Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, and erosion by water and glaciers. Magma rises from the mantle, causing the ground to swell upward, in way, flat areas of rock are uplifted. Plateaus can be built up by lava spreading outward from cracks, plateaus can be formed by the erosional processes of glaciers on mountain ranges, leaving them sitting between the mountain ranges. Water can erode mountains and other landforms down into plateaus, volcanic plateaus are produced by volcanic activity. The Columbia Plateau in the northwestern United States is an example, dissected plateaus are highly eroded plateaus cut by rivers and broken by deep narrow valleys. Plateaus are classified according to their surrounding environment, intermontane plateaus are the highest in the world, bordered by mountains. The Tibetan Plateau is one such plateau, Piedmont plateaus are bordered on one side by mountains and on the other by a plain or a sea. The Piedmont Plateau of the Eastern United States between the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coastal Plain is an example, continental plateaus are bordered on all sides by plains or oceans, forming away from the mountains.
The Tibetan plateau covers approximately 2,500,000 km2, the plateau is sufficiently high enough to reverse the Hadley cell convection cycles and to drive the monsoons of India towards the south. The second-highest plateau is the Deosai Plateau of the Deosai National Park at an elevation of 4,114 m. It is located in the Astore and Skardu districts of Gilgit-Baltistan, Deosai means the land of giants. The park protects an area of 3,000 km2 and it is known for its rich flora and fauna of the Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe ecoregion. In spring it is covered by sweeps of wildflowers and a variety of butterflies. The highest point in Deosai is Deosai Lake, or Sheosar Lake from the Shina language meaning Blind lake near the Chilim Valley. The lake lies at an elevation of 4,142 m, one of the highest lakes in the world, and is 2.3 km long,1.8 km wide, and 40 m deep on average. Some other major plateaus in Asia are, Armenian Highlands, Iranian plateau, Anatolian Plateau, Mongolian Plateau, and the Deccan Plateau.
This polar ice cap is so massive that the echolocation sound measurements of ice thickness have shown that parts of the Antarctic dry land surface have been pressed below sea level. Thus, if that same ice cap were removed, the large areas of the frozen white continent would be flooded by the surrounding Antarctic Ocean or Southern Ocean
Evansville is a city in and the county seat of Vanderburgh County, United States. The population was 117,429 at the 2010 census, the 38th parallel crosses the north side of the city and is marked on Interstate 69. Situated on an oxbow in the Ohio River, the city is referred to as the Crescent Valley or River City. As testament to the Ohios grandeur, early French explorers named it La Belle Riviere, the area has been inhabited by various cultures for millennia, dating back at least 10,000 years. Angel Mounds was a permanent settlement of the Mississippian culture from 1000 AD to around 1400 AD, the city itself was founded in 1812. The broad economic base of the region has helped build an economy which is known for its stability, Four NYSE companies are headquartered in Evansville, along with the global operations center for NYSE company Mead Johnson. Three other companies traded on the NASDAQ are headquartered in Evansville, the city is home to public and private enterprise in many areas, as Evansville serves as the economic hub of the region.
The city has well known educational institutions. Other local educational institutions have garnered praise and attention, including nationally ranked Signature School, in 2008, Evansville was voted the best city in the country in which to live and play by the readers of Kiplinger, and in 2009 the 11th best. See main article, History of Evansville, there was a continuous human presence in the area that became Evansville from at least 8,000 BC by Paleo-Indians. Following the abandonment of Angel Mounds between the years 1400 and 1450, tribes of Miami, Piankeshaw, Delaware, the land encompassing Evansville was formally relinquished by the Delaware in 1805 to General William Henry Harrison, governor of the Indiana Territory. French hunters and trappers were among the first Europeans to come to the area, on March 27,1812, Hugh McGary Jr. purchased about 441 acres and named it McGarys Landing. In 1814, to more people, McGary renamed his village Evansville in honor of Colonel Robert Morgan Evans. Evansville incorporated in 1817 and became a county seat on January 7,1818, the county was named for Henry Vanderburgh, a deceased chief judge of the Indiana territorial supreme court.
