Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property. A slave works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the term chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised, de jure slavery. In a broader sense, the word slavery may refer to any situation in which an individual is de facto forced to work against their own will. Scholars use the more generic terms such as unfree labour or forced labour to refer to such situations. However, under slavery in broader senses of the word, slaves may have some rights and protections according to laws or customs. Slavery existed in many cultures since the time before written history. A person could capture, or purchase. Slavery was legal in most societies at some time in the past, but is now outlawed in all recognized countries; the last country to abolish slavery was Mauritania in 2007. There are an estimated 40.3 million people worldwide subject to some form of modern slavery.
The most common form of modern slave trade is referred to as human trafficking. In other areas, slavery continues through practices such as debt bondage, the most widespread form of slavery today, domestic servants kept in captivity, certain adoptions in which children are forced to work as slaves, child soldiers, forced marriage; the English word slave comes from Old French sclave, from the Medieval Latin sclavus, from the Byzantine Greek σκλάβος, which, in turn, comes from the ethnonym Slav, because in some early Medieval wars many Slavs were captured and enslaved. An older interpretation connected it to the Greek verb skyleúo'to strip a slain enemy'. There is a dispute among historians about whether terms such as unfree labourer or enslaved person, rather than "slave", should be used when describing the victims of slavery. According to those proposing a change in terminology, including Andi Cumbo-Floyd, slave perpetuates the crime of slavery in language. Other historians prefer slave because the term is familiar and shorter, or because it reflects the inhumanity of slavery, with "person" implying a degree of autonomy that slavery does not allow for.
Indenture, otherwise known as bonded labour or debt bondage, is a form of unfree labour under which a person pledges himself or herself against a loan. The services required to repay the debt, their duration, may be undefined. Debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation, with children required to pay off their progenitors' debt, it is the most widespread form of slavery today. Debt bondage is most prevalent in South Asia. Chattel slavery called traditional slavery, is so named because people are treated as the chattel of the owner and are bought and sold as commodities. Under the chattel slave system, slave status was imposed on children of the enslaved at birth. Although it dominated many different societies throughout human history, this form of slavery has been formally abolished and is rare today; when it can be said to survive, it is not upheld by the legal system of any internationally recognized government. "Slavery" has been used to refer to a legal state of dependency to somebody else.
For example, in Persia, the situations and lives of such slaves could be better than those of common citizens. Forced labour, or unfree labour, is sometimes used to refer to when an individual is forced to work against their own will, under threat of violence or other punishment, but the generic term unfree labour is used to describe chattel slavery, as well as any other situation in which a person is obliged to work against their own will and a person's ability to work productively is under the complete control of another person; this may include institutions not classified as slavery, such as serfdom and penal labour. While some unfree labourers, such as serfs, have substantive, de jure legal or traditional rights, they have no ability to terminate the arrangements under which they work, are subject to forms of coercion and restrictions on their activities and movement outside their place of work. Human trafficking involves women and children forced into prostitution and is the fastest growing form of forced labour, with Thailand, India and Mexico having been identified as leading hotspots of commercial sexual exploitation of children.
Examples of sexual slavery in military contexts, include detention in "rape camps" or "comfort stations," "comfort women", forced "marriages" to soldiers and other practices involving the treatment of women or men as chattel and, as such, violations of the peremptory norm prohibiting slavery. In 2007, Human Rights Watch estimated that 200,000 to 300,000 children served as soldiers in current conflicts. More girls under 16 work as domestic workers than any other category of child labor sent to cities by parents living in rural poverty such as in restaveks in Haiti. Forced marriages or early marriages are considered types of slavery. Forced marriage continues to be practiced in parts of the world including some parts of Asia and Africa and in immigrant communities in the West. Sacred prostitution is where girls and women are pledged to priests or those of higher castes, such as the practice of Devadasi in South Asia or fetish slaves in West Africa. Marriage by abduction occurs in many places in the world today, with a national average of 69% of marriages in
Hedeby was an important Danish Viking Age trading settlement near the southern end of the Jutland Peninsula, now in the Schleswig-Flensburg district of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is the most important archaeological site in Schleswig-Holstein; the settlement developed as a trading centre at the head of a narrow, navigable inlet known as the Schlei, which connects to the Baltic Sea. The location was favorable because there is a short portage of less than 15 km to the Treene River, which flows into the Eider with its North Sea estuary, making it a convenient place where goods and ships could be pulled on a corduroy road overland for an uninterrupted seaway between the Baltic and the North Sea and avoid a dangerous and time-consuming circumnavigation of Jutland, providing Hedeby with a role similar to Lübeck. Hedeby was the second largest Nordic town during the Viking Age, after Uppåkra in present-day southern Sweden, The city of Schleswig was founded on the other side of the Schlei. Hedeby was abandoned after its destruction in 1066.
