Revolution events in Manchester, pitting himself against some of the world's best Sprint riders. In the Revolution events in the 2007/2008 season, Kenny beat some of the world's best sprinters, including reigning world champion Theo Bos. Kenny made his debut in the world championships in 2008, finishing fifth overall in the sprint competition. In the Olympic Games, he made the team sprint squad, replacing Ross Edgar at man 2 in the team just before the Games; the team defeated the French team that had beaten them to the world title in Manchester only months earlier by over half a second.
In the sprint competition, Kenny reached the final, but was defeated by his teammate Chris Hoy 2–0. His rise as a cyclist has been rapid, he progressed from competing in a domestic junior series to Olympic Champion in only 3 and a half years. Kenny was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 2009 New Year Honours. At the London 2012 Olympic Games Kenny won gold in the team sprint with Chris Hoy and Philip Hindes, setting a new world record in the London Velopark with a time of 42.6 seconds. He won gold in the men's sprint final, setting a new Olympic Record in qualifying and avenging his previous losses to Baugé with a 200m time of 10.308s in his final lap. Kenny was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2013 New Year Honours for services to cycling. Following the 2012 Olympics Kenny competed at the 2013 World Championships, he failed to backup his Olympic sprint and Team Sprint titles, finishing 7th and 6th however he did win the Keirin event, his 2013–14 season started with national titles in all three Olympic sprint, team sprint and the keirin.
At the first round of the UCI Track World Cup he failed to qualify for the sprint event, whilst finishing 4th in the Keirin and winning a bronze medal in the Team Sprint. At the second round of the world cup he secured silver medals in the Sprint and Team Sprint, but did not contest the Keirin; the World Cup/Championships season finished with the UCI World Championships where he failed to secure any medals, finishing 5th in all three events he contested. At the Commonwealth Games he won a Silver medal in the Team Sprint. In the Sprint event he qualified 11th out of 12 qualifiers, went on to lose his first round against Eddie Dawkins of New Zealand; this left him in the repechage where he beat his Great Britain teammates Callum Skinner and Lewis Oliva to make it to the 1/8 finals. Despite his poor form in the early rounds in the 1/8 round he beat Matthew Glaetzer, the fastest qualifier and holder of the Commonwealth Record, in two straight rides, to secure his way into the semi-finals where he beat Peter Lewis after three rides.
In the final he won a silver medal. At the Rio 2016 Olympic Games Kenny won gold in the men's team sprint with Philip Hindes and Callum Skinner, he won gold in the men's individual sprint. On 16 August Kenny won the gold medal in the final of the men's Keirin, to join Chris Hoy as the
Six-day cycling is a track cycling event that competes over six days. Six-day races started in Britain, spread to many regions of the world, were brought to their modern style in the United States and are now a European event. Individuals competed alone, the winner being the individual who completed the most laps. However, the format was changed to allow one rider racing while the other rested; the 24-hours a day regime has been relaxed, so that most six-day races involve six nights of racing from 6pm to 2am, on indoor tracks. Six Day events are annually hosted in London, Copenhagen, Hong Kong, Manchester and Brisbane The overall winner is the team which completes most laps. In the event of teams completing the same number of laps, the winner is the team with most points won in intermediate competitions; as well as the'chase' to gain laps over competitors, a typical six-day programme will include time trials, motor-paced, intermediate sprint and elimination races. In the main'chase' or madison events, both riders may be on the track at the same time, taking it in turns to race, hand-slinging each other back into action.
The first six-day event was an individual time trial at the Agricultural Hall in Islington, London in 1878 when a professional called David Stanton sought a bet that he could ride 1,000 miles in six successive days, riding 18 hours a day. A Mr Davis put up £100 and the stake was held by the Sporting Life newspaper. Stanton started at 6am on 25 February and won the bet in 73 hours, riding on a high-wheeled machine at an average speed of 13.5 mph. Six-day cycle races involving more than one rider grew out of the 19th-century enthusiasm for endurance and other novelty competitions. A promoter at the Agricultural Hall held a six-day walking contest in April 1877, it was enough of a success for another to be held the following year. That inspired another organiser, name no longer known, to organise a six-day race in the same hall but for cyclists in 1878, he hoped to attract the crowd of 20,000 a day. The Islington Gazette reported: "A bicycle contest was commenced at the Agricultural Hall, on Monday last, for which £150 is offered in prizes for a six days' competition, the money to be allocated thus: £100 for the first man, £25 for the second, £15 for the third, £10 for the fourth."
