The bibliographical definition of an edition includes all copies of a book printed “from the same setting of type,” including all minor typographical variants. The numbering of book editions is a special case of the wider field of revision control; the traditional conventions for numbering book editions evolved spontaneously for several centuries before any greater applied science of revision control became important to humanity, which did not occur until the era of widespread computing had arrived. The old and new aspects of book edition numbering are discussed below. According to the definition of edition above, a book printed today, by the same publisher, from the same type as when it was first published, is still the first edition of that book to a bibliographer. However, book collectors use the term first edition to mean the first print run of the first edition. Since World War II, books include a number line that indicates the print run. A "first edition" per se is not a valuable collectible book.
A popular work may be published and reprinted over time by many publishers, in a variety of formats. There will be a first edition of each, which the publisher may cite on the copyright page, such as: "First mass market paperback edition"; the first edition of a facsimile reprint is the reprint publisher's first edition, but not the first edition of the work itself. The Independent Online Booksellers Association has a A First Edition Primer which discusses several aspects of identifying first editions including publishing and specific publishers way of designating first editions; the classic explanation of edition was given by Fredson Bowers in Principles of Bibliographical Description. Bowers wrote that an edition is “the whole number of copies printed at any time or times from the same setting of type-pages,” including “all issues and variant states existing within its basic type-setting, as well as all impressions.” Publishers use the same typesetting for the hardcover and trade paperback versions of a book.
These books have different covers, the title page and copyright page may differ, the page margin sizes may differ, but to a bibliographer they are the same edition. From time to time, readers may observe an error in the text, report these to the publisher; the publisher keeps these "reprint corrections" in a file pending demand for a new print run of the edition, before the new run is printed, they will be entered. The method of entry depends on the method of typesetting. For letterpress metal, it meant resetting a few characters or a line or two. For linotype, it meant casting a new line for any line with a change in it. With film, it involved inserting a new bit. In an electronic file, it means entering the changes digitally; such minor changes do not constitute a new edition, but introduce typographical variations within an edition, which are of interest to collectors. A common complaint of book collectors is that the bibliographer's definition is used in a book-collecting context. For example, J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye as of 2016 remains in print in hardcover.
The type is the same as the 1951 first printing, therefore all hardcover copies are, for the bibliographer, the first edition. Collectors would use the term for the first printing only. First edition most refers to the first commercial publication of a work between its own covers if it was first printed in a periodical: the complete text of Ernest Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea appeared in the September 1, 1952 issue of Life, yet the accepted “first” edition is the hardcover book Scribner’s published on September 8, 1952; the term "first trade edition," refers to the earliest edition of a book offered for sale to the general public in book stores. For example, Upton Sinclair's 1906 novel. A "Sustainers' Edition", published by the Jungle Publishing Company, was sent to subscribers who had advanced funds to Sinclair; the first trade edition was published by Page to be sold in bookstores. Many book collectors place maximum value on the earliest bound copies of a book—promotional advance copies, bound galleys, uncorrected proofs, advance reading copies sent by publishers to book reviewers and booksellers.
It is true. Publishers use "first edition" according to their own purposes, among them the designation is used inconsistently; the "first edition" of a trade book may be the first iteration of the work printed by the publisher in question or the first iteration of the work that includes a specific set of illustrations or editorial commentary. Publishers of non-fiction, academic works, textbooks distinguish between revisions of the text of the work, by citing the dates of the first and latest editions of the work in the copyright page. Exceptions to this rule of thumb include denominating as a "second edition" a new textbook that has a different format, and/or author because a previous textbook that shares only the same subject matter as the "second edition" is considered the first edition; the reason for this stretch of the definition is for the short-term marketing advantage of the
An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, is thus a writer. More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created; the first owner of a copyright is the person who created the work i.e. the author. If more than one person created the work a case of joint authorship can be made provided some criteria are met. In the copyright laws of various jurisdictions, there is a necessity for little flexibility regarding what constitutes authorship; the United States Copyright Office, for example, defines copyright as "a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of "original works of authorship". Holding the title of "author" over any "literary, musical, certain other intellectual works" gives rights to this person, the owner of the copyright the exclusive right to engage in or authorize any production or distribution of their work.