Hedeby was rediscovered in the late 19th century and excavations began in 1900. The Haithabu Museum was opened next to the site in 1985; the Old Norse name Heiða-býr translates to "heath-settlement". The name is recorded in numerous spelling variants. Heiðabýr is the reconstructed name in standard Old Norse anglicized as Heithabyr; the Stone of Eric, a 10th-century Danish runestone with an inscription mentioning ᚼᛅᛁᚦᛅ᛭ᛒᚢ, found in 1796. Old English æt Hæðum, from Ohthere's account of his travels to Alfred the Great in the Old English Orosius. Hedeby, the modern Danish spelling most used in English. Haddeby is the Low German form the name of the administrative district formed in 1949 and named for the site. Haithabu is the modern German spelling used. Sources from the 9th and 10th century AD attest to the names Sliesthorp and Sliaswich, the town of Schleswig still exists 3 km north of Hedeby. However, Æthelweard claimed in his Latin translation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that the Saxons used Slesuuic and the Danes Haithaby to refer to the same town.
Hedeby is first mentioned in the Frankish chronicles of Einhard, in the service of Charlemagne, but was founded around 770. In 808 the Danish king Godfred destroyed a competing Slav trade centre named Reric, it is recorded in the Frankish chronicles that he moved the merchants from there to Hedeby; this may have provided the initial impetus for the town to develop. The same sources record that Godfred strengthened the Danevirke, an earthen wall that stretched across the south of the Jutland peninsula; the Danevirke joined the defensive walls of Hedeby to form an east-west barrier across the peninsula, from the marshes in the west to the Schlei inlet leading into the Baltic in the east. The town itself was surrounded on its three landward sides by earthworks. At the end of the 9th century the northern and southern parts of the town were abandoned for the central section. A 9-metre high semi-circular wall was erected to guard the western approaches to the town. On the eastern side, the town was bordered by the innermost part of the Schlei inlet and the bay of Haddebyer Noor.
Hedeby became a principal marketplace because of its geographical location on the major trade routes between the Frankish Empire and Scandinavia, between the Baltic and the North Sea. Between 800 and 1000 the growing economic power of the Vikings led to its dramatic expansion as a major trading centre; the following indicate the importance achieved by the town: The town was described by visitors from England and the Mediterranean. Hedeby belonged to the Archbishopric of Hamburg and Bremen; the town minted its own coins. Adam of Bremen reports that ships were sent from this portus maritimus to Slavic lands, to Sweden and Greece. A Swedish dynasty founded by Olof the Brash is said to have ruled Hedeby during the last decades of the 9th century and the first part of the 10th century; this was told to Adam of Bremen by the Danish king Sweyn Estridsson, it is supported by three runestones found in Denmark. Two of them were raised by the mother of Olof's grandson Sigtrygg Gnupasson; the third runestone, discovered in 1796, is from the Stone of Eric.
It is inscribed with Norwegian-Swedish runes. It is, possible that Danes occasionally wrote with this version of the younger futhark. Life was crowded in Hedeby; the small houses were clustered together in a grid, with the east-west streets leading down to jetties in the harbour. People lived beyond 30 or 40, archaeological research shows that their years were painful due to crippling diseases such as tuberculosis, yet make-up for men and rights for women provide surprises to the modern understanding. Al-Tartushi, a late 10th-century traveller from al-Andalus, provides one of the most colourful and quoted descriptions of life in Hedeby. Al-Tartushi was from Cordoba in Spain, which had a significan
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between the Balkans, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Western Asia. It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Southern Bug, Dniester and the Rioni. Many countries drain into the Black Sea, including Austria, Belarus and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Ukraine; the Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2, a maximum depth of 2,212 m, a volume of 547,000 km3. It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south, Caucasus Mountains to the east, Crimean Mountains to the north, Strandzha to the southwest, Dobrogea Plateau to the northwest, features a wide shelf to the northwest; the longest east–west extent is about 1,175 km. Important cities along the coast include Batumi, Constanța, Istanbul, Novorossiysk, Ordu, Rize, Sevastopol, Sukhumi, Varna and Zonguldak; the Black Sea has a positive water balance. There is a two-way hydrological exchange: the more saline and therefore denser, but warmer, Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea under its less saline outflow.
