A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an
Hellboy is a fictional superhero created by writer-artist Mike Mignola. The character first appeared in San Diego Comic-Con Comics #2, has since appeared in various eponymous miniseries, one-shots and intercompany crossovers; the character has been adapted into two live-action feature films in 2004 and 2008 that starred Ron Perlman in the title role, two straight-to-DVD animated films, as well as three video games – Asylum Seeker, The Science of Evil, as a playable character in Injustice 2. A film reboot starring David Harbour was released in 2019. A well-meaning half-Demon whose true name is Anung Un Rama, Hellboy was summoned from Hell to Earth as a baby on October 5th by Nazi occultists, he was discovered by the Allied Forces. In time, Hellboy grew to be a large, red-skinned adult with a tail, cloven hooves for feet, an oversized right hand made of stone, he has been described as smelling of dry-roasted peanuts. Although a bit gruff, he shows none of the malevolence thought to be intrinsic to classical demons and has an ironic sense of humor.
This is said to be because of his upbringing under Professor Bruttenholm, who raised him as a normal boy. Hellboy works for the B. P. R. D. An international non-governmental agency, for himself against dark forces including Nazis and witches, in a series of tales that have their roots in folklore, pulp magazines, vintage adventure, Lovecraftian horror and horror fiction. In earlier stories, he is identified as the "World's Greatest Paranormal Investigator". In 2011, Hellboy was ranked 25th of the Top 100 Comic Book Heroes by IGN. Hellboy, or "Anung Un Rama" as he was called, was conceived on October 5, 1617, the day his birth-mother Sarah Hughes was on her deathbed. In life, Sarah was a witch who gained her powers from being a consort of the archdemon, Azzael, an Archduke of Hell, Hellboy's "biological" father. Taking Sarah's body to hell when she attempted to repent on her deathbed within a church in East Bromwich, Azzael burned her away so their child would be born, chopped off the newborn's right hand to replace it with the "Right Hand of Doom", a relic tied to the Ogdru Jahad.
When the other princes of Hell learned of his actions, Azzael sent his half-demon child away while he was stripped of his powers and imprisoned in ice. The child is summoned to Earth in the final months of World War II by the "Mad Monk" Grigori Rasputin on Tarmagant Island, off the coast of Scotland, having been commissioned by the Nazis to change the tide of a losing war; as a direct result of this ritual, the child appears on Earth in a fireball at what remains of the ruined Bromwich Church on December 23, 1944. Proving not to be a devil, in the traditional sense, but a devil-like creature, the child was dubbed "Hellboy" by Professor Trevor "Broom" Bruttenholm. Taken by the United States Armed Forces to an Air Force base in New Mexico, Hellboy is raised by Professor Bruttenholm and the United States Army where the Bureau for Paranormal Research and Defense a private organization dedicated to combating occult threats, begins. Due to the success of his first mission in 1952, Hellboy is granted "honorary human" status by the United Nations and becomes a member of the BPRD as the "world's greatest paranormal investigator".
As such, Hellboy interacts with humans law enforcement officials, the military, various "scholars of the weird", most of whom are not presented as overtly reacting to his strange appearance. As an adult, having matured physically within years and aging while having a teenaged mind, Hellboy becomes the primary agent for the BPRD, alongside other human and quasi-human agents that include Kate Corrigan, a professor of folklore at New York University. Things change for Hellboy during the events of Seed of Destruction when he finds professor Bruttenholm after he disappears in an expedition in the Arctic and witnesses his adopted father's death at the hands of a Lovecraftian frog monster; the search takes Hellboy and Liz to the Cavendish Hall mansion, a trap established by Rasputin to lure Hellboy into an embrace of his own "destiny", with the assistance of Sadu-Hem. Controlled by the spirit of one of the ancestral Cavendish men, Abe impales Rasputin. Liz's firestorm incinerates Rasputin's body alongside Sadu-Hem's and destroys Cavendish Hall.