Any person or entity wishing to use intellectual property held under copyright must receive permission from the copyright holder to use this work, will be asked to pay for the use of copyrighted material. After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, where it can be used without limit. Copyright laws in many jurisdictions – following the lead of the United States, in which the entertainment and publishing industries have strong lobbying power – have been amended since their inception, to extend the length of this fixed period where the work is controlled by the copyright holder. However, copyright is the legal reassurance that one owns his/her work. Technically, someone owns their work from the time. An interesting aspect of authorship emerges with copyright in that, in many jurisdictions, it can be passed down to another upon one's death; the person who inherits the copyright enjoys the same legal benefits. Questions arise as to the application of copyright law.
How does it, for example, apply to the complex issue of fan fiction? If the media agency responsible for the authorized production allows material from fans, what is the limit before legal constraints from actors and other considerations, come into play? Additionally, how does copyright apply to fan-generated stories for books? What powers do the original authors, as well as the publishers, have in regulating or stopping the fan fiction? This particular sort of case illustrates how complex intellectual property law can be, since such fiction may involved trademark law, likeness rights, fair use rights held by the public, many other interacting complications. Authors may portion out different rights they hold to different parties, at different times, for different purposes or uses, such as the right to adapt a plot into a film, but only with different character names, because the characters have been optioned by another company for a television series or a video game. An author may not have rights when working under contract that they would otherwise have, such as when creating a work for hire, or when writing material using intellectual property owned by others.
In literary theory, critics find complications in the term author beyond what constitutes authorship in a legal setting. In the wake of postmodern literature, critics such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault have examined the role and relevance of authorship to the meaning or interpretation of a text. Barthes challenges the idea, he writes, in his essay "Death of the Author", that "it is language which speaks, not the author". The words and language of a text itself determine and expose meaning for Barthes, not someone possessing legal responsibility for the process of its production; every line of written text is a mere reflection of references from any of a multitude of traditions, or, as Barthes puts it, "the text is a tissue of quotations drawn from the innumerable centres of culture". With this, the perspective of the author is removed from the text, the limits imposed by the idea of one authorial voice, one ultimate and universal meaning, are destroyed; the explanation and meaning of a work does not have to be sought in the one who produced it, "as if it were always in the end, through the more or less transparent allegory of the fiction, the voice of a single person, the author'confiding' in us".
The psyche, fanaticism of an author can be disregarded when interpreting a text, because the words are rich enough themselves with all of the traditions of language. To expose meanings in a written work without appealing to the celebrity of an author, their tastes, vices, is, to Barthes, to allow language to speak, rather than author. Michel Foucault argues in his essay "What is an author?" that all authors are writers, but not all writers are authors. He states that "a private letter may have a signatory—it does not have an author". For a reader to assign the title of author upon any written work is to attribute certain standards upon the text which, for Foucault, are working in conjunction with the idea of "the author function". Foucault's author function is the idea that an author exists only as a fun
Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical types or the digital equivalents. Stored letters and other symbols are retrieved and ordered according to a language's orthography for visual display. Typesetting requires one or more fonts. One significant effect of typesetting was that authorship of works could be spotted more making it difficult for copiers who have not gained permission. During much of the letterpress era, movable type was composed by hand for each page. Cast metal sorts were composed into words lines paragraphs pages of text and bound together to make up a form, with all letter faces the same "height to paper", creating an surface of type; the form was placed in a press, an impression made on paper. During typesetting, individual sorts are picked from a type case with the right hand, set into a composing stick held in the left hand from left to right, as viewed by the setter upside down; as seen in the photo of the composing stick, a lower case'q' looks like a'd', a lower case'b' looks like a'p', a lower case'p' looks like a'b' and a lower case'd' looks like a'q'.