This creates a significant anoxic layer well below the surface waters. The Black Sea drains into the Mediterranean Sea, via the Aegean Sea and various straits, is navigable to the Atlantic Ocean; the Bosphorus Strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, the Strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean Sea region of the Mediterranean. These waters separate the Caucasus and Western Asia; the Black Sea is connected, to the North, to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch. The water level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the water level in the basin, the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been land. At certain critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established, it is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean. When this hydrological link is not present, the Black Sea is an endorheic basin, operating independently of the global ocean system, like the Caspian Sea for example.
The Black Sea water level is high. The Turkish Straits connect the Black Sea with the Aegean Sea, comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Black Sea as follows: On the Southwest. The Northeastern limit of the Sea of Marmara. In the Kertch Strait. A line joining Cape Takil and Cape Panaghia. Current names of the sea are equivalents of the English name "Black Sea", including these given in the countries bordering the sea: Abkhazian: Амшын Еиқәа, IPA: Adyghe: Хы шӏуцӏэ, IPA: Bulgarian: Черно море, IPA: Crimean Tatar: Къара денъиз, Qara deñiz IPA: Georgian: შავი ზღვა, translit.: shavi zghva, IPA: Laz and Mingrelian: უჩა ზუღა, IPA:, or ზუღა, IPA:, "Sea" Romanian: Marea Neagră, pronounced Russian: Чёрное мо́рe, IPA: Turkish: Karadeniz, IPA: Ukrainian: Чорне море, IPA: Such names have not yet been shown conclusively to predate the 13th century, but there are indications that they may be older. In Greece, the historical name "Euxine Sea", which holds a different meaning, is still used: Greek: Éfxeinos Póntos.
The principal Greek name "Póntos Áxeinos" is accepted to be a rendering of Iranian word *axšaina-, compare Avestan axšaēna-, Old Persian axšaina-, Middle Persian axšēn/xašēn, New Persian xašīn, as well as Ossetic œxsīn. The ancient Greeks, most those living to the north of the Black Sea, subsequently adopted the name and altered it to á-xenos. Thereafter, Greek tradition refers to the Black Sea as the "Inhospitable Sea", Πόντος Ἄξεινος Póntos Áxeinos, first attested in Pindar; the name was considered to be "ominous" and was changed into the euphemistic name "Hospitable sea", Εὔξεινος Πόντος Eúxeinos Póntos, for the first time attested in Pindar. This became the used designation for the sea in Greek. In contexts related to mythology, the older form Póntos Áxeinos remained favored, it has been erroneously suggested that the name was derived from the color of the water, or was at least related to climatic conditions. Black or dark in this context, referred to a system in which colors represent the cardinal points of the known world.
Black or dark represented the north. The symbolism based on cardinal points was used in multiple occasions and is therefore attested. For example, the "Red Sea", a body of water reported since the time of Herodotus in fact designated the Indian Ocean, together with bodies of water now known as the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. According to the same explanation and reasoning, it is therefore considered to be impossible
Chernihiv known as Chernigov is a historic city in northern Ukraine, which serves as the administrative center of the Chernihiv Oblast, as well as of the surrounding Chernihiv Raion within the oblast. Administratively, it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance. Population: 294,727 Chernihiv stands on the Desna River 150 km to the north-north-east of Kiev; the area was served by Chernihiv Shestovitsa Airport, during the Cold War it was the site of Chernigov air base. Chernihiv was first mentioned in the Rus'-Byzantine Treaty, but the time of establishment is not known. According to the items uncovered by archaeological excavations of a settlement which included artifacts from the Khazar Khaganate, it seems to have existed at least in the 9th century. Towards the end of the 10th century, the city had its own rulers, it was there that the Black Grave, one of the largest and earliest royal mounds in Eastern Europe, was excavated in the 19th century. In the southern portion of the Kievan Rus' the city was the second by wealth.