Soon after, during a visit to Bromwich Church, Hellboy gets a glimpse of his conception 300+ years ago and learns he has two human half-siblings. During the events of Hellboy: Wake the Devil, Hellboy's journey of self-discovery leads him to Romania to investigate the theft of an ancient box containing the corpse of Vladimir Giurescu, a Napoleonic officer, in fact a vampire before he was "killed" on the order of a fearful Adolf Hitler; the culprit of the theft is revealed to be Ilsa Haupstein, one of the surviving members of Project Ragna Rok, revived from suspended animation and aided in Giurescu's resurrection. Finding Castle Giurescu after splitting up with the other search groups, Hellboy learns that the source of Giurescu's rebirth is the ancient goddess Hecate. Though Hellboy destroys Hecate's original body, he
The Sandman: Worlds' End
Worlds' End is the eighth collection of issues in the DC Comics series The Sandman. It was written by Neil Gaiman; the stories in the collection first appeared in 1993. The collection first appeared in paperback and hardback editions in 1994 with an introduction by Stephen King; the collection's title, a number of its themes and images are found in G. K. Chesterton's poem "A Child of the Snows", it was followed by The Kindly Ones. Like volumes 3 and 6, Dream Country and Fables and Reflections, Worlds' End is a volume of predominantly single-issue short stories only obliquely related to the principal story of the series; the issues in Worlds' End were published in sequence, using a frame narrative. The story begins in the first person narration of Brant Tucker, wherein he and co-worker Charlene Mooney are involved in a car crash on their way to Chicago. Charlene is hurt, Brant is directed by a hedgehog to a strange inn named "Worlds' End, a free house": identified as one of four inns where travelers between realms shelter during reality storms, which occur after momentous events.
In conclusion, the revelers at the inn watch a funeral procession cross the sky, which ends with Death looking sadly into the inn, as the crescent moon behind her turns red. Thereafter Brant returns alone to his own world, where he narrates his story to a waitress, while Charlene remains at the'Worlds' End' as assistant to its landlady; the framing sequence is penciled by Bryan Talbot and inked by Mark Buckingham, Dick Giordano and Steve Leialoha, with the exception of the funeral procession, penciled by Gary Amaro and inked by Tony Harris. The stories within the collection are each narrated by a different person during a storytelling session at the inn; this gives each a distinct style both in the telling and in the illustration, with the collection drawn together by the short sequences between stories set at the inn itself. Each story told; the first story eschews the traditional comic style, with linked panels containing speech bubbles and panels which narrate the story: instead, the narration appears as prose, with illustrations interrupting at intervals.
Gaiman had asked artist Alec Stevens to model the approach after that which he had employed in The Sinners, published by DC's Piranha Press imprint in June 1989. This approach is a unique, stained-glass-like style that takes a nod to the German Expressionists of the early 20th century. "A Tale" concerns a city dweller who finds himself one day in what he believes to be the dream of the city in which he lives, wherein an old man explains his fear that the cities will someday awaken. He encounters Morpheus, a woman who looks like Death, but who Gaiman has said is not; when asked, Stevens said that he drew his own'Mona' character from his Hardcore graphic novel, published by Piranha Press in January 1990. It ends with the frightened city dweller returning to "reality", whereupon he moves away from the city to a small village, where the storyteller meets him, he fears that the cities will awaken. This story is influenced by the work of horror writer H. P. Lovecraft in its image of a character nearly driven to madness after discovering a truth that humans were never meant to know.
In his introduction to Lovecraft, The Dream Cycle of H. P. Lovecraft: Dreams of Terror and Death, Gaiman writes, "There's something about Lovecraft's fiction, about his worlds, oddly alluring for a writer of fantasy and horror. I've written three Lovecraftian stories: one obliquely, in Sandman—a quiet, dreamlike story." The second story is a fantasy adventure, narrated by the flamboyant representative of Faerie introduced in Season of Mists, Cluracan, in which he is sent to the city Aurelian to represent the interests of Faerie in the political struggle there, causes uproar with a prophecy to the ruler of Aurelian. He is imprisoned but freed by Morpheus, alerted to his plight by Cluracan's sister, Nuala, in Morpheus' service. Using his faerie powers to disguise himself, Cluracan provokes the inhabitants of Aurelian to rebellion against their ruler, thereupon killed by his undead predecessor. John Watkiss draws this story; the third story, set in the early 20th century, is told by a girl who poses as a boy, Jim, to go to sea, therefore may be inspired by the traditional folk song "The Handsome Cabin Boy".
