Mongolian script

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Mongolian
Bosoo mongol bicig.png
Example text
Type
Languages Mongolian language
Manchu language (obsolete)
Evenki language (experimentally)
Time period
ca.1204 – today
Parent systems
Child systems
Manchu alphabet
Oirat alphabet (Clear script)
Buryat alphabet
Galik alphabet
Evenki alphabet
Xibe alphabet
Sister systems
Old Uyghur alphabet
Direction Top-to-bottom
ISO 15924 Mong, 145
Unicode alias
Mongolian

The classical or traditional Mongolian script (in Mongolian script: ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг Mongol bichig), also known as Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most successful until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946. Derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet,[1] Mongolian is a true alphabet, with separate letters for consonants and vowels. The Mongolian script has been adapted to write languages such as Oirat and Manchu. Alphabets based on this classical vertical script are used in Inner Mongolia and other parts of China to this day to write Mongolian, Xibe and experimentally, Evenki.

History[edit]

The Mongolian vertical script developed as an adaptation of the Sogdian to the Mongolian language. From the seventh and eighth to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Mongolian language separated into southern, eastern and western dialects. The principal monuments of the middle period are: in the eastern dialect, the famous text The Secret History of the Mongols, monuments in the square script, materials of the Chinese-Mongolian glossary of the fourteenth century, and materials of the Mongolian language of the middle period in Chinese transcription, etc.; in the western dialect, materials of the Arab-Mongolian and Persian-Mongolian dictionaries, Mongolian texts in Arabic transcription, etc. The main features of the period are that the vowels ï and i had lost their phonemic significance, creating the i phoneme (in the Chakhar dialect, the Standard Mongolian in Inner Mongolia, they're still distinct); intervocal consonants γ/g, b/w had disappeared and the preliminary process of the formation of Mongolian long vowels had begun; the initial h was preserved in many words; grammatical categories were partially absent, etc. The development over this period explains why Mongolian script looks like a vertical Arabic script (in particular the presence of the dots system).

Eventually, minor concessions were made to the differences between the Uyghur and Mongol languages: In the 17th and 18th centuries, smoother and more angular versions of tsadi became associated with [dʒ] and [tʃ] respectively, and in the 19th century, the Manchu hooked yodh was adopted for initial [j]. Zain was dropped as it was redundant for [s]. Various schools of orthography, some using diacritics, were developed to avoid ambiguity.

Mongolian is written vertically. The Uyghur script and its descendants—Mongolian, Oirat Clear, Manchu, and Buryat—are the only vertical scripts written from left to right. This developed because the Uyghurs rotated their Sogdian-derived script, originally written right to left, 90 degrees counterclockwise to emulate Chinese writing, but without changing the relative orientation of the letters.[2]

Teaching[edit]

Mongols learned their script as a syllabary, dividing the syllables into twelve different classes, based on the final phonemes of the syllables, all of which ended in vowels.[3] The Manchus followed the same syllabic method when learning Manchu script, also with syllables divided into twelve different classes[4][5][6] based on the final phonemes of the syllables.

Despite the alphabetic nature of its script, Manchu was not taught phoneme by phoneme per letter like western languages are, rather, Manchu children were taught to memorize all the syllables in the Manchu language separately as they learned to write, like Chinese characters. Manchus when learning, instead of saying l, a---la; l, o---lo; etc., were taught at once to say la, lo, etc. Many more syllables than are contained in their syllabary might have been formed with their letters, but they were not accustomed to arrange them otherwise than as they there stand. They made, for instance, no such use of the consonants I, m, n, and r, as westerners do when they called them liquid; hence if the Manchu letters s, m, a, r, t, were joined in that order, a Manchu would not able to pronounce them as English speaking people pronounce the word "smart".[7] Manchu children were taught the language via the syllabic method.[8]

Some westerners learn the script in an alphabetic manner instead.

Today, the opinion on whether it is alphabet or syllabic in nature is still split between different experts. In China, it is considered syllabic and Manchu is still taught in this manner. The alphabetic approach is used mainly by foreigners who want to learn the language. Studying Manchu script as a syllabary takes a longer time.[9][10]

Name[edit]

The Traditional Mongolian script is known by a wide variety of names. Due to its shape like Uighur script, it became known as the Uighurjin Mongol script (Mongolian: Уйгуржин монгол бичиг). During the communist era, when Cyrillic became the official script for the Mongolian language, the traditional script became known as the Old Mongol script (Mongolian: Хуучин монгол бичиг), in contrast to the New script (Mongolian: Шинэ үсэг), referring to Cyrillic. The name Old Mongol script stuck, and it is still known as such among the older generation, who didn't receive education in the new script.

