Advocacy groups use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and/or policy. They have played and continue to play an important part in the development of political and social systems. Motives for action may be based on a shared political, moral, health or commercial position. Groups use varied methods to try to achieve their aims including lobbying, media campaigns, publicity stunts, polls and policy briefings; some groups are supported or backed by powerful business or political interests and exert considerable influence on the political process, while others have few or no such resources. Some have developed into important social, political institutions or social movements; some powerful advocacy groups have been accused of manipulating the democratic system for narrow commercial gain and in some instances have been found guilty of corruption, fraud and other serious crimes. Some groups ones with less financial resources, may use direct action and civil disobedience and in some cases are accused of being a threat to the social order or'domestic extremists'.
Research is beginning to explore how advocacy groups use social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action. An advocacy group is a group or an organization which tries to influence the government but does not hold power in the government; the early growth of pressure groups was connected to broad economic and political changes in England in the mid-18th century, including political representation, market capitalization, proletarianization. The first mass social movement catalyzed around John Wilkes; as editor of the paper The North Briton, Wilkes vigorously attacked the new administration of Lord Bute and the peace terms that the new government accepted at the 1763 Treaty of Paris at the end of the Seven Years' War. Charged with seditious libel, Wilkes was arrested after the issue of a general warrant, a move that Wilkes denounced as unlawful – the Lord Chief Justice ruled in Wilkes favour; as a result of this episode, Wilkes became a figurehead to the growing movement for popular sovereignty among the middle classes – people began chanting, "Wilkes and Liberty" in the streets.
After a period of exile, brought about by further charges of libel and obscenity, Wilkes stood for the Parliamentary seat at Middlesex, where most of his support was located. When Wilkes was imprisoned in the King's Bench Prison on 10 May 1768, a mass movement of support emerged, with large demonstrations in the streets under the slogan "No liberty, no King." Stripped of the right to sit in Parliament, Wilkes became an Alderman of London in 1769, an activist group called the Society for the Supporters of the Bill of Rights began aggressively promoting his policies. This was the first sustained social advocacy group. However, the movement was careful not to cross the line into open rebellion; the force and influence of this social advocacy movement on the streets of London compelled the authorities to concede to the movement's demands. Wilkes was returned to Parliament, general warrants were declared as unconstitutional and press freedom was extended to the coverage of Parliamentary debates. Another important advocacy group that emerged in the late 18th century was the British abolitionist movement against slavery.
Starting with an organised sugar boycott in 1791, it led the second great petition drive of 1806, which brought about the banning of the slave trade in 1807. In the opinion of Eugene Black, "...association made possible the extension of the politically effective public. Modern extra parliamentary political organization is a product of the late eighteenth century the history of the age of reform cannot be written without it. From 1815, Britain after victory in the Napoleonic Wars entered a period of social upheaval characterised by the growing maturity of the use of social movements and special-interest associations. Chartism was the first mass movement of the growing working-class in the world, it campaigned for political reform between 1838 and 1848 with the People's Charter of 1838 as its manifesto – this called for universal suffrage and the implementation of the secret ballot, amongst other things. The term "social movements" was introduced in 1848 by the German Sociologist Lorenz von Stein in his book Socialist and Communist Movements since the Third French Revolution in which he introduced the term "social movement" into scholarly discussions – depicting in this way political movements fighting for the social rights understood as welfare rights.