From the early 11th century it was the seat of powerful Grand Principality of Chernigov, whose rulers at times vied for power with Kievan Grand Princes, overthrew them and took the primary seat in Kiev for themselves. The grand principality was the largest in Kievan Rus and included not only the Severian towns but such remote regions as Murom and Tmutarakan; the golden age of Chernihiv, when the city population peaked at 25,000, lasted until 1239 when the city was sacked by the hordes of Batu Khan, which started a long period of relative obscurity. The area fell under the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1353; the city was burned again by Crimean khan Meñli I Giray in 1482 and 1497 and in the 15th to 17th centuries it changed hands several times between Lithuania and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where it was granted Magdeburg rights in 1623 and in 1635 became a seat of Chernihiv Voivodeship. The area's importance increased again in the middle of the 17th century during and after the Khmelnytsky Uprising.
In the Hetman State Chernihiv was the city of deployment of Chernihiv Cossack regiment. Under the 1667 Treaty of Andrusovo the legal suzerainty of the area was ceded to Tsardom of Russia, with Chernihiv remaining an important center of the autonomous Cossack Hetmanate. With the abolishment of the Hetmanate, the city became an ordinary administrative center of the Russian Empire and a capital of local administrative units; the area in general was ruled by the Governor-General appointed from Saint Petersburg, the imperial capital, Chernihiv was the capital of local namestnichestvo, Malorosiyskaya or Little Russian and Chernigov Governorate. According to the census of 1897, in the city of Chernihiv there were about 11,000 Jews out of the total population of 27,006, their primary occupations were commercial. Many tobacco plantations and fruit gardens in the neighborhood were owned by Jews. There were 1,321 Jewish artisans in Chernihiv, including 404 tailors and seamstresses, but the demand for artisan labor was limited to the town.
There were 69 Jewish day-laborers exclusively teamsters. But few were engaged in the factories. During World War II, Chernihiv was occupied by the German Army from 9 September 1941 to 21 September 1943. Chernihiv's architectural monuments chronicle two most flourishing periods in the city's history - those of Kievan Rus' and of the Cossack Hetmanate The oldest church in the city and one of the oldest churches in Ukraine is the 5-domed Transfiguration Cathedral, commissioned in the early 1030s by Mstislav the Bold and completed several decades by his brother, Yaroslav the Wise; the Cathedral of Sts Boris and Gleb, dating from the mid-12th century, was much rebuilt in succeeding periods, before being restored to its original shape in the 20th century. Built in brick, it has a single dome and six pillars; the crowning achievement of Chernihiv masters was the exquisite Pyatnytska Church, constructed at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries. This graceful building was damaged in the Second World War.
The earliest residential buildings in the downtown date from the late 17th century, a period when a Cossack regiment was deployed there. Two most representative residences are those of Polkovnyk Polubutok; the former mansion, popularly known as the Mazepa House, used to contain the regiment's chancellery. One of the most profusely decorated Cossack structures is undoubtedly the ecclesiastical collegium, surmounted by a bell-tower; the archbishop's residence was constructed nearby in the 1780s. St Catherine Church, with its 5 gilded pear domes, traditional for Ukrainian architecture, is thought to have been intended as a memorial to the regiment's exploits during the storm of Azov in 1696. All through the most trying periods of its history, Chernihiv retained its ecclesiastical importance as the seat of bishopric or archbishopric. At the outskirts of the modern city lie two ancient cave monasteries used as the bishops' residences; the caves of the Eletsky Monastery are said to predate those of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra.
Its magnificent 6-pillared cathedral was erected at the turn of the 12th centuries.
