Royal Liver Building
The Royal Liver Building is a Grade I listed building in Liverpool, England. It is located at the Pier Head and along with the neighbouring Cunard Building and Port of Liverpool Building is one of Liverpool's Three Graces, which line the city's waterfront, it is part of Liverpool's UNESCO-designated World Heritage Maritime Mercantile City. Opened in 1911, the building is the purpose-built home of the Royal Liver Assurance group, set up in the city in 1850 to provide locals with assistance related to losing a wage-earning relative. One of the first buildings in the world to be built using reinforced concrete, the Royal Liver Building stands at 98.2 m tall to the top of the spires, 50.9 m to the main roof. The Royal Liver Building is now, only the joint-fourth tallest structure in the City of Liverpool, having been overtaken in height by West Tower, Radio City Tower and Liverpool Cathedral. Today the Royal Liver Building is one of the most recognisable landmarks in the city of Liverpool and is home to two fabled Liver Birds that watch over the city and the sea.
Legend has it that were these two birds to fly away the city would cease to exist. In 1907, the Royal Liver Group had over 6,000 employees and given the need for larger premises the company gave the go-ahead for the construction of a new head office. Designed by Walter Aubrey Thomas, the foundation stone for the building was laid on 11 May 1908 and just 3 years on 19 July 1911, the building was opened by Lord Sheffield; the building became the first major structure in Britain, one of the first buildings in the world, to be constructed using reinforced concrete, given the building's radical design was considered by some to be impossible to build. Since its completion in 1911, it has overlooked the River Mersey from its waterfront location on the Pier Head and forms one of the'Three Graces' along with the Port of Liverpool Building and the Cunard Building; this is reflected in the building's Grade I listed building status. It has 13 floors; the building is crowned by a pair of clock towers: as a ship passed along the river, mariners could tell the time from these.
The clocks were made by Co. of Leicester. The clock faces are 7.6 m in diameter, larger than those of London's famous landmark, the Great Westminster Clock, holding the distinction of being the largest electronically driven clocks in the UK. The four clock faces have only facets indicating the 12 hours; these are disposed as three on the riverside tower, facing west/north/south, the remaining one on the landward tower facing east. There is only one mechanism driving the faces on both of the towers, they were named George clocks, because they were started at the precise time that King George V was crowned on 22 June 1911. In 1953 electronic chimes were installed to serve as a memorial to the members of the Royal Liver Friendly Society who died during the two World Wars. During hours of darkness, the clock dials are illuminated. Atop each tower stand the mythical Liver Birds, designed by Carl Bernard Bartels; the birds are named looking to the sea and inland, respectively. Popular legend has it that while one giant bird looks out over the city to protect its people, the other bird looks out to sea at the new sailors coming in to port.
Alternatively, local legend states one Liver Bird is male, looking inland to see if the pubs are open, whilst the other is female, looking out to sea to see if there are any handsome sailors coming up the river. Yet another local legend, reflecting Liverpudlians' cynicism, avers that every time a virgin walks across the Pier Head, the Liver Birds flap their wings, it is said that, if one of the birds were to fly away the city of Liverpool would cease to exist, thus adding to the mystery of the birds. As a result, both birds are chained to the domes upon. Additionally, their heads are three-and-a-half feet long, their wing spread is twelve feet and their legs measure two feet in circumference; the two birds - cormorants - have identical and traditional poses, standing upright with half-raised wings. During the early 1950s, the sixth floor was occupied and used by No 3 Movements Unit of the Royal Air Force and controlling the movement of RAF personnel and goods through the port; the building remained the head office for Royal Liver Assurance until its merger with Royal London Group in 2011.
More akin to the early tall American skyscrapers, the Royal Liver Building resembles H. H. Richardson's Allegheny Court House and Adler & Sullivan's Schiller Theatre—with no definitive exterior styling but eclectic references to the Baroque and Byzantine. In October 2016, the building was put up for sale for the first time in its history; the owner instructed CBRE Group to list the sale with a guide price of more than £40m. A Luxemborg-based investment group, Corestate Capital, bought the building for £48 million in February 2017 along with Everton F. C. majority shareholder Farhad Moshiri. Moshiri plans to run Everton's affairs from the building and have his own office to include a view of the new stadium on Bramley Moore Dock. There are 16 tenants in the Royal Liver Building, they are: Amaze Captivate Presentations Crowd Mortgage Tilney Bestinvest Easirent Epic New Media Everton FC Grant Thornton HSBC ITV Mott MacDonald The Venue at the Royal Liver Building Pershing Princes Group Publiship Richard Hog
Ontario Heritage Act
The Ontario Heritage Act, first enacted on March 5, 1975, allows municipalities and the provincial government to designate individual properties and districts in the Province of Ontario, Canada, as being of cultural heritage value or interest. Once a property has been designated under Part IV of the Act, a property owner must apply to the local municipality for a permit to undertake alterations to any of the identified heritage elements of the property or to demolish any buildings or structures on the property. Part V of the Act allows for the designation of heritage conservation districts; until 2005, a designation of a property under the Act allowed a municipality to delay, but not prevent, the demolition of a heritage property. Heritage advocates were critical of the 180-day "cooling off" period provided for under the legislation, intended to allow time for municipalities and landowners to negotiate an appropriate level of heritage preservation, but simply resulted in the landowner "waiting out the clock" and demolishing the heritage building once the protection of the Ontario Heritage Act had expired.