The labor movement and socialist movement of the late 19th century are seen as the prototypical social movements, leading to the formation of communist and social democratic parties and organisations. These tendencies were seen in poorer countries as pressure for reform continued, for example in Russia with the Russian Revolution of 1905 and of 1917, resulting in the collapse of the Czarist regime around the end of the First World War. In the post-war period, women's rights, gay rights, civil rights, anti-nuclear and environmental movements emerged dubbed the New Social Movements, some of which may be considered "general interest groups" as opposed to special interest groups
WindEurope the European Wind Energy Association, is an association based in Brussels, promoting the use of wind power in Europe. It has over 600 members, which are active in over 50 countries, including manufacturers with a leading share of the world wind power market, component suppliers, research institutes, national wind and renewables associations, contractors, electricity providers, finance companies, insurance companies, consultants. Wind power in the European Union List of onshore wind farms List of large wind farms List of offshore wind farms Renewable energy in the European Union List of renewable energy organizations World Wind Energy Association American Wind Energy Association WindEurope Official Home Page EWEA Offshore 2015 EWEA 2015 Creating the Internal Energy Market in Europe EWEA report Energy and the EU budget 2014-2020
The BRIT Awards are the British Phonographic Industry's annual popular music awards. The name was a shortened form of "British", "Britain", or "Britannia", but subsequently became a backronym for British Record Industry Trusts Show. In addition, an equivalent awards ceremony for classical music, called the Classic BRIT Awards, is held in the month of May. Robbie Williams holds the record for the most BRIT Awards, 13 as a solo artist and another five as part of Take That; the awards were first held in 1977 and originated as an annual event in 1982 under the auspices of the British record industry's trade association, the BPI. In 1989, they were renamed The BRIT Awards. Mastercard has been the long-term sponsor of the event; the highest profile music awards ceremony in the UK, the BRIT Awards have featured some of the most notable events in British popular culture, such as the final public appearance of Freddie Mercury, the Jarvis Cocker protest against Michael Jackson, the Union Jack dress worn by Geri Halliwell of the Spice Girls.
The BRIT Awards were broadcast live until 1989, when Samantha Fox and Mick Fleetwood hosted a criticised show in which little went as rehearsed. From 1990 to 2006, the event was broadcast the following night. From 2007, The BRIT Awards reverted to a live broadcast on British television, on 14 February on ITV; that year, comedian Russell Brand was the host and three awards were dropped from the ceremony: Best British Rock Act, Best British Urban Act and Best Pop Act. For the last time, on 16 February 2010, the venue for The BRITs was the Earls Court Exhibition Centre in London; the BRIT Awards were held at the O2 Arena in London for the first time in 2011. The BRIT Award statuette given to the winners features Britannia, the female personification of Britain. Since 2011, the statuette has been redesigned by some of the best known British designers and artists, including Vivienne Westwood, Damien Hirst, Tracey Emin, Peter Blake, Zaha Hadid, Anish Kapoor and David Adjaye; the first awards ceremony was in 1977, as "The BRITish Record Industry BRITannia Awards", to mark the Queen's Silver Jubilee and was televised by Thames Television.
There have been 37 editions to date. The 1988 BPI Awards was the first of the ceremonies to be broadcast on live television; the BBC had broadcast the ceremony from 1985, with the shows from 1982 to 1984 not broadcast on television. The BBC continued to broadcast the renamed BRIT Awards, live in 1989 and pre-recorded from 1990 to 1992. ITV have pre-recorded until 2006 and live from 2007 onwards. BBC Radio 1 has provided backstage radio coverage since 2008. Since 2014, ITV have aired a launch show in January called The BRITs Are Coming, which reveals some of the artists who have been nominated at the upcoming ceremony; the first host was Nick Grimshaw, followed by Reggie Yates and Laura Whitmore in 2016. Emma Willis has hosted the show in 2017 and again in 2018, broadcast live for the first time. Clara Amfo hosted the 2019 launch show on 12 January. Notes In 1987 the BPI Awards ceremony was held in the Great Room at the Grosvenor House Hotel. At the time there was a BBC electricians' strike in effect, the organisers decided to use a non-TV events production company, called Upfront, to manage the show.
Despite the show being picketed, the event was transmitted as intended. For a while, the outdoor broadcast scanner was rocked on its wheels by the protesters and they managed to shut off the power to one of the big GE video screen projectors. Upfront was asked to organise the following year and persuaded the BPI to move the event to a larger venue, starting the trend that continues to this day, albeit at The O2, with a different production company. In 1989, the ceremony was broadcast live and presented by Fleetwood Mac's Mick Fleetwood and singer Samantha Fox; the inexperience of the hosts, an ineffective autocue, little preparation combined to create an unprofessional show, poorly received. The hosts continually got their lines mixed up, a pre-recorded message from Michael Jackson was never transmitted and several guest stars arrived late on stage or at the wrong time, such as Boy George in place of The Four Tops; the 1990 awards ceremony saw the last public appearance of Queen frontman Freddie Mercury.