Gulf of Finland
The Gulf of Finland is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland and Estonia all the way to Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. Other major cities around the gulf include Tallinn; the eastern parts of the Gulf of Finland belong to Russia, some of Russia's most important oil harbours are located farthest in, near Saint Petersburg. As the seaway to Saint Petersburg, the Gulf of Finland has been and continues to be of considerable strategic importance to Russia; some of the environmental problems affecting the Baltic Sea are at their most pronounced in the shallow gulf. The gulf has an area of 30,000 km2; the length is 400 km and the width varies from 70 km near the entrance to 130 km on the meridian of Moshchny Island. The gulf is shallow, with the depth decreasing from the entrance to the gulf to the continent; the sharpest change occurs near Narva-Jõesuu, why this place is called the Narva wall. The average depth is 38 m with the maximum of 100 m.
The depth of the Neva Bay is less than 6 metres. Because of the large influx of fresh water from rivers from the Neva River, the gulf water has low salinity – between 0.2 and 5.8 ‰ at the surface and 0.3–8.5 ‰ near the bottom. The average water temperature is close to 0 °C in winter. Parts of the gulf can freeze from late November to late April. Complete freezing occurs by late January, it may not occur in mild winters. Frequent strong western winds surges of water and floods; the northern coast of the gulf is high and winding, with abundant small bays and skerries, but only a few large bays and peninsulas. The coast is sloping; the southern shores are smooth and shallow, but along the entire coast runs a limestone escarpment, the Baltic Klint, with a height up to 55 m. In the east, the gulf ends with Neva Bay; the gulf contains numerous banks and islands. The largest include Kotlin Island with the city of Kronstadt, Beryozovye Islands, Lisiy Island, Maly Vysotsky Island with the nearby city of Vysotsk, Moshtchny, Bolshoy Tyuters, Naissaar, Kimitoön, Kökar, Pakri Islands and others.
Starting in 1700, Russia constructed nineteen artificial islands with fortresses in the gulf. They aimed to defend Russia from maritime attacks in the context of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721; such fortresses include Fort Alexander, Krasnaya Gorka, Ino and Kronshlot. The largest rivers flowing into the gulf are the Neva, the Narva, the Kymi. Keila, Pirita, Jägala, Luga and Kovashi flow into the gulf from the south. From the north flow the Sestra River, Porvoo and several other small rivers; the Saimaa Canal connects the gulf with the Saimaa lake. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the western limit of the Gulf of Finland as a line running from Spithami, in Estonia, through the Estonian island of Osmussaar from SE to NW and on to the SW extremity of Hanko Peninsula in Finland; the modern depression can be traced to the incision of large rivers during the Cenozoic prior to the Quaternary glaciation. These rivers eroded the sedimentary strata above the Fennoscandian Shield. In particular the eroded material was made up of Cambrian-aged claystone and sandtone.
As erosion processes the rivers encountered harder layers of Ordovician-aged limestone leading to the formation of the cliffs of Baltic Klint in northern Estonia and Ingria. Subsequently the depression was somewhat reshaped by glacier's activities, its retreat formed the Littorina Sea, whose water level was some 7–9 metres higher than the present level of the Baltic Sea. Some 4,000 years ago the sea receded and shoals in the gulf have become its islands. Uplifting of the Baltic Shield skewed the surface of the gulf; the climate in the area is humid continental climate, characterized by temperate to hot summers and cold severe winters with regular precipitation. The vegetation is dominated by a mixture of coniferous and deciduous forests and treeless coastal meadows and cliffs; the major forest trees are pine, birch, rowan, aspen and gray alder. In the far eastern part of the gulf vegetation of the marshy areas consists of bulrush and reeds, as well as aquatic plants, such as white and yellow waterlilies and acute sedge.
Aquatic plants in the shallow waters of the gulf include Ruppia and spiny naiad. Fish species of the gulf include Atlantic salmon, viviparous eelpout, belica, European chub, common minnow, silver bream, common dace, Crucian carp, European smelt, common rudd, brown trout, pipefish, perch, lumpsucker, lamprey, garfish, common whitefish, common bream, orfe, northern pike, spined loach, Baltic herring
Staraya Ladoga. It used to be a prosperous trading outpost in the 9th centuries. A multi-ethnic settlement, it was dominated by Scandinavians who were called by the name of Rus'. For that reason, it is sometimes called the first capital of Russia. Dendrochronology suggests that Ladoga was founded in 753; until 950, it was one of the most important trading ports of Eastern Europe. Merchant vessels sailed from the Baltic Sea through Ladoga to Novgorod and to Constantinople or the Caspian Sea; this route is known as the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. An alternative way led down the Volga River along the Volga trade route to the Khazar capital of Atil, to the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, all the way to Baghdad. Tellingly, the oldest Arabian Middle Age coin in Europe was unearthed in Ladoga; the original inhabitants of the settlement were Norsemen. The hypothetical original Finnic name, Alode-joki, was rendered as Aldeigja in Old Norse and as Ladoga in Old East Slavic. Staraya is Russian for "Old".