The race started at 6am with only four of the 12 entrants on the track. Although it is said that the first six-day was a non-stop, no-sleeping event that ran without pause for six days, in fact riders joined in when they chose and slept as they wished; the winner was Bill Cann, of Sheffield, who finished after 1,060 miles. However, the event did not become popular until 1891, when the first Six Days of New York were held in New York's Madison Square Garden; these races were contests of raw endurance, with a single rider completing as many laps as possible. At first, races were less than 24 hours a day. Riders were free to join in the morning when they chose. Faster riders would start than the slower ones, who would sacrifice sleep to make up for lack of pace. Riders began competing 24 hours a day, limited only by their ability to stay awake. Many employed seconds, as in boxing; the seconds, known by their French name soigneurs, were said to have used doping to keep their riders circling the track.
Riders became tired. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle said: The wear and tear upon their nerves and their muscles, the loss of sleep make them. If their desires are not met with on the moment, they break forth with a stream of abuse. Nothing pleases them; these outbreaks do not trouble the trainers with experience, for they understand the condition the men are in. The condition included hallucinations. Riders fell, but they were well paid since more people came to watch as their condition worsened. Promoters in New York paid Teddy Hale $5,000 when he won in 1896 and he won "like a ghost, his face as white as a corpse, his eyes no longer visible because they'd retreated into his skull," according to one report; the New York Times said in 1897: It is a fine thing that a man astride two wheels can, in a six-day race, distance a hound, horse, or a locomotive. It confirms the assumption, no longer much contested, that the human animal is superior to the other animals, but this undisputed thing is being said in too painful way at Madison Square Garden.
An athletic contest in which participants'go queer' in their heads, strain their powers until their faces become hideous with the tortures that rack them, is not sport. It is brutality. Days and weeks of recuperation will be needed to put the Garden racers in condition, it is that some of them will never recover from the strain. Six-day racing remained popular in the USA though the states of New York and Illinois led in 1898 in limiting races to 12 or 24 hours; the intention was to allow riders to rest half the day, but promoters realised that teams of two, with only one rider on the track at a time, would give each the 12 hours' rest the law intended while making the race still last 24 hours. Races lasted six days rather than a week to avoid racing on Sunday. Speeds rose, distances grew, crowds increased, money poured in. Where Charlie Miller rode 2,088 miles alone, Alf Goullet and a decent partner could ride 2,790; the first such race was at Madison Square Garden and two-man tag racing has become known in English as a madison and to the French as l'américaine.
In the main'chase' or madison sessio
Motor-paced racing and motor-paced cycling refer to cycling behind a pacer in a car or more on a motorcycle. The cyclist follows as close; the first paced races were behind other cyclists, sometimes as many as five riders on the same tandem. Bordeaux-Paris and record attempts have been ridden behind cars. More races or training are behind motorcycles. Cyclists started to use tandem bicycles as pacers in the late 19th century. There could be as many as five riders on the pacing machine. Companies such as Dunlop sponsored pacing teams, "tens of thousands" turned out to watch. A south London rider, J. W. Stocks, set British record of 32 miles 1,086 yards in an hour behind a Dunlop quintuplet on 27 September 1897; the pacing tandems were ridden by professionals. Each competitor had six to eight pacing teams for races between 100 miles. Speeds rose. Arthur Chase and the Frenchman, Émile Bouhours set English records behind powered tandems in 1898 and 1899. Chase used a 4 1⁄2 bhp motorcycle to pace him to 37 miles 196 yards in a private test at The Crystal Palace, south London, in July 1900 but riders in the USA and in Paris had done better.
Some races mixed pacing with solo bicycles and motorcycle, with the riders given different start points in compensation. Bordeaux-Paris, a race of nearly 600 km from south-west France to the capital, was paced part of the way by cars in 1897, 1898 and 1899. So was Paris–Roubaix; the historian Pierre Chany said: "Cars made only a brief appearance in Paris–Roubaix. On the roads of the north, these noisy cars, high with wooden wheels with their tires nailed in place, raised huge clouds of dust; the drivers, wearing leathers, their eyes protected by huge goggles, were stepping into the unknown! The riders hidden in all this chaos could see nothing and risked their life at 50 km/h on the edge of a razor; the noise was infernal and the column advanced in the stink of exhaust pipes." The first races were limited more by the speed a motorcycle could achieve than the ability of the rider to follow, with 50 km/h being a good average, according to the historian H. M. Ellis; the races became faster. Paced races kept.
