Tract housing known colloquially in the United States and Canada as cookie-cutter housing, is a type of housing development in which multiple similar homes are built on a tract of land, subdivided into individual small lots. Tract housing developments are found in world suburb developments that were modeled on the "Levittown" concept and sometimes encompass large areas of dozens of square miles. Tract housing development makes use of few architectural designs, labor costs are reduced because workers need to learn the skills and movements of constructing only those designs rather than repeat the learning curve. In addition, as all homes in the development will be built at the same time, the cost of purchasing and transporting building supplies may be reduced due to economies of scale. Components such as roof trusses, plumbing and stair systems are prefabricated in factories and installed on-site; this allows builders to offer lower prices, which in turn can make homes affordable to a larger percentage of the population.
Early tract homes were identical, but many tracts since the late 20th century have several designs and other variations in footprint, roof form, materials, along with options such as garage bays, for a more diverse appearance. The concept of tract housing is mocked in North American popular culture as the basis of suburbia, it is often critiqued by city planners and architects, as its construction tends to overlook required elements of successful community building, instead creating a homogeneous residential neighborhood with no local employment, services, or attractions within close commuting distance. This leads to a heavy reliance on automobile travel, as residents are unable to address any of these needs locally. In Europe, the majority of subdivided landstrips are built in the type of row housing development areas; the model of tract housing had been used in the history of land reclamation in the 17th to 19th century in the Netherlands. Modern tract housing had been used for company towns in the 19th to 20th century in the areas of coal mining that attracted a large number of workers.
A tract housing area of this type is colloquially known in German as a " Kolonie", in Flemish Dutch and French as a "cité"/ or "coron". Housing estate List of house styles List of house types Railroad apartment Shotgun house
Tiger attacks are an extreme form of human–wildlife conflict which occur for various reasons and have claimed more human lives than attacks by any of the other big cats. The most comprehensive study of deaths due to tiger attacks estimates that at least 373,000 people died due to tiger attacks between 1800 and 2009, the majority of these attacks occurring in South and Southeast Asia. Over the last five centuries, an estimated 1 million people have been eaten by tigers. In Southeast Asia, attacks declined after peaking in the nineteenth century, but attacks in South Asia have remained high in the Sundarbans. If a human comes too close and surprises a sleeping or a feeding tiger, the tiger may attack and kill a human. Tigers can attack humans in a case of "mistaken identity" and sometimes when a tourist gets too close; some recommend not riding a bicycle, or running in a region where tigers live in order to not provoke their chase. Peter Byrne wrote about an Indian postman, working on foot for many years without any problems with resident tigers, but was chased by a tiger soon after he started riding a bicycle for his work.
There are 85 or fewer people killed and injured by tigers each year. These deaths and injuries are not all deliberate; the reason for many of the human killings and injuries are due to rare incidents at zoos, or to the man-eating tigers in India. In some cases, tigers will change their natural diet to become man-eaters; this is due to a tiger being incapacitated by a gunshot wound or porcupine quills, or some other factors, such as health issues and disabilities. In such cases, the animal's inability to take traditional prey forces it to stalk humans, which are less appetizing but much easier to chase and kill; as tigers in Asia live in close proximity to humans, tigers have killed more people than any other big cat. Between 1876 and 1912, tigers killed 33,247 people in British India. Man-eaters have been a recurrent problem for India in Kumaon and the Sundarbans mangrove swamps of Bengal. There, some healthy tigers have been known to hunt humans. Though tigers avoid elephants, they have been known to jump on an elephant's back and injure the mahout riding on the elephant's back.
Kesri Singh mentioned a case when a fatally wounded tiger attacked and killed the hunter who wounded it while the hunter was on the back of an elephant. Most man-eating tigers are captured, shot or poisoned. During war, tigers may acquire a taste for human flesh from the consumption of corpses which have lain unburied, go on to attack soldiers. Tigers will stalk groups of people bending down while working in a field or cutting grass, but will lose interest as soon as the people stand upright, it has been hypothesized that some attacks are a simple case of mistaken identity. Tigers surprise victims from the side or from behind: either approaching upwind or lying in wait downwind. Tigers press an attack if they are seen before their ambush is mounted. Kenneth Anderson once commented on man-eating tigers. Invariably, it will only attack a solitary person, that too, after prolonged and painstaking stalking, having assured itself that no other human being is in the immediate vicinity... These animals seem to possess an astute sixth sense and be able to differentiate between an unarmed human being and an armed man deliberately pursuing them, for in most cases, only when cornered will they venture to attack the latter, while they go out of their way to stalk and attack the unarmed man.
Tigers are sometimes intimidated from attacking humans if they are unfamiliar with people. Tigers established man-eating tigers will enter human settlements sticking to village outskirts. Attacks in human villages do occur. Most tigers will only attack a human. Tigers are wary of humans and show no preference for human meat. Although humans are easy prey, they are not a desired source of food. Thus, most man-eating tigers are old, infirm, or have missing teeth, choose human victims out of desperation. In one case, a post-mortem examination of a killed tigress revealed two broken canine teeth, four missing incisors and a loose upper molar, handicaps which would make capturing stronger prey difficult. Only upon reaching this stage did. In some cases, rather than being predatory, tiger attacks on humans seem to be territorial in nature. In at least one case, a tigress with cubs killed eight people entering her territory without consuming them at all; the Bengal tigers of the Sundarbans, bordering India and Bangladesh, used to kill fifty or sixty people a year.
This was strange given that the tigers were in prime condition and had adequate prey available. 100 tigers live in this region the largest single population anywhere in the world. The kill rate has dropped due to better management techniques and now only about three people lose their lives each year. Despite the notoriety associated with this area, humans are only a supplement to the tigers' diet; the Champawat Tiger
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