This is reputed to be the origin of the expression "mind your p's and q's". It might just as have been "mind your b's and d's"; the diagram at right illustrates a cast metal sort: a face, b body or shank, c point size, 1 shoulder, 2 nick, 3 groove, 4 foot. Wooden printing sorts were in use for centuries in combination with metal type. Not shown, more the concern of the casterman, is the “set”, or width of each sort. Set width, like body size, is measured in points. In order to extend the working life of type, to account for the finite sorts in a case of type, copies of forms were cast when anticipating subsequent printings of a text, freeing the costly type for other work; this was prevalent in book and newspaper work where rotary presses required type forms to wrap an impression cylinder rather than set in the bed of a press. In this process, called stereotyping, the entire form is pressed into a fine matrix such as plaster of Paris or papier mâché called a flong to create a positive, from which the stereotype form was electrotyped, cast of type metal.
Advances such as the typewriter and computer would push the state of the art farther ahead. Still, hand composition and letterpress printing have not fallen out of use, since the introduction of digital typesetting, it has seen a revival as an artisanal pursuit. However, it is a small niche within the larger typesetting market; the time and effort required to manually compose the text led to several efforts in the 19th century to produce mechanical typesetting. While some, such as the Paige compositor, met with limited success, by the end of the 19th century, several methods had been devised whereby an operator working a keyboard or other devices could produce the desired text. Most of the successful systems involved the in-house casting of the type to be used, hence are termed "hot metal" typesetting; the Linotype machine, invented in 1884, used a keyboard to assemble the casting matrices, cast an entire line of type at a time. In the Monotype System, a keyboard was used to punch a paper tape, fed to control a casting machine.
The Ludlow Typograph otherwise used hot metal. By the early 20th century, the various systems were nearly universal in large newspapers and publishing houses. Phototypesetting or "cold type" systems first appeared in the early 1960s and displaced continuous casting machines; these devices consisted of glass or film disks or strips that spun in front of a light source to selectively expose characters onto light-sensitive paper. They were driven by pre-punched paper tapes, they were connected to computer front ends. One of the earliest electronic photocomposition systems was introduced by Fairchild Semiconductor; the typesetter typed a line of text on a Fairchild keyboard. To verify correct content of the line it was typed a second time. If the two lines were identical a bell rang and the machine produced a punched paper tape corresponding to the text. With the completion of a block of lines the typesetter fed the corresponding paper tapes into a phototypesetting device that mechanically set type outlines printed on glass sheets into place for exposure onto a negative film.
Photosensitive paper was exposed to light through the negative film, resulting in a column of black type on white paper, or a galley. The galley was cut up and used to create a mechanical drawing or paste up of a whole page. A large film negative of the page is used to make plates for offset printing; the next generation of phototypesetting machines to emerge were those that generated characters on a cathode ray tube. Typical of the type were the Alphanumeric APS2, IBM 2680, I. I. I. VideoComp, Autologic APS5, Linotron 202; these machines were the mainstay of phototypesetting for much of the 1980s. Such machines could be "driven online" by a computer front-end system or took their data from magnetic tape. Type fonts were stored digitally on conventional magnetic disk drives. Computers excel at automatically correcting documents. Character-by-character, computer-aided phototypesetting was, in turn rendered obsolete in the 1980s by digital systems employing a raster image processor to render an entire page to a single high-resolution digital image, now known as imagesetting.