Evansville soon became a commercial town with an extensive river trade. The west side of Evansville was for many years cut off from the part of the city by Pigeon Creek. The land comprising the town of Lamasco was platted in 1837 and was ultimately annexed in 1870. The project was intended to open Indiana to commerce and improve transportation from New Orleans to New York City, unfortunately the project bankrupted the state and was so poorly engineered that it would not hold water
Christian County, Kentucky
Christian County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 73,955, the county was formed in 1797. Christian County is part of the Clarksville, TN–KY Metropolitan Statistical Area, the county is named for Colonel William Christian, a native of Augusta County, and a veteran of the Revolutionary War. He settled near Louisville, Kentucky in 1785, and was killed by Native Americans in southern Indiana in 1786, jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America was born in Fairview, Christian County, Kentucky, in 1808. United States Vice President Adlai Stevenson I was born in Christian County in 1835, the present courthouse, built in 1869, replaced a structure burned by Confederate cavalry in 1864 because the Union Army was using it as their barracks. The United States Supreme Court case Barker v. Wingo,407 U. S.514, arose out of a 1958 double-murder in Christian County, in 2006 and 2008, tornadoes touched down across northern Christian County, damaging homes in the Crofton area.
In 2017, northwestern Christian County will experience the longest duration of totality in the eclipse of August 21,2017 that will cross North America. The center will be in the Bainbridge/Sinking Fork area of the county, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 724 square miles, of which 718 square miles is land and 6.5 square miles is water. It is the second-largest county by area in Kentucky, the population density was 100 per square mile. There were 27,182 housing units at a density of 38 per square mile. 4. 83% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race and this number, was estimated to be around 4% for a 2006 Census Estimate, according to the United States Census Bureau. 22. 50% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.12. In the county, the population was out with 28. 30% under the age of 18,15. 80% from 18 to 24,30. 10% from 25 to 44,16. 00% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 28 years, for every 100 females there were 106.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.60 males, the median income for a household in the county was $31,177, and the median income for a family was $35,240. Males had an income of $25,063 versus $20,748 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,611, about 12. 10% of families and 15. 00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19. 30% of those under age 18 and 13. 50% of those age 65 or over. A S. W. county of Kentucky
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States. The 981-mile river flows through or along the border of six states, through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes many of the states of the southeastern U. S. It is the source of drinking water for three million people and it is named in Iroquoian or Seneca, Ohi, yó, lit. Good River or Shawnee and Spelewathiipi, the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major transportation, in 1669, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle led a French expedition to the Ohio River, becoming the first Europeans to see it. After European-American settlement, the served as a border between present-day Kentucky and Indian Territories. It was a transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S.
In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated and its current gentle, waters clear, and bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted. During the 19th century, the river was the boundary of the Northwest Territory. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement. The Ohio River is a transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical. It is inhabited by fauna and flora of both climates, in winter, it regularly freezes over at Pittsburgh but rarely further south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohios confluence with the Mississippi, Paducah was founded there because it is the northernmost ice-free reach of the Ohio. The Ohio River is formed by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers at Point State Park in Pittsburgh, from there, it flows northwest through Allegheny and Beaver counties, before making an abrupt turn to the south-southwest at the West Virginia–Ohio–Pennsylvania triple-state line.
From there, it forms the border between West Virginia and Ohio, upstream of Wheeling, West Virginia, the river follows a roughly southwest and west-northwest course until Cincinnati, before bending to a west-southwest course for most of its length. The course forms the borders of West Virginia and Kentucky. The Ohio drains parts of 15 states in four regions, northeast New York, a small area of the southern border along the headwaters of the Allegheny. Pennsylvania, a corridor from the corner to north central border
Hopkinsville is a home rule-class city in and the county seat of Christian County, United States. The population at the 2010 census was 31,577, the area of present-day Hopkinsville was initially claimed in 1796 by Bartholomew Wood as part of a 1, 200-acre grant for his service in the American Revolution. Following the creation of Christian County the same year, the Woods donated 5 acres of land, by 1798, a log courthouse and stray pen had been built, the next year, John Campbell and Samuel Means laid out the streets for Christian Court House. The Civil War generated major divisions in Christian County, Confederate support in Hopkinsville and Christian County was evident in the formation of the Oak Grove Rangers and the 28th Kentucky Cavalry. Christian County was the birthplace of Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederate States of America, though his birthplace is now part of Todd County, several local businessmen and plantation owners contributed money and war supplies to the South. After Confederate forces retreated to Tennessee, Camp Joe Anderson was established by the Union to the northwest of Hopkinsville in 1862, men who trained there became members of the 35th Kentucky Cavalry, the 25th Kentucky Infantry, and the 35th Kentucky Infantry.