Tens of thousands watched in Germany. The popularity of this form of pacing declined in the latter part of the 20th century. There were few rules. Pacing machines had small rollers set sideways behind the back wheel to avoid crashes caused by the rider touching the back of the motorcycle, but there were few other regulations. Race distances extended to six days, although 100-mile contests were more common. Windshields were allowed but abandoned after the world championship in 1904. Speeds rose and accidents became commonplace. An American, Harry Elkes, died of his injuries from a crash in front of 10 000 spectators at Boston, Massachusetts, USA, his rear tire exploded at 100 km/h and he was thrown under another rider's pacing machine, which "crushed the prostrate man in a dreadful manner." George Leander, of Chicago, USA, said "Only the clumsy get themselves killed" before starting a race at the Parc des Princes in Paris. Leander was thrown five metres into the air after 80 km, fell to the track, bounced into the seating and died 36 hours later.
A crash in Berlin on 18 July 1909 killed nine when a motorcycle careered into the stands and exploded. The historian Peter Nye wrote: Motorpace racing was glamorous but dangerous. Falls were common because bicycle tires tended to burst at speed; the riders wore neither gloves. They depended on fast reflexes, the rude health of youth, luck. Despite having all three, Bobby Walthour collected an impressive inventory of injuries over his career: 28 fractures of the right collarbone, 18 of the left, 32 broken ribs, 60 stitches to his face and head. Once, according to family history, he was given up for dead in Paris and taken to a morgue, where he regained consciousness on the slab; the biggest machines were built by the pacers, using parts from other motorcycles, with engines as large as 2,400 cc. The largest had two riders, one crouched over the handlebars to steer and the other sitting upright above the back wheel to protect the rider and to operate the engine; the pacers wore leathers and helmets but many riders wore a flat cap.
The world governing body, the Union Cycliste Internationale, set regulations for pacing motorcycles in 1920. Until standards had been set by the police in Germany, or by the track promoters. World championships were held annually, except during wars, for 100 years separately for amateurs and professionals. Carsten Podlesch, who won in 1994, is reigning world champion. National championships continue in several European countries and European championships are conducted annually. Motorcycles now used include the 750 cc Triumph BMW machines; the motorcycle for motor-pacing has a roller on a frame at the rear to create a uniform distance to the cyclist. Some riders objected when the UCI insisted on them in 1920; the pacer stands or sits upright to offer a maximum windbreak, the handlebars are extended to facilitate the stance, in a standardized leather suit that allows for the same slipstream effect for any rider. Speeds of 100 km/h can be reached; the bicycles are steel and have a smaller front wheel to let the stayer bend forward into the slipstream.
A Derny is a light
UCI Track Cycling World Cup
The UCI Track Cycling World Cup is a multi race tournament held over a track cycling season - between October and February. Each series is divided into several rounds, each held in a different country; the UCI Track Cycling World Cup is a key event within the Track Cycling calendar, with only the World Championships and the Olympic Games attracting more World Ranking points. The series is open to national teams and registered trade teams who compete over a number of track cycling disciplines; the overall classification is decided on a points system with riders or teams amassing points in each discipline competed during each round of the series. The rider or team that has the greatest number of points in each discipline wears a white jersey in that discipline in the following round to denote their status as leader; the World Cup trophy is presented to the nation with the greatest number of points in each discipline at the end of the final round of the series. The inaugural round of the UCI Track Cycling World Cup Classics was held in Copenhagen, Denmark in May 1993.
The series is held over a track cycling season, between February and June of each year. The number of rounds within each series has varied each year but has been between 3 and 6 rounds; the name UCI Track Cycling World Cup was adopted from the 2011–12 series. A summary of the World Cup trophy winning nations by year is shown below: Official website tissot timing.com
Sir Christopher Andrew Hoy, MBE is a Scottish racing driver and former track cyclist who represented Great Britain at the Olympics and World Championships and Scotland at the Commonwealth Games. Hoy is six-times an Olympic champion. With a total of seven Olympic medals, six gold and one silver, Hoy is the second most decorated Olympic cyclist of all time. With his three gold medals in 2008 Summer Olympics, Hoy became Scotland's most successful Olympian, the first British athlete to win three gold medals in a single Olympic Games since Henry Taylor in 1908, the most successful Olympic cyclist of all time. After winning a further two gold medals at the 2012 Summer Olympics, Hoy has won more Olympic gold medals than any other British athlete along with Jason Kenny, more total medals than any except fellow cyclist Sir Bradley Wiggins; the son of David and Carol Hoy, Chris Hoy grew up in the suburb of Murrayfield, near Edinburgh, was educated at George Watson's College, a private school, followed by two years at the University of St Andrews studying Mathematics and Physics until 1996.