According to the Hypatian Codex, created at the end of the 13th century, the legendary Varangian leader Rurik arrived at Ladoga in 862 and made it his capital. Rurik moved to Novgorod and his successors to Kiev where foundations for the powerful state of Kievan Rus' were laid. There are royal funerary barrows, at the outskirts of Ladoga. One of them is said to be Rurik's grave, another one—that of his successor Oleg; the Heimskringla and other Norse sources mention that in the late 990s Eric Haakonsson of Norway raided the coast and set the town ablaze. Ladoga was the most important trading center in Eastern Europe from about 800 to 900 CE, it is estimated that between 90% to 95% of all Arab dirhams found in Sweden passed through Ladoga. Ladoga's next mention in chronicles is dated 1019, when Ingigerd of Sweden married Yaroslav of Novgorod. Under the terms of their marriage settlement, Yaroslav ceded Ladoga to his wife, who appointed her father's cousin, the Swedish earl Ragnvald Ulfsson, to rule the town.
This information is confirmed by sagas and archaeological evidence, which suggests that Ladoga evolved into a Varangian settlement. At least two Swedish kings spent their youths in Ladoga and Inge I, also King Anund Gårdske. In the 12th and 13th centuries, Ladoga functioned as a trade outpost of the powerful Novgorod Republic, its trade significance declined and most of the population engaged in fishing in the 15th century. After new fortresses such as Oreshek and Korela were constructed in the 14th century further to the west of Ladoga, the town's military significance decreased. Ladoga belonged to Vodskaya Pyatina of the Republic and contained eighty-four homesteads in the 15th century; the Novgorodians built there a citadel with several churches. The reconstruction of one of the towers of Staraya Ladoga's fortress was scheduled to be completed in 2010; the heart of Staraya Ladoga is an old fortress. In earlier times, it was a strategic site because it was the only possible harbor for sea-vessels that could not navigate through the Volkhov River.
The fortress was rebuilt at the turn of the 16th centuries. In 1703, Peter the Great founded the town of Novaya Ladoga closer to the bank of Lake Ladoga; the ancient fortress thenceforth declined and came to be known as Staraya Ladoga, in order to distinguish it from the new town. Ladoga Fortress The mid-12th-century churches of St. George and of Mary's Assumption stand in all their original glory. Inside St. George's, some magnificent 12th-century frescoes are still visible. In addition, there is a mid-12th-century church of St. Climent. Landmark churches in Staraya Ladoga There is the Assumption Nunnery/Monastery, a monastery, dedicated to St. Nicholas, constructed in the 17th century. Monasteries in Staraya Ladoga Staraya Ladoga's barrows, architectural monuments, romantic views of the Volkhov River have always been drawing attention of Russian painters. There were the artists Ivan Aivazovsky, Orest Kiprensky, Aleksander Orłowski, Ivan Ivanov, Alexey Venetsianov and many others in the 19th century.
A future member of the Imperial Academy of Arts and the Peredvizhniki group Vassily Maximov was born and laid to rest there. He portrayed scenes from an everyday life of peasants. Nicholas Roerich painted his studies there during the summer of 1899, he named this landscape the best of the Russian one. Valentin Serov, Konstantin Korovin, Boris Kustodiev worked there. Alexander Samokhvalov was in Staraya Ladoga many times in 1924-1926, he took part in the restoration of the St. George's Church; that experience gave a great deal to the artist, he wrote. It helped him to understand the effect of joining a monumental painting with the architectural forms. In result of this dwelling in that place painter made his "Staraya Ladoga" and "Family of Fisherman"In February 1945 the ex-estate of the prince Shakhovskoy was given to Leningrad artists as a base zone for the rest and creative work; the restoring works continued 15 years from 1946. But Leningrad artists began to arrive to Staraya Ladoga from 1940s.