It concerns the difficulties presented by extraordinary truths, reintroduces Hob Gadling, who appears in The Doll's House. Jim makes a voyage from Singapore to Liverpool, stopping in India, where Hob is presented as a guest on the ship, persuades the captain to transport an Indian stowaway; the Indian tells a tale. It is implied that the stowaway is the king in disguise. Before the end of their journey, a massive leviathan appears and surrounds the ship in a terrible display disappears. Jim is eager to converse on the subject; the story ends
School Library Journal
The School Library Journal is an American monthly magazine with articles and reviews for school librarians, media specialists, public librarians who work with young people. Articles cover a wide variety of topics, with a focus on technology and multimedia. Reviews are included for preschool to 4th grade, grades 5 and up, teens. Both fiction and non-fiction titles are reviewed, as are graphic novels and digital resources. Included are reviews of professional reading for librarians and reference books; the School Library Journal was founded in 1954 as Junior Libraries after breaking off from Library Journal. The first issue was published on September 15, 1954. Gertrude Wolff was the first editor. Early in its history, the periodical published nine issues each year between the months of September and May. Issues were released on the fifteenth of each month; the journal now publishes issues monthly. In 2008, School Library Journal launched Series Made Simple, a twice-annual supplement which features reviews of series nonfiction books.
It releases an annual Best Books list. In 2006 School Library Journal had a circulation of over 100,000 readers. Reed International purchased original publisher R. R. Bowker in 1985; the School Library Journal website allows both subscribers and non-subscribers full access to every issue published from 1996 to the present, including the current issue. In addition to these resources, the website has a number of blogs and several e-newsletters including Curriculum Connections, SLJ Teen, SLJ Extra Helping. List of literary journals Official website
A graphic novel is a book made up of comics content. Although the word "novel" refers to long fictional works, the term "graphic novel" is applied broadly and includes fiction, non-fiction, anthologized work, it is distinguished from the term "comic book", used for comics periodicals. Fan historian Richard Kyle coined the term "graphic novel" in an essay in the November 1964 issue of the comics fanzine Capa-Alpha; the term gained popularity in the comics community after the publication of Will Eisner's A Contract with God and the start of Marvel's Graphic Novel line and became familiar to the public in the late 1980s after the commercial successes of the first volume of Art Spiegelman's Maus in 1986 and the collected editions of Frank Miller's The Dark Knight Returns in 1986 and Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' Watchmen in 1987. The Book Industry Study Group began using "graphic novel" as a category in book stores in 2001; the term is not defined, though Merriam-Webster's full dictionary definition is "a fictional story, presented in comic-strip format and published as a book", while its simplest definition is given as "cartoon drawings that tell a story and are published as a book".
In the publishing trade, the term extends to material that would not be considered a novel if produced in another medium. Collections of comic books that do not form a continuous story, anthologies or collections of loosely related pieces, non-fiction are stocked by libraries and bookstores as "graphic novels"; the term is sometimes used to distinguish between works created as standalone stories, in contrast to collections or compilations of a story arc from a comic book series published in book form. In continental Europe, both original book-length stories such as La rivolta dei racchi by Guido Buzzelli, collections of comics have been published in hardcover volumes called "albums", since the end of the 19th century; as the exact definition of the graphic novel is debated, the origins of the form are open to interpretation. The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck is the oldest recognized American example of comics used to this end, it originated as the 1828 publication Histoire de M. Vieux Bois by Swiss caricaturist Rodolphe Töpffer, was first published in English translation in 1841 by London's Tilt & Bogue, which used an 1833 Paris pirate edition.
The first American edition was published in 1842 by Wilson & Company in New York City using the original printing plates from the 1841 edition. Another early predecessor is Journey to the Gold Diggins by Jeremiah Saddlebags by brothers J. A. D. and D. F. Read, inspired by The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck. In 1894 Caran d'Ache broached the idea of a "drawn novel" in a letter to the newspaper Le Figaro and started work on a 360-page wordless book. In the United States there is a long tradition of reissuing published comic strips in book form. In 1897 the Hearst Syndicate published such a collection of The Yellow Kid by Richard Outcault and it became a best seller; the 1920s saw a revival of the medieval woodcut tradition, with Belgian Frans Masereel cited as "the undisputed king" of this revival. His works include Passionate Journey. American Lynd Ward worked in this tradition, publishing Gods' Man, in 1929 and going on to publish more during the 1930s. Other prototypical examples from this period include American Milt Gross's He Done Her Wrong, a wordless comic published as a hardcover book, Une semaine de bonté, a novel in sequential images composed of collage by the surrealist painter Max Ernst.