The first commercially successful laser imagesetter, able to make use of a raster image p
A bookcase, or bookshelf, is a piece of furniture with horizontal shelves in a cabinet, used to store books or other printed materials. Bookcases are used in private homes and university libraries and bookstores. Bookcases range from small, low models the height of a table to high models reaching up to ceiling height. Shelves may be adjustable to different positions in the case. In rooms devoted to the storage of books, such as libraries, they may be permanently fixed to the walls and/or floor. A bookcase may be fitted with glass doors that can be closed to protect the books from dust or moisture. Bookcase doors are always glazed with glass, so as to allow the spines of the books to be read. Valuable rare books may be kept in locked cases with wooden or glazed doors. A small bookshelf may stand on some other piece of furniture such as a desk or chest. Larger books are more to be kept in horizontal piles and large books flat on wide shelves or on coffee tables. In Latin and Greek the idea of bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē, derivatives of which mean library in many modern languages.
A bookcase is known as a bookshelf, a bookstand, a cupboard and a bookrack. In a library, large bookshelves are called "stacks." Private libraries appeared during the late Roman republic: Seneca inveighed against libraries fitted out for show by illiterate owners who scarcely read their titles in the course of a lifetime, but displayed the scrolls in bookcases of citrus wood inlaid with ivory that ran right to the ceiling: "by now, like bathrooms and hot water, a library is got up as standard equipment for a fine house. Revolving bookcases, known as zhuanluntang, have been documented in imperial China, its invention is credited to Fu Xi in 544. Descriptions of revolving bookcases have been found in 8th- and 9th-century Chinese texts. Revolving bookcases were popularized in Buddhist monasteries during the Song Dynasty under the reign of Emperor Taizu, who ordered the mass printing of the Buddhist Tripiṭaka scriptures. An illustration of a revolving bookcase is depicted in Li Jie's architectural treatise the Yingzao Fashi.
When books were written by hand and were not produced in great quantities, they were kept in small boxes or chests which owners carried with them. As manuscript volumes accumulated in religious houses or in homes of the wealthy, they were stored on shelves or in cupboards; these cupboards are the predecessors of today's bookcases. The doors were removed, the evolution of the bookcase proceeded. However, the volumes were not arranged in the modern fashion, they were either placed in piles upon their sides, or if upright, were ranged with their backs to the wall and their edges outwards. The band of leather, vellum or parchment which closed the book was used for the inscription of the title, thus on the fore-edge instead of on the spine. Titles were commonly written onto the fore-edge, it was not until the invention of printing had reduced the cost of books, thus allowing many more people access to owning books, that it became the practice to write the title on the spine and shelve books with the spine outwards.
Early bookcases were of oak, still deemed by some to be the most appropriate wood for an elegant library. The oldest bookcases in England are those in the Bodleian Library at Oxford University, which were placed in position in the last year or two of the sixteenth century. Long ranges of book-shelves are somewhat severe in appearance, many attempts have been made by means of carved cornices and pilasters to give them a less austere appearance; these attempts were most successful as in the hands of the English cabinetmakers of the second half of the eighteenth century. Both Chippendale and Sheraton made or designed many bookcases glazed with little lozenges encased in fretwork frames of great charm and elegance. In the eyes of some, the grace of some of Sheraton's satinwood bookcases has been equalled; the French cabinetmakers of the same period were highly successful with small ornamental cases. Mahogany, rosewood satinwood and choicer exotic timbers were used. Dwarf bookcases were finished with a slab of choice marble at the top.
In 1876, John Danner of Canton, invented a revolving bookcase with a patented "pivot and post" design. The ingenuity of his work resided in the economy of space it provided. Thirty-two volumes of the American Cyclopedia could be stored in a compact space, available for perusal at the touch of a finger. Danner's bookcase appeared in the 1894 Montgomery Ward catalog. In 1878 he won a gold medal; the John Danner Manufacturing Company was known for honorable affordability. The woods were oak, black walnut, western ash, Philippine mahogany. Viewed as a progressive businessman, Danner was credited with drawing a large trade and business to the city of Canton. In the great public libraries of the twentieth century, multilevel stacks served as both structure and shelving, of iron, as in the British Museum where the shelves are covered with cowhide. C.. There are three common ways of arranging stationary bookcases: flat against the wall.