Letters[edit]

“Mongol” written in Mongolian script: 1. traditional, 2. folded, 3. 'Phags-pa, 4. Todo, 5. Manchu, 6. Soyombo, 7. horizontal square, 8. Cyrillic
A KFC in Hohhot, the capital of Inner Mongolia, China, with a trilingual sign in Chinese, Mongolian and English
From left to right : Phagspa, Lantsa, Tibetan, Mongolian, Chinese and Cyrillic

The traditional or classical Mongolian alphabet, sometimes called Hudum 'traditional' in Oirat in contrast to the Clear script (Todo 'exact'), is the original form of the Mongolian script used to write the Mongolian language. It does not distinguish several vowels (o/u, ö/ü, final a/e) and consonants (syllable-initial t/d, k/g, sometimes ǰ/y) that were not required for Uyghur, which was the source of the Mongol (or Uyghur-Mongol) script.[2] The result is somewhat comparable to the situation of English, which must represent ten or more vowels with only five letters and uses the digraph th for two distinct sounds. Ambiguity is sometimes prevented by context, as the requirements of vowel harmony and syllable sequence usually indicate the correct sound. Moreover, as there are few words with an exactly identical spelling, actual ambiguities are rare for a reader who knows the orthography.

Letters have different forms depending on their position in a word: initial, medial, or final. In some cases, additional graphic variants are selected for visual harmony with the subsequent character.

Note that in some browsers, letters are rotated 90° counterclockwise. If the letter for 'a' () resembles a 'W' and not a 'Σ', rotate the letters 90° clockwise.

Alphabetical Orders:[11]

  • Traditional: n q/k, (Gamma, ү)/g, b, p, s, š, t, d, l, m, č...
  • Modern: n, b, p, q/k, ү/g, m, l, s, š, t, d, č...
  • Other modern orderings that apply to specific dictionaries also exist.[12]

Handwriting-specific finals: The final letterforms with a right-swinging tail (a, e, n, q, ү, m, l, and d) may have the notch (tooth) preceding the tail, more or less reduced to a curve in handwriting.[13]:096[14][15][12]

Table legend[edit]

A dash indicates a non-applicable position for that glyph.[16]:15[17]:60[18]:101, 104[19]:2-3[20]:3-4[21]:27, 30[12]

Parentheses enclose glyphs or positions whose corresponding sounds are not found there in native Mongolian words.[16]:14-15[17]:9-10[18]:101[19]:3-5[21]:27

A separate vowel[22]:5[23][24]:28 is a word stem- or suffix-final a or e which is also usually written separate from these, while remaining an integral part.[25]:42[18]:104 Both vowels appear as ‍ᠠ᠋ – preceded by a gap and a final-shaped consonant (as in ‍ᠬ᠎‍ᠠ᠋ q-a, ‍ᠷ᠎‍ᠠ᠋ r-a/r-e, etc). These forms are triggered by inserting a U+180E MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR (HTML ᠎ · MVS) between the consonant and vowel – transliterated with a hyphen. The combination of MVS and vowel is highlighted in yellow (᠎‍ᠠ᠋ -a/-e) in the table below.

Final a or e can also indicate differences in meaning between different words (compare ᠬᠠᠷ᠎‍ᠠ᠋ qar-a 'black' with ᠬᠠᠷᠠ qara 'to look').[19]:3[24]:28

NOTE: these separated vowels should not be confused with the identically shaped but more loosely spaced traditional dative-locative suffix a/e exemplified below. This form is however more commonly found in older texts, and can also take the forms of ᠲ᠋ᠤᠷ tur/tür or ᠳ᠋ᠤᠷ dur/dür.[17]:15[26]

1925 logo of Buryat–mongolian newspaper in mongolian script
1925 logo of Buryat–mongolian newspaper ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ‍ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ᠃ Buriyad Mongγol un ünen 'Buryat-Mongol truth' with the suffix ‍ᠤᠨ un.

Suffixes[16]:30[26][27][22] are in many cases preceded by a gap. This gap is represented by a U+202F NARROW NO-BREAK SPACE (HTML   · NNBSP). The combination of NNBSP and its following glyph is highlighted in light blue in the table below (as in  ᠨ‍  n).