Charlotte Salomon's Life? or Theater? Combines images and captions; the 1940s saw the launching of Classics Illustrated, a comic-book series that adapted notable, public domain novels into standalone comic books for young readers. In 1947 Fawcett Comics published Comics Novel #1: "Anarcho, Dictator of Death", a 52-page comic dedicated to one story. In 1950, St. John Publications produced the digest-sized, adult-oriented "picture novel" It Rhymes with Lust, a film noir-influenced slice of steeltown life starring a scheming, manipulative redhead named Rust. Touted as "an original full-length novel" on its cover, the 128-page digest by pseudonymous writer "Drake Waller", penciler Matt Baker and inker Ray Osrin proved successful enough to lead to an unrelated second picture novel, The Case of the Winking Buddha by pulp novelist Manning Lee Stokes and illustrator Charles Raab. Presaging Will Eisner's multiple-story graphic novel A Contract with God, cartoonist Harvey Kurtzman wrote and drew the four-story mass-market paperback Harvey Kurtzman's Jungle Book, published in 1959.
By the late 1960s, American comic book creators were becoming more adventurous with the form. Gil Kane and Archie Goodwin self-published a 40-page, magazine-format comics novel, His Name Is... Savage in 1968—the same year Marvel Comics published two issues of The Spectacular Spider-Man in a similar format. Columnist and comic-book writer Steven Grant argues that Stan Lee and Steve Ditko's Doctor Strange story in Strange Tales #130–146, although published serially from 1965–1966, is "the first American graphic novel". Critic Jason Sacks referred to the 13-issue "Panther's Rage"—comics' first-known titled, self-contained, multi-issue story arc—that ran from 1973 to 1975 in the Black Panther series in Marvel's Jungle Action as "Marvel's first graphic novel". Meanwhile, in continental Europe, the tradition of collecting ser
Comics is a medium used to express ideas through images combined with text or other visual information. Comics takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Textual devices such as speech balloons and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, sound effects, or other information; the size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics. Common forms include comic strips and gag cartoons, comic books. Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels, comic albums, tankōbon have become common, while online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century with the advent of the internet; the history of comics has followed different paths in different cultures. Scholars have posited a pre-history as far back as the Lascaux cave paintings in France. By the mid-20th century, comics flourished in the United States, western Europe, Japan; the history of European comics is traced to Rodolphe Töpffer's cartoon strips of the 1830s, but the medium became popular in the 1930s following the success of strips and books such as The Adventures of Tintin.
American comics emerged as a mass medium in the early 20th century with the advent of newspaper comic strips. Histories of Japanese comics and cartooning propose origins as early as the 12th century. Modern comic strips emerged in Japan in the early 20th century, the output of comics magazines and books expanded in the post-World War II era with the popularity of cartoonists such as Osamu Tezuka. Comics has had a lowbrow reputation for much of its history, but towards the end of the 20th century began to find greater acceptance with the public and academics; the term comics is used as a singular noun when it refers to the medium, but becomes plural when referring to particular instances, such as individual strips or comic books. Though the term derives from the humorous work that predominated in early American newspaper comic strips, it has become standard for non-humorous works too. In English, it is common to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language comics.
There is no consensus amongst historians on a definition of comics. The increasing cross-pollination of concepts from different comics cultures and eras has only made definition more difficult. Examples of early comics The European and Japanese comics traditions have followed different paths. Europeans have seen their tradition as beginning with the Swiss Rodolphe Töpffer from as early as 1827 and Americans have seen the origin of theirs in Richard F. Outcault's 1890s newspaper strip The Yellow Kid, though many Americans have come to recognize Töpffer's precedence. Japan had a long prehistory of satirical comics leading up to the World War II era; the ukiyo-e artist Hokusai popularized the Japanese term for comics and cartooning, manga, in the early 19th century. In 1930s, Mr. Chester, an early founder of "the Golden Age of Comics", which make the comics flourished after World War II. In the post-war era modern Japanese comics began to flourish when Osamu Tezuka produced a prolific body of work.