Queen appeared at the ceremony to receive the Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music. Mercury did not make a speech, as Brian May did the talking on behalf of the other members, but his gaunt appearance was noticeable. In 1992, dance/art band The KLF were booked to open the show. In an attempt to hijack the event, the duo collaborated with grindcore metal band Extreme Noise Terror to perform a death metal version of the dance song "3 a.m. Eternal" that prompted conductor Sir Georg Solti to walk out in disgust; the performance ended with Bill Drummond firing blanks from a vintage machine gun over the audience and KLF publicist/announcer Scott Piering stating "Ladies and gentlemen, The KLF have now left the music business", the performance indeed marked the end of the duo's musical career, because they released only several one-off performances and one live performance afterwards. Producers of the show refused to let a motorcycle courier collect the award on behalf of the band. Guests arriving for an after-show party witnessed the band dump a dead sheep outside the venue with the message "I died for you – bon appetit" tied aroun
A by-law is a rule or law established by an organization or community to regulate itself, as allowed or provided for by some higher authority. The higher authority a legislature or some other government body, establishes the degree of control that the by-laws may exercise. By-laws may be established by entities such as a business corporation, a neighborhood association, or depending on the jurisdiction, a municipality. In the United Kingdom and some Commonwealth countries, the local laws established by municipalities are referred to as bye-laws because their scope is regulated by the central governments of those nations. Accordingly, a bylaw enforcement officer is the Canadian equivalent of the American Code Enforcement Officer or Municipal Regulations Enforcement Officer. In the United States, the federal government and most state governments have no direct ability to regulate the single provisions of municipal law; as a result, terms such as code, ordinance, or regulation, if not law are more common.
The Merriam-Webster Dictionary indicates that the origin of the word by-law is from the English word bilawe from Old Norse *bȳlǫg, from Old Norse bȳr town + lag-, lǫg law. The earliest use of the term, which originates from the Viking town law in the Danelaw, wherein by is the Old Norse word for a larger settlement as in Whitby and Derby. However, it is possible that this usage was forgotten and the word was "reinvented" in modern times through the use of the adverbial prefix by- giving the meaning of subsidiary law or side-law. In either case, it is incorrect to claim that the origin of the word is the prepositional phrase "by law." Municipal by-laws are public regulatory laws. The main difference between a by-law and a law passed by a national/federal or regional/state body is that a by-law is made by a non-sovereign body, which derives its authority from another governing body, can only be made on a limited range of matters. A local council or municipal government derives its power to pass laws through a law of the national or regional government which specifies what things the town or city may regulate through by-laws.
It is therefore a form of delegated legislation. Within its jurisdiction and specific to those areas mandated by the higher body, a municipal by-law is no different than any other law of the land, can be enforced with penalties, challenged in court and must comply with other laws of the land, such as the country's constitution. Municipal by-laws are enforcable through the public justice system, offenders can be charged with a criminal offence for breach of a by-law. Common by-laws include vehicle parking and stopping regulations, animal control and construction, noise and business regulation, management of public recreation areas. Under Article 94 of the Constitution of Japan, regional governments have limited autonomy and legislative powers to create by-laws. In practice, such powers are exercised in accordance with the Local Autonomy Law. By-laws therefore constitute part of the legal system subordinate to the Japanese constitution. In terms of its mandatory powers and effective, it is considered the lowest of all legislation possible.
Such powers are used to govern the following: Location of the seat of government of the prefecture Frequency of routine meetings Number of prefectural vice-governors and vice village leaders Number of staff attached to administrative bodies governed Placement of regional autonomous areas Regulation of certain municipal monies Placement and removal of public facilities Appointment of subordinate offices by the prefectural governor In the United Kingdom, by-laws are laws of local or limited application made by local councils or other bodies, using powers granted by an Act of Parliament, so are a form of delegated legislation. In Australian Law there are five types of by-law, they are established by statute: State government authorities create By-laws as a type of "statutory rule" under an empowering Act, are made by the State governor. Local government by-laws are the most prevalent type of by-law in Australia, control things from Parking and Alcohol in parks to fire regulations and zoning controls.