Single-letter suffixes appear as final-formed a/e, i, or u/ü (as in ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ‍ᠠ᠋ γaǰar a 'to the country' and ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ‍ᠡ᠋ edür e 'on the day',[16]:39 or ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ‍ᠢ ulus i 'the state' etc).[16]:23 Multi-letter suffixes can start with an initial-, medial-, or variant-shaped glyph (medial/variant-shaped u in the two-letter suffix ‍ᠤᠨ un/ün being exemplified in the adjacent picture).[24]:27

Isolate citation forms of syllables containing o, u, ö, and ü may in dictionaries appear without a final tail as in ᠪᠣ bo/bu or ᠮᠣ᠋ mo/mu, and with a vertical tail as in ᠪᠥ᠋ / or ᠮᠥ᠋ / (as well as in transcriptions of Chinese syllables).[12][18]:105

Mongolian vowel harmony divides vowels into three groups. A word (and its suffixes) can only contain vowels from either of the first two groups below, and neutral i can appear in both cases. This might not apply for foreign words however. The three vowel groups are:[16]:11[17]:10[22]:4[12]

  • The back, masculine,[28] hard, or yang[29] vowels a, o, and u.
  • The front, feminine,[28] soft, or yin[29] vowels e, ö, and ü.
  • The neutral vowel i.

Table[edit]

NOTE: Palatalized phonemes are excluded.

Uni­code char. Contextual (letter/
ligature) forms.[30][31]
Trans­lit­er­a­tions[32][33] Notes[34][35][25]:40-42
Iso. Ini. Med. Fin. Lat. Cyr.
A ᠠ‍ ‍ᠠ‍ ‍ᠠ a а Transcribes Chakhar /ɑ/;[12][36] Khalkha /a/, /ə/, and //.[25]:40-42

Referred to as a back, masculine, hard, or yang vowel; only in words with any other such vowels, as well as with neutral i.[17]:10[22]:4[12]

Medial and final forms may be distinguished from those of other tooth-shaped letters through: vowel harmony (e), the shape of adjacent consonants (see q/k and γ/k below), and position in syllable sequence (n, ng, q, γ, d).[26]

The final tail extends to the left after bow-shaped consonants (such as b, p, f, KA-g, and KHA-k), and to the right in all other cases.

Derived from old uyghur Aleph, written twice for isolate and initial forms.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113[18]:98

ᠪᠠ ᠪᠠ‍ ‍ᠪᠠ‍ ‍ᠪᠠ ba ба
ᠫᠠ ᠫᠠ‍ ‍ᠫᠠ‍ ‍ᠫᠠ pa па
᠎‍ᠠ᠋ -a а
 ‍ᠠ᠌‍  ‍ᠠ᠋ a а
E ᠡ‍ ‍ᠡ‍ ‍ᠡ e э Transcribes Chakhar /ə/;[12][36] Khalkha /i/, /e/, /ə/, and //.[25]:40-42

Referred to as a front, feminine, soft, or yin vowel; only in words with any other such vowels, as well as with neutral i.[17]:10[12]

Medial and final forms may be distinguished from those of other tooth-shaped letters through: vowel harmony (a) and its effect on the shape of a words consonants (see q/k and γ/k below), or position in syllable sequence (n, ng, d).[26]

ᠡ᠋‍ = a traditional initial form.[39]:6

The final tail extends to the left after bow-shaped consonants (such as b, p, QA-k, and GA-g), and to the right in all other cases.

Also derived from old uyghur Aleph.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113[18]:98

ᠪᠡ ᠪᠡ‍ ‍ᠪᠡ‍ ‍ᠪᠡ be бэ
ᠫᠡ ᠫᠡ‍ ‍ᠫᠡ‍ ‍ᠫᠡ pe пэ
ᠬᠡ ᠬᠡ‍ ‍ᠬᠡ‍ ‍ᠬᠡ ke хэ
ge гэ
᠎‍ᠡ᠋ -e э
 ᠡ‍  ‍ᠡ᠋ e э
I ᠢ‍ ‍ᠢ‍ ‍ᠢ i и Transcribes Chakhar /i/ or /ɪ/;[12][36] Khalkha /i/, /ə/, and //.[25]:40-42

A neutral vowel; occurs in words with any other vowel.[17]:10[12]

Today often absorbed into a preceding syllable when at the end of a word.

The first medial form follows a consonant, the second a vowel.[note 1]

‍ᠢ᠋‍ = a handwritten inner mongolian variant on the sequence yi (as in ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ / ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ sayin 'good' being written ᠰᠠ‍‍ᠢ᠋‍‍ᠨ sain).[17]:58[18]:49[40]:346

Derived from old uyghur Yodh; preceded by an Aleph for isolate and initial forms.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113[18]:98

‍ᡳ᠌‍
ᠪᠢ ᠪᠢ‍ ‍ᠪᠢ‍ ‍ᠪᠢ bi би
ᠫᠢ ᠫᠢ‍ ‍ᠫᠢ‍ ‍ᠫᠢ