Towards the close of the 20th century, these three traditions converged in a trend towards book-length comics: the comic album in Europe, the tankōbon in Japan, the graphic novel in the English-speaking countries. Outside of these genealogies, comics theorists and historians have seen precedents for comics in the Lascaux cave paintings in France, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Trajan's Column in Rome, the 11th-century Norman Bayeux Tapestry, the 1370 bois Protat woodcut, the 15th-century Ars moriendi and block books, Michelangelo's The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, William Hogarth's 18th-century sequential engravings, amongst others. Illustrated humour periodicals were popular in 19th-century Britain, the earliest of, the short-lived The Glasgow Looking Glass in 1825; the most popular was Punch. On occasion the cartoons in these magazines appeared in sequences. American comics developed out of such magazines as Puck and Life; the success of illustrated humour supplements in the New York World and the New York American Outcault's The Yellow Kid, led to the development of newspaper comic strips.
Early Sunday strips were full-page and in colour. Between 1896 and 1901 cartoonists experimented with sequentiality and speech balloons. Shorter, black-and-white daily strips began to appear early in the 20th century, became established in newspapers after the success in 1907 of Bud Fisher's Mutt and Jeff. In Britain, the Amalgamated Press established a popular style of a sequence of images with text beneath them, including Illustrated Chips and Comic Cuts. Humour strips predominated at first, in the 1920s and 1930s strips with continuing stories in genres such as adventure and drama became popular. Thin periodicals called
Lianhuanhua is a palm-size picture book of sequential drawings found in China in the early 20th century. It is confirmed; the name in Chinese translates to "linked pictures" or "serial pictures". The books were called "lianhuanhua" or "lianhuan tuhua"; the official term lianhuanhua was not used until 1927. Prior to this, lianhuanhua were separated into different name categories depending on the region. In the 1880s, Chinese magazines such as Dianshizhai Pictorial experimented with the potential of this art technique. In 1884, ten illustrations to accompany a Korean rebellion narrative may be the earliest example of Lianhuanhua. In 1899, Wenyi Book Company in Shanghai published the illustrated lithograph "The Story of the Three Kingdoms" drawn by Zhu Zhixuan; the format was called "huihui tu" or chapter pictures. In 1916 Caobao newspapers bound the pictures to attract a larger audience base of middle and lower class readers; the rise of Lianhuanhua's popularity was proportional to the rise of lithographic printing introduced to Shanghai from the West.
Shanghai comics journals in the 1920s featured more artwork depicting traditional stories along the lines of Chinese mythology or Chinese folklore. Small publishers in the 1920s and 1930s were located on a street called Beigongyili in the Zhabei district. In 1935 street book stall owners and publishers established the "Shanghai Lianhuan Tuhua Promotion Society" at Taoyuanli; the illustrated stories were targeted to children and marginally literate readers. The books could be rented for a small fee in street kiosks. By the 1920s, lianhuanhua were found in Hong Kong; these rental stores were common during the Japanese occupation periods in the 1940s. In Hong Kong during the 1970s, the format had disappeared as they had become materials associated with the uneducated and unsophisticated. Though lianhuanhua production decreased in mainland China during Cultural Revolution, many books were still produced. From the late 1970s to the early 1980s, lianhuanhua made a major comeback; as in previous eras of lianhuanhua production, many of the books were adaptations of other films or television shows.
During and after the Cultural Revolution, the communist party adopted the medium for propaganda and education purposes. From the late 1980s to the 1990s, demand for lianhuanhua decreased and today, comic books such as manhua and translations of Japanese manga are much more popular than lianhuanhua. Not long ago, Renmin Meishu Chubanshe, Shanghai Renmin Meishu Chubanshe and Tianjin People's Renmin Meishu Chubanshe have republished some of their popular Lianhuanhua books. There is a resurgent interest in this format; the Shanghai Museum of Art has inaugurated a permanent exhibition of Lianhuanhua as a popular grassroots fine art form. Banhua Manhua Donghua Chinese art Comic strip 阿英：《中国连环图画史话 》. 山东画报出版社, Aug 2008. ISBN 978-7-80713-490-9. Lent, John A. "Lianhuanhua". ECA-USP. Martin, R. Orion. "Lianhuanhua: China's Pulp Comics". The Comics Journal. "Linked Pictures: A Genre of Chinese Illustrated Books", by Minjie Chen, 19 June 2015. "Chinese Lianhuanhua: A Century of Pirated Movies", by Nick Stember, 23 May 2014.
Lianhuanhua listed by year History of Lianhuanhua Lianhuanhua Pictures Lianhuanhua Collection at the Cotsen Library, Princeton University Lian Huan Hua Collection, Asia Collection, Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii at Manoa