Editing is the process of selecting and preparing written, visual and film media used to convey information. The editing process can involve correction, condensation and many other modifications performed with an intention of producing a correct, consistent and complete work; the editing process begins with the author's idea for the work itself, continuing as a collaboration between the author and the editor as the work is created. Editing can involve human relations and a precise set of methods. There are various editorial positions in publishing. One finds editorial assistants reporting to the senior-level editorial staff and directors who report to senior executive editors. Senior executive editors are responsible for developing a product for its final release; the smaller the publication, the more these roles overlap. The top editor at many publications may be known as the chief editor, executive editor, or the editor. A frequent and regarded contributor to a magazine may acquire the title of editor-at-large or contributing editor.
Mid-level newspaper editors manage or help to manage sections, such as business and features. In U. S. newspapers, the level below the top editor is the managing editor. In the book publishing industry, editors may organize anthologies and other compilations, produce definitive editions of a classic author's works, organize and manage contributions to a multi-author book. Obtaining manuscripts or recruiting authors is the role of an acquisitions editor or a commissioning editor in a publishing house. Finding marketable ideas and presenting them to appropriate authors are the responsibilities of a sponsoring editor. Copy editors correct spelling and align writings to house style. Changes to the publishing industry since the 1980s have resulted in nearly all copy editing of book manuscripts being outsourced to freelance copy editors. At newspapers and wire services, copy editors write headlines and work on more substantive issues, such as ensuring accuracy and taste. In some positions, they select news stories for inclusion.
At U. K. and Australian newspapers, the term is sub-editor. They may communicate with the printer; these editors may have the title of makeup editor. Within the publishing environment, editors of scholarly books are of three main types, each with particular responsibilities: Acquisitions editor, who contracts with the author to produce the copy Project editor or production editor, who sees the copy through its stages from manuscript to bound book and assumes most of the budget and schedule responsibilities Copy editor or manuscript editor, who prepares the copy for conversion into printed form. In the case of multi-author edited volumes, before the manuscript is delivered to the publisher it has undergone substantive and linguistic editing by the volume's editor, who works independently of the publisher; as for scholarly journals, where spontaneous submissions are more common than commissioned works, the position of journal editor or editor-in-chief replaces the acquisitions editor of the book publishing environment, while the roles of production editor and copy editor remain.
However, another editor is sometimes involved in the creation of scholarly research articles. Called the authors' editor, this editor works with authors to get a manuscript fit for purpose before it is submitted to a scholarly journal for publication; the primary difference between copy editing scholarly books and journals and other sorts of copy editing lies in applying the standards of the publisher to the copy. Most scholarly publishers have a preferred style that specifies a particular dictionary and style manual—for example, the Chicago Manual of Style, the MLA Style Manual or the APA Publication Manual in the US, or the New Hart's Rules in the U. K. Technical editing involves reviewing text written on a technical topic, identifying usage errors and ensuring adherence to a style guide. Technical editing may include the correction of grammatical mistakes, mistyping, incorrect punctuation, inconsistencies in usage, poorly structured sentences, wrong scientific terms, wrong units and dimensions, inconsistency in significant figures, technical ambivalence, technical disambiguation, statements conflicting with general scientific knowledge, correction of synopsis, index and subheadings, correcting data and chart presentation in a research paper or report, correcting errors in citations.