He subsequently transferred to the University of Edinburgh, from which he graduated B. Sc. in Applied Sports Science in 1999. Hoy, whose first bike cost £5, was inspired to cycle at age six by the 1982 film E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial. Before track cycling, Hoy raced BMX between the ages of 7 and 14 and was ranked second in Britain, fifth in Europe, ninth in the world, he received sponsorship from Slazenger and Kwik-Fit, was competing in Europe and the U. S, he first became aware of track cycling when he watched TV coverage of Scottish sprinter Eddie Alexander winning a bronze medal at the 1986 Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh. Hoy represented the Scotland Junior Rowing Team and was second in the 1993 National Rowing Championships with Grant Florence in the coxless pairs, he played rugby as part of his school's team. Hoy joined his first cycling club, Dunedin C. C. in 1990, aged 14, began concentrating on track cycling in 1993, when he joined the City of Edinburgh Racing Club. In 1997, he and fellow Scottish sprinter Craig MacLean were tipped as medal prospects by Phil Liggett.
Hoy won silver in Berlin, at the 1999 UCI Track Cycling World Championships in the team sprint, riding at man one, Craig MacLean at 2 and Jason Quealley at 3. Regular team mates in the team sprint over the years have included Craig Maclean, Ross Edgar, Jamie Staff, Jason Queally, Matthew Crampton and Jason Kenny. Following Jason Queally's Gold Medal in the Kilo TT, Hoy joined with him and Craig MacLean to win his first Olympic Medal, a Silver in the Team Sprint or "Olympic Sprint" as it was called, they were beaten by an excellent French team but the two medals won for GB was the start of the renaissance of British Cycling which has led on to remarkable results over his career. Hoy arrived in Athens in the form of his life, his main event was the Kilo Time Trial. He was last man off; the sea level World Record was broken four times as he sat in the track centre waiting for his start. He had been involved in an accident in the athlete's village just a few days prior to competition where he came off his bike in front of a village bus, narrowly avoiding serious injury.
As he came out of the starting gate, his scarred arms and legs showed how close he was to not competing. The previous rider was Arnaud Tournant who set the fastest sea-level kilo. Chris came next and, cheered on by thousands of loyal British fans, he bettered the time on each lap, setting a new sea-level World and Olympic Record of 1.00.711. This was the first of his Olympic Gold medals and added to the Silver, won in the Team Sprint in Sydney in 2000. Following the decision to remove the Kilo from the Olympic programme after the 2004 games, Hoy sought to develop in other events; the first of these was the keirin. This event involves between six and eight riders following a small motorbike around the 250m track for 5.5 laps, as the bike builds up the speed. The bike pulls off with 2.5 laps to the riders race for the line. Hoy had competed at the keirin in various events but one of his first major successes was at the Manchester round of the World Cup Classics Series in 2007, shortly before the World Championships, where he won, ahead of his team mate Ross Edgar.
This showed that Hoy was developing from just a pure power sprinter, in events like the Kilo and Team Sprint, into being one of the best in the world at more tactical sprinting events such as the keirin and the individual sprint. On 12 May 2007, Hoy attempted the world record for the kilometre, he fell 0.005 seconds short, clocking 58.880. He set a record for the 500m flying start at 24.758 seconds, over a second less than the 25.850 set by Arnaud Duble. Hoy set the sea-level kilometre record of 1 minute 0.711 seconds by winning the Olympics in Athens in 2004. The outright record of 58.875 seconds is held by Arnaud Tournant, set during 2001 at altitude in La Paz, where Hoy attempted to break the record. At the time, only 3 sub-60sec kilos had been ridden. Hoy's main achievement is his development in the individual sprint event considered to be the blue riband event of track cycling. Kilo riders like Hoy have not fared as well at this event, as they were less experienced in the tactical elements required for the sprint.
Hoy had competed in the sprint at various World Cup events and Revolution meetings in Manchester, but it was not one of his main events and he did not compete in it at the World Championships or the Olympics. In the semi finals Hoy defeated Italian veteran Roberto Chiappa 2–0, to set up a meeting in