In 2005, the provincial government enacted changes to strengthen the Act. Under the amended legislation, a landowner, refused a demolition permit under the Act no longer has an automatic right to demolish a designated building once the cooling off period has expired. Instead, the landowner has the option to appeal the permit refusal to the Conservation Review Board for individual properties or the Ontario Municipal Board for properties within a Heritage Conservation District and the appropriate board would make the final decision on whether or not a demolition permit is issued. Where the OMB refuses to issue a permit, the landowner would have no choice but to preserve the heritage building; the amended legislation contains provisions which enable municipalities to enact by-laws to require owners of designated buildings to maintain the structures and their heritage elements. Such by-laws are intended to prevent "demolition by neglect", although the collapse of Walnut Hall in Toronto demonstrates that such buildings are still at risk.
Heritage designation is not universally welcomed. Because it imposes restrictions, or at least delay, on alteration or demolition of protected properties, some owners and would-be developers feel their property rights are compromised.. There is concern that the restrictions will make it more difficult to sell and/or develop affected properties, with a negative impact on market values. Ottawa: As part of the city’s heritage inventory project, the city is reviewing properties in Old Ottawa East and Old Ottawa South and placing those considered to have “cultural heritage value” on a registry. Owners will be required to give 60 days notice to the city before demolishing a listed property. Rockcliffe Park: The entire village, now part of the City of Ottawa, became a Heritage Conservation District in 2016; the objective is not just conservation of individual buildings but of the park-like qualities of the area as a whole. This means that lot sizes, spacings between houses, streetscapes are protected.
There is a current appeal by a home-owner, a developer. Pending the outcome of a September 2017 hearing before the Ontario Municipal Board, City of Ottawa policy is to continue to apply the Heritage Conservation Plan. Experience with the new provisions of the Act has been mixed. Municipalities, who were given greater authority with the amendments, have, in some cases, used the authority to prevent or delay development proposals, with questionable intent. In one case a golf course was designated when the local Council received a proposal to develop it for housing. Another flashpoint has been proposals to develop or alter church properties; the government of Ontario has published a guideline that provides a context for the inherent conflict between religious beliefs and the civil authority over religious property, enabled by the Act. The "Guide to Conserving Heritage Places of Worship in Ontario Communities" is part of the Ontario Heritage Toolkit; the Guide provides an understanding of how religious and heritage preservation goals can be balanced.
Properties under federal jurisdiction are problematic. Various federal private member's bills attempt to restrict demolition of historic properties, but all are narrow in scope and provide no protection against demolition by neglect. Archaeology in Ontario List of designated heritage properties in Ottawa Ontario Heritage Trust the Ontario Heritage Foundation Archaeology in Ontario Ontario Heritage Act Canadian Register of Historic Places, search for sites designated under the Ontario Heritage Act Ontario Heritage Toolkit List of designated heritage properties in Toronto
Toronto Board of Trade Building
The Board of Trade Building was one of the first skyscrapers in Toronto, Canada. Completed in 1892 on the corner of Front Street East and Yonge Street, the seven storey tower was home to the Toronto Board of Trade and the Toronto Transit Commission; the building was designed by the American architectural firm of James & James of New York City, resembled the appearance of the Board of Trade Building in Boston, Mass., designed two years earlier by the Boston firm of Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge. That Boston firm was credited with the plans for the Montreal Board of Trade Building. There was considerable controversy about the award of the design contract; the first design by James & James of New York collapsed during construction. James & James were dismissed from the job and Edward A. Kent, an architect from Buffalo, N. Y. was called in to complete the building following the plans of James. The Board of Trade Building was soon eclipsed in height in 1894 by the Beard Building and in 1895 by the ten-story Temple Building on Bay Street.