Large companies dedicate experienced writers to the technical editing function. Organizations that cannot afford dedicated editors have experienced writers peer-edit text produced by less experienced colleagues, it helps. The "technical" knowledge that an editor gains over time while working on a particular product or technology does give the editor an edge over another who has just started editing content related to that product or technology, but essential general skills are attention to detail, the ability to sustain focus while working through lengthy pieces of text on complex topics, tact in dealing with writers, excellent communication skills. Editing is a growing field of work in the service industry. Paid editing services may be provided by self-employed editors. Editing firms may employ a team of in-house editors, rely on a network of individual contractors or both; such firms are able to handle editing in a wide range of topics and genres, depending on the skills of individual editors
International Dunhuang Project
The International Dunhuang Project is an international collaborative effort to conserve and digitise manuscripts, printed texts, paintings and artefacts from Dunhuang and various other archaeological sites at the eastern end of the Silk Road. The project was established by the British Library in 1994, now includes twenty-two institutions in twelve countries; as of 1 March 2016 the online IDP database comprised 483,721 images. Most of the manuscripts in the IDP database are texts written in Chinese, but more than fifteen different scripts and languages are represented, including Brahmi, Khotanese, Tangut, Tibetan and Old Uyghur. Victor H. Mair, Professor of Chinese Language and Literature at the University of Pennsylvania, has noted that there are many advantages of the IDP providing high resolution digital images of Dunhuang manuscripts online for access to all. Whereas in years gone by scholars needed to travel long distances to access the original manuscripts, or could only access them by means of low quality reproductions, now anyone can access images from the convenience of their computer, wherever they are in the world.
This not only makes research into these manuscripts easier, but helps in their conservation as there is far less need for them to be handled in person. Moreover, the high quality images provided by the IDP show up details that would be difficult to see with the human eye; the main activities of the IDP are the conserving and digitising of manuscripts, woodblock prints, paintings and other artefacts in the collections material from Dunhuang and other Eastern Silk Road sites held by participating institutions. Digitised images of the items in the IDP database are made available to the public on the IDP website; the digital images are intended to be at least as legible as the original manuscripts, allow scholars to access the material from anywhere in the world without causing any more damage to the fragile items themselves. The central core of the project is the online database of catalogue images; this is intended to serve three main purposes: to act as a replacement for tools used by institutions to manage their collections.
In 2002, Lynne Brindley, Chief Executive Officer of the British Library, put forward the International Dunhuang Project as a good example of the sort of complex and international digitisation projects that the British Library was engaged in. She explained that none of the individual institutions participating in the project had the resources or facilities to allow scholars full access to all of the manuscripts in their collections, but by joining together and sharing knowledge and resources the institutions would be able to offer access to the combined collections of all the institutions by means of high-quality digital images, she noted that a digitisation project such as the IDP benefits both the institutions involved, who are able to obtain more substantial funding than they would for an internal project, the scholarly community, who are given access through the digital images to fragile and inaccessible items that might have been difficult or impossible to view. Catalogue records are stored in XML format on a relational database using the 4th Dimension database management tool.
Records can be searched for by means of an online search form that allows users to restrict the search on the basis of a number of different criteria, such as type of artefact, holding institute, archaeological site, language or script. The database was updated to support Unicode in 2010, the IDP website is now encoded using UTF-8, allowing characters from most of the ancient and modern scripts found in the manuscripts to be added to the catalogue records; each online catalogue record incorporates a physical description of the item, catalogue records from existing print sources, translations if available, bibliographic references. The IDP encourages scholarly users to submit their own catalogue entries and research results on individual items for addition to the database. To facilitate the locating of items on the IDP database the project has digitised a large number of catalogues and bibliographic sources, made them available online, with links from the original catalogue entries to the corresponding online catalogue entry in the IDP database.
In order to better understand how to conserve the fragile materials that most of the items in the IDP database are made from, the IDP has supported a number of conservation projects, has organised regular conferences on conservation issues at venues across the world. In addition to developing techniques for the conservation and preservation of documents and artefacts, the IDP hopes to foster good conservation practices and common standards amongst participating institutes, ensuring that artefacts are stored under the most suitable conditions, are handled as little as possible; the IDP centre at the British Library set up a digitisation studio in 2001, now similar studios have been established at IDP centres across Europe and Asia. In addition to making high-quality digital images of items, infrared photography is used for manuscripts with faded ink or which are otherwise hard to read in normal light; the IDP engages in various educational activities, organising exhibitions and educational events for schools.
In 2004 the IDP organised a major exhibition entitled "The Silk Ro