In New South Wales these by-laws are called ordinances and Zoning Controls are called Environmental Planning Instruments created under the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act. Numerous specific institutions, including universities, are empowered to make by-laws by their establishing legislation. By-laws of a company or society are created as a contract among members, must be formally adopted and/or amended. Strata Title was developed in Australia and by-laws of body corporate are empowered by state legislation; these are the main type of by-law most people come into contact with on a regular basis as they control what people in Strata title housing can do in their own homes. The most well known of these is the "no pets in flats" rule. Corporate and organizational by-laws regulate only the organization to which they apply and are concerned with the operation of the organization, setting out the form, manner or procedure in which a company or organisation should be run. Corporate by-laws are drafted by a corporation's founders or directors under the authority of its Charter or Articles of Incorporation.
By-laws vary from organization to organization, but cover topics such as the purpose of the organization, who are its members, how directors are elected, how meetings are conducted, what officers the organization will have and a description of their duties. A common mnemonic device for remembering t
Music Canada is a Toronto-based, non-profit trade organization, founded 9 April 1963 to represent the interests of companies that record, produce and distribute music in Canada. It offers benefits to some of Canada's leading independent record labels and distributors. Formed as the 10-member Canadian Record Manufacturer's Association, the association changed its name to Canadian Recording Industry Association in 1972 and opened membership to other record industry companies. In 2006, the CRIA was in the news when a number of smaller labels resigned their memberships, complaining that the organization wasn't representing their interests. In 2011, it changed its name to Music Canada offering special benefits to some of the leading independent labels and distributors in Canada. Music Canada is governed by a board of directors. To be eligible for election a candidate for the board must be among the executive officers of the member companies. Graham Henderson of Universal Music Canada has been president since 15 November 2004.
Members are divided into 3 classes: Class A members are Canadian individuals or companies whose principal business is producing, manufacturing, or marketing sound recordings. These members hold voting rights, consist of the "big four" record labels. Class B members are Canadian individuals or companies whose principal business is producing sound recordings; these members have no voting rights. As of 2007, there were 22 class B members. Manufacturing Division members are Canadian individuals or companies whose principal business is manufacturing sound recordings. Music Canada is responsible for the distribution of ISRC registrant codes within Canada, works with the IFPI and RIAA to try to prevent copyright infringement of artists' work. Music Canada has represented all record labels in the country. However, some labels and other industry groups have publicly disagreed with Music Canada and claim it no longer represents them. In 2006, six well-known "indie" labels including Nettwerk left Music Canada in a dispute over Canadian content rules.
They claimed the association was only protecting the interests of "the four major foreign multi-national labels," referring to EMI, Sony BMG, Warner. Other points of contention include Music Canada's stance against the blank media tax, their support for digital locks on music, positions against copyright reform. In 2007 a group of musicians formed the Canadian Music Creators Coalition, claiming "legislative proposals that would facilitate lawsuits against our fans or increase the labels' control over the enjoyment of music are made not in our names, but on behalf of the labels' foreign parent companies." On February 16, 2004, Music Canada applied to the Federal Court to force five major Canadian internet service providers — Shaw Communications Inc. Telus Corp. Rogers Cable, Bell Canada's Sympatico service and Quebec's Vidéotron — to hand over the names of 29 people accused of copyright infringement through peer-to-peer file sharing. On April 2005, Vidéotron indicated its willingness to supply customer information to Music Canada.
On March 31, 2004, in the case of BMG v. John Doe, Justice Konrad von Finckenstein of the Federal Court of Canada ruled that making music available for download over the Internet was not equivalent to distribution and was thus noninfringing; the Justice compared the peer-to-peer filesharing activities to "having a photocopier in a library room full of copyrighted material" and wrote that there was no evidence of unauthorized distribution presented. The Federal Court of Appeal upheld the lower courts ruling denying the disclosure of the customers' identities, but, in reference to "what would or would not constitute infringement of copyright," stated: "such conclusions should not have been made in the preliminary stages of this action, since they would require a consideration of the evidence as well as the law applicable to such evidence after it has been properly adduced, could be damaging to the parties if a trial takes place." The Copyright Board of Canada earlier that year had included downloading music in the list of "private copying" activities for which tariffs on blank media applied.