It was demolished in 1958. The lot is now occupied by the EDS office tower. "Toronto Board of Trade Building". SkyscraperPage. C'est What: The History Around Front & Church Streets
Sterling Tower is a twenty one storey art deco skyscraper at 372 Bay Street at Richmond Street in Toronto, Canada. Designed by Chapman and Oxley, completed in 1928, the building was the tallest in the city for one year, until the construction of the Royal York Hotel. Henry Falk, a New York entrepreneur, was the builder responsible for Sterling Tower's construction along with local firm Yolles & Rotenberg; the Sterling Tower was part of Toronto's late 1920s building boom. On 18 August 1976, Sterling Tower was adopted by the City Council of Toronto as an architectural/contextual Heritage Property. Sterling Towers at UrbanDB
Royal Bank Building (Toronto)
The Royal Bank Building refers to two office buildings built for the Royal Bank of Canada in the Financial District of Toronto, Canada: The 20-storey Royal Bank Building, located on the northeast corner of Yonge and King Streets, was completed in 1915 and designed by the architectural firm Ross and Macdonald. The City of Toronto designated the building under the Ontario Heritage Act in 1976; the building is known by its municipal address, 2 King Street East. At 90 metres in height, the building was the tallest in Canada until 1928; the 12-storey Royal Bank Building, located at 20 King Street West between Yonge and Bay Streets, served as the bank's Toronto offices until the Royal Bank Plaza was completed in 1977. It is still one of several buildings in Toronto's downtown core occupied by the Royal Bank. Construction on the building commenced with the laying of the cornerstone by Royal Bank of Canada Chairman James Allan in 1964. TO Built - 2 King Street East TO Built - Royal Bank Building "Royal Bank Building".
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style principally derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles, the work of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio. In form, neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains separate identities to each of its parts; the style is manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, in its architectural formulae as an outgrowth of some classicising features of the Late Baroque architectural tradition. Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism, while the newer revival styles of the 19th century until today are called neoclassical. Intellectually, neoclassicism was symptomatic of a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, to the more vague perception of Ancient Greek arts and, to a lesser extent, 16th-century Renaissance Classicism, a source for academic Late Baroque architecture.
Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée and Claude Nicolas Ledoux. The many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are Edmund Burke's conception of the sublime. Ledoux addressed the concept of architectural character, maintaining that a building should communicate its function to the viewer: taken such ideas give rise to "architecture parlante". A return to more classical architectural forms as a reaction to the Rococo style can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland; the baroque style had never been to the English taste. Four influential books were published in the first quarter of the 18th century which highlighted the simplicity and purity of classical architecture: Vitruvius Britannicus, Palladio's Four Books of Architecture, De Re Aedificatoria and The Designs of Inigo Jones... with Some Additional Designs.
The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell. The book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings, inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio. At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones, but the tomes contained drawings and plans by Campbell and other 18th-century architects. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain. At the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic "architect earl", Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington; this House was a reinterpretation of Palladio's Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and ornament. This severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of England's finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk; the main block of this house followed Palladio's dictates quite but Palladio's low detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance.
This classicising vein was detectable, to a lesser degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris, such as in Perrault's east range of the Louvre. This shift was visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S. Giovanni in Laterano. By the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece. An early centre of neoclassicism was Italy Naples, where by the 1730s, court architects such as Luigi Vanvitelli and Ferdinando Fuga were recovering classical and Mannierist forms in their Baroque architecture. Following their lead, Giovanni Antonio Medrano began to build the first neoclassical structures in Italy in the 1730s. In the same period, Alessandro Pompei introduced neoclassicism to the Venetian Republic, building one of the first lapidariums in Europe in Verona, in the Doric style. During the same period, neoclassical elements were introduced to Tuscany by architect Jean Nicolas Jadot de Ville-Issey, the court architect of Francis Stephen of Lorraine.
On Jadot's lead, an original neoclassical style was developed by Gaspare Paoletti, transforming Florence into the most important centre of neoclassicism in the peninsula. In the second half of the century, Neoclassicism flourished in Turin and Trieste. In the latter two cities, just as in Tuscany, the sober neoclassical style was linked to the reformism of the ruling Habsburg enlightened monarchs; the Rococo style remained much popular in Italy until the Napoleonic regimes, which brought a new archaeological classicism, embraced as a political statement by young, urban Italians with republican leanings. The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, it first gained influence in France. In France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, was influenced by the writings of
The Beard Building was a seven-storey, 25.38 m Richardsonian Romanesque highrise in Toronto, Canada. Designed by E. J. Lennox, completed in 1894, Initial plans were for a nine-storey, iron-framed structure, but a more traditional wood/brick combination with seven storeys was settled upon; the Beard Building was a bank at street level, a commercial and office tower, a hotel. The hotel never opened due to the design of the building; the building was named after the original landowner of the site. The Beard Building was demolished in 1935 and was replaced by a gas station a few years after being demolished. Litvak, Marilyn M.. "The City Hall Years". Edward James Lennox: "Builder of Toronto". Toronto: Dundurn Press. P. 37. ISBN 9781554881505. Retrieved 6 August 2013