It became a source of inspiration for Sergei Osipov, Gleb Savinov, Nikolai Timkov, Arseny Semionov and many others for many years. A House of creat
The Volkhov is a river in Novgorodsky and Chudovsky Districts of Novgorod Oblast and Kirishsky and Volkhovsky Districts of Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia. It belongs to the basin of the Neva River; the length of the river is 224 kilometres, the area of its drainage basin is 80,200 square kilometres. The city of Veliky Novgorod, the towns of Kirishi and Novaya Ladoga, a important village of Staraya Ladoga are located along the Volkhov. A number of etymologies, none universally accepted, have been proposed for the name of the river. In his Etymological dictionary of the Russian language, Max Vasmer doubted some philologists' opinion that the river's name is related to the Finnish velho or Russian volkhv; the Volkhov flows out of Lake Ilmen north into the largest lake of Europe. It is the second largest tributary of Lake Ladoga, it is navigable over its whole length. Discharge is variable depending on the level of Lake Ilmen; the Volkhov is reported to reverse the direction of its flow in its upper section in exceptional circumstances.
The river freezes up in late November, breaks up in early April. The level of water is regulated by the dam of the Volkhov hydroelectric plant situated 25 km upstream from the mouth of the river. Apart from hydroelectric generating purposes, the dam serves to facilitate navigation in the lower part of the river known for its rapids; the upstream part of the Volkhov is connected to the Msta River by the Siversov Canal bypassing Lake Ilmen. The downstream part is connected with the Neva, the Syas River, the Svir River by the New Ladoga Canal bypassing Lake Ladoga; the main tributaries are of the Volkhov are the Vishera, joins the Maly Volkhovets armlet. The drainage basin of the Volkhov includes the large parts of Novgorod and Leningrad Oblasts, as well as areas in Tver Oblast, Pskov Oblast of Russia and Vitebsk Oblast of Belarus; the main rivers belonging to the river basin of the Volkhov are the Msta, the Lovat, the Pola, the Shelon. Despite its small size, Volkhov has played a large role in Russian history and economy: in recognition of that, a figure representing the Volkhov appears among the allegorical monuments to the four major rivers of Russia on the rostral columns in the ensemble of the Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange and Rostral Columns.
Its role in facilitating trade is due to its position as the only river penetrating deep into inland Russia that flows north towards the Baltic, rather than south towards the Caspian or Black Seas. In the mid-9th century, the Volkhov was a populated trade artery of the Varangian-dominated Rus' Khaganate, it was a vital part of the most important trade route connecting Northern Europe to the Orient, by way of the Volga and Dnieper. The ancient Russian capital Staraya Ladoga and one of the most significant Russian medieval cities Velikiy Novgorod are located along the Volkhov. After entering the Volkhov near Gorchakovshchina and Lyubsha, commercial vessels of the Vikings cast anchor at the major trade emporium of Aldeigja, they rowed upstream past a series of rapids, guarded by the fortified settlements at Novye Duboviki and Gorodishche. There was another outpost at Kholopy Gorodok, 13 km north of present-day Velikiy Novgorod, or rather Holmgard, founded near the point where the Volkhov flows from Lake Ilmen.
"Most of these were small sites not much more than stations for re-fitting and resupply, providing an opportunity for exchange and the redistribution of items passing along the river and caravan routes". It seems on the whole that such pre-urban settlements gave the country its Norse name of Gardariki. During World War II, the stretch of the Volkhov north of Veliky Novgorod separated Soviet and German troops between 1941 and 1944. German soldiers built extensive "underground cities" along the battlefront. Local birch was used for constructing shelters and hundreds of miles of corduroy road in the swampland. Buildings were on slopes to allow for drainage. "Six or eight men occupy each hut and there are underground stables and storage places for coal and supplies." The entire Volkhov River is navigable. As with other navigable rivers, the navigability of the Volkhov makes it possible to transport bulky pieces of equipment which are inconvenient to ship by rail or road due to their size. In 2015, the Volkhov was part of a route of a river barge transporting a VVER-1200 nuclear reactor vessel from the Atommash plant in Volgodonsk.
After being moved by the barge up the Volkhov to Novgorod, the reactor was taken across the city to the train station, shipped by a special rail car to Belarus