That made it unlikely that downloaders could be prosecuted, leaving only the possibility of acting against uploaders, those supplying the works to others on the networks. In 2008, the operators of the isoHunt website filed a motion with the Supreme Court of British Columbia seeking a declaratory judgment affirming the legality of their operation; the motion was denied, the court ruled a full trial was needed. This decision was appealed by the operators of isoHunt. In late 2009, isoHunt filed a formal suit against Music Canada and the four "major" record labels seeking "declaratory relief to clarify its legal rights."Additionally, in October 2008, the four main members of Music Canada were sued by the estate of Chet Baker and several other artists for copyright infringement. The major claims in this lawsuit are as follows: That some three hundred thousand works were illegally distributed by the Music Canada's members, That they failed to seek proper licensing and distribution agreements with the creators of the aforementioned works, instead placing the works on what is colloquially referred to as a "pending list" (i.e. any payments to be made for the use of the aforementioned works are reserved, pending an agreement with the ar
Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are businesses wishing to promote their products or services. Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for and has control over the message, it differs from personal selling in that the message is non-personal, i.e. not directed to a particular individual. Advertising is communicated through various mass media, including traditional media such as newspapers, television, outdoor advertising or direct mail; the actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement, or "ad" or advert for short. Commercial ads seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding", which associates a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. On the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct-response advertising.
Non-commercial entities that advertise more than consumer products or services include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may use free modes such as a public service announcement. Advertising may help to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Modern advertising originated with the techniques introduced with tobacco advertising in the 1920s, most with the campaigns of Edward Bernays, considered the founder of modern, "Madison Avenue" advertising. Worldwide spending on advertising in 2015 amounted to an estimated US$529.43 billion. Advertising's projected distribution for 2017 was 40.4% on TV, 33.3% on digital, 9% on newspapers, 6.9% on magazines, 5.8% on outdoor and 4.3% on radio. Internationally, the largest advertising-agency groups are Dentsu, Omnicom, WPP. In Latin, advertere means "to turn towards". Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia.
Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, present to this day in many parts of Asia and South America; the tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry of bamboo flutes played to sell confectionery. Advertisement takes in the form of calligraphic signboards and inked papers. A copper printing plate dated back to the Song dynasty used to print posters in the form of a square sheet of paper with a rabbit logo with "Jinan Liu's Fine Needle Shop" and "We buy high-quality steel rods and make fine-quality needles, to be ready for use at home in no time" written above and below is considered the world's earliest identified printed advertising medium. In Europe, as the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, the general population was unable to read, instead of signs that read "cobbler", "miller", "tailor", or "blacksmith", images associated with their trade would be used such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horseshoe, a candle or a bag of flour.
Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers to announce their whereabouts. The first compilation of such advertisements was gathered in "Les Crieries de Paris", a thirteenth-century poem by Guillaume de la Villeneuve. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England; these early print advertisements were used to promote books and newspapers, which became affordable with advances in the printing press. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content. Thomas J. Barratt of London has been called "the father of modern advertising". Working for the Pears Soap company, Barratt created an effective advertising campaign for the company products, which involved the use of targeted slogans and phrases. One of his slogans, "Good morning. Have you used Pears' soap?" was famous in its day and into the 20th century.
Barratt introduced many of the crucial ideas that lie behind successful advertising and these were circulated in his day. He stressed the importance of a strong and exclusive brand image for Pears and of emphasizing the product's availability through saturation campaigns, he understood the importance of reevaluating the market for changing tastes and mores, stating in 1907 that "tastes change, fashions change, the advertiser has to change with them. An idea, effective a generation ago would fall flat and unprofitable if presented to the public today. Not that the idea of today is always better than the older idea, but it is different – it hits the present taste."As the economy expanded across the world during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format led to the growth of mail-order advertising. In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles.
Around 1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roo