Gen. James S. Jackson had been a Hopkinsville attorney before the war and was killed in service to the Union at the Battle of Perryville in October 1862, private citizens who supported the Union cause provided the army with mules, wagons and food. Hopkinsville changed hands at least half a dozen times, being occupied in turn by Confederate, in December 1864, Confederate troops under Gen. Hylan B. Lyon captured the town and burned the Christian County courthouse, being used by the Union army as a barracks, another skirmish between Union and Confederate forces took place in the field opposite Western State Hospital near the end of the war. The Evansville and Nashville Railroad was the first to connect the city in 1868, in 1879, it was purchased by the L&N. The Ohio Valley Railroad reached the city in 1892, as did the Tennessee Central in 1903, the tobacco from the Black Patch region was highly desired in Europe. The ATC used their power to reduce the prices they paid to farmers. Many farmers continued to sell independently or secretly, prompting the association to form a Silent Brigade to pressure such farmers into compliance, with societal pressure seeming to fail, the Silent Brigade organized the Night Riders to terrorize farmers into submission.
On December 7,1907,250 masked Night Riders seized Hopkinsvilles police station and they pursued tobacco executives who bought tobacco from farmers who were not members of the Dark Tobacco District Planters Protective Association and city officials who aided them. Three warehouses were burned, one of sites became Peace Park. They have gone on with their mischief making, until they have almost ruined the country, on April 2,2006, an F3 tornado swept through parts of Hopkinsville. In the storm,200 homes were damaged and 28 people were injured, a gas line was damaged, causing a gas leak. Hopkinsville is located south of the center of Christian County at 36°51′17″N 87°29′20″W, madisonville is 35 miles to the north, Russellville is 35 miles to the east, and Clarksville, Tennessee, is 26 miles to the south
The Pennsylvanian is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the younger of two subperiods of the Carboniferous Period. It lasted from roughly 323.2 million years ago to 298.9 million years ago Ma. As with most other units, the rock beds that define the Pennsylvanian are well identified. The Pennsylvanian is named after the U. S. state of Pennsylvania, the division between Pennsylvanian and Mississippian comes from North American stratigraphy. In Europe, the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian are one continuous sequence of lowland continental deposits and are grouped together as the Carboniferous Period. The current internationally used geologic timescale of the ICS gives the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian the rank of subperiods, all modern classes of fungi have been found in rocks of Pennsylvanian age. Amphibians were diverse and common, some were several meters long as adults, the collapse of the rainforest ecology in the mid Pennsylvanian removed many amphibian species that did not survive as well in the cooler, drier conditions.
Reptiles, prospered due to specific key adaptations, one of the greatest evolutionary innovations of the Carboniferous was the amniote egg, which allowed for the further exploitation of the land by certain tetrapods. These included the earliest sauropsid reptiles, and the earliest known synapsid, small lizard-like animals quickly gave rise to many descendants. Reptiles underwent an evolutionary radiation, in response to the drier climate that followed the rainforest collapse. The Pennsylvanian has been variously subdivided, the Missourian or Monongahela corresponds to the rest of the Kasimovian. The Desmoinesian or Allegheny corresponds to the half of the Moscovian. The Atokan or upper Pottsville corresponds to the half of the Moscovian. The Morrowan corresponds to the Bashkirian, in the European subdivision, the Carboniferous is divided into two epochs and Silesian. The Silesian starts earlier than the Pennsylvanian and is divided in three ages, Namurian Westphalian Stephanian, the Late Carboniferous a Time of Great Coal Swamps, Paleomap project.
World map from this time period, the Carboniferous -354 to 290 Million Years Ago, University of California Museum of Paleontology. Information on stratigraphies, localities and life, the Pennsylvanian Epoch of the Carboniferous Period,318 to 299 Mya, Paleos. com US Geological Survey comparison of time scales
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The Shawnee Hills is a region of southern Illinois that rests mainly in an east-west arc roughly following the outline of the southern end of the Illinois Basin. Whereas Mississippian and Pennsylvania Age rock layers are deep beneath the surface in central Illinois, the Shawnee Hills are surface expressions of the more weather resistant limestone and sandstone layers. At one time, about 80% of the worlds fluorspar was mined near the towns of Rosiclare, a large portion of the Shawnee Hills lies within the Shawnee National Forest, one of the largest protected Federal forests in the United States. The beauty of the Shawnee Hills, the Shawnee National Forest, the Shawnee Hills can be seen faintly from as far north as Vergennes. The westernmost portion of the hills south of Murphysboro and continue southward to Olive Branch. Large plains used for farmland separate the hills from the Mississippi River along Illinois Route 3, especially near the towns of Wolf Lake, Grand Tower and Ware. The Big Muddy River cuts through the south of Kinkaid Lake.
Though the Shawnee Hills are commonly called the Illinois Ozarks, they are not considered part of the true Ozarks. Ohio River Shawnee National Forest Dixon Springs State Park Cave-in-Rock State Park Trail of Tears State Forest Murphysboro, Illinois Grand Tower, Illinois Wolf Lake, Illinois
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earths crust, like sand, sandstone may be any color, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, quartz-bearing sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure, usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite, grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages, first, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Typically, sedimentation occurs by the settling out from suspension.
The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. Colours will usually be tan or yellow, a predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe. The regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a building material or as a facing stone. These physical properties allow the grains to survive multiple recycling events. Quartz grains evolve from rock, which are felsic in origin. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in sandstones, Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions, alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope, below is a description of the different types of feldspar.
Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. Plagioclase feldspar is a group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone, commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite. The ratio of clay to other minerals is variable, shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness, called fissility. Mudstones, on the hand, are similar in composition. Before the mid 19th century, the slate, shale. In the context of underground mining, shale was frequently referred to as slate well into the 20th century. Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of smaller than 0.06 mm are described as mudstones or claystone. Rocks with similar sizes but with less clay and therefore grittier are siltstones. Shale is the most common sedimentary rock, shales are typically composed of variable amounts of clay minerals and quartz grains and the typical color is gray. Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock, black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates a reducing environment.
Black shale can be referred to as black metal, red and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide, iron hydroxide, or micaceous minerals. Clays are the constituent of shales and other mudrocks. The clay minerals represented are largely kaolinite and illite, clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks especially in mid- to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate. The transformation of smectite to illite produces silica, calcium, magnesium and these released elements form authigenic quartz, calcite, ankerite and albite, all trace to minor minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. Shales and mudrocks contain roughly 95 percent of the matter in all sedimentary rocks. However, this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale, black shales, which form in anoxic conditions, contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron and sulfur. Pyrite and amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration, the process in the rock cycle which forms shale is called compaction.
The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in long after the larger particles of sand have deposited. Shales are typically deposited in very slow moving water and are found in lakes and lagoonal deposits, in river deltas, on floodplains
A meander, in general, is a bend in a sinuous watercourse or river. A meander forms when moving water in a stream erodes the outer banks and widens its valley, a stream of any volume may assume a meandering course, alternately eroding sediments from the outside of a bend and depositing them on the inside. The result is a pattern as the stream meanders back. When a meander gets cut off from the stream, an oxbow lake forms. Over time meanders migrate downstream, sometimes in such a time as to create civil engineering problems for local municipalities attempting to maintain stable roads. There is not yet full consistency or standardization of scientific terminology used to describe watercourses, a variety of symbols and schemes exist. Parameters based on mathematical formulae or numerical data vary as well, unless otherwise defined in a specific scheme meandering and sinuosity here are synonymous and mean any repetitious pattern of bends, or waveforms. In some schemes, meandering applies only to rivers with exaggerated circular loops or secondary meanders, sinuosity is one of the channel types that a stream may assume over all or part of its course.
All streams are sinuous at some time in their history over some part of their length. The term derives from the Meander River located in present-day Turkey and known to the Ancient Greeks as Μαίανδρος Maiandros and its course is so exceedingly winding that everything winding is called meandering. The Meander River is located south of Izmir, east of the ancient Greek town of Miletus, Milet and it flows through a graben in the Menderes Massif, but has a flood plain much wider than the meander zone in its lower reach. Its modern Turkish name is the Büyük Menderes River, when a fluid is introduced to an initially straight channel which bends, the sidewalls induce a pressure gradient that causes the fluid to alter course and follow the bend. From here, two opposing processes occur, irrotational flow and secondary flow, for a river to meander, secondary flow must dominate. Irrotational flow, From Bernoullis equations, high pressure results in low velocity, therefore, in the absence of secondary flow we would expect low fluid velocity at the outside bend and high fluid velocity at the inside bend.
This classic fluid mechanics result is irrotational vortex flow, in the context of meandering rivers, its effects are dominated by those of secondary flow. Secondary flow, A force balance exists between pressure forces pointing to the bend of the river and centrifugal forces pointing to the outside bend of the river. In the context of meandering rivers, a boundary layer exists within the layer of fluid that interacts with the river bed. Inside that layer and following standard boundary-layer theory, the velocity of the fluid is effectively zero, centrifugal force, which depends on velocity, is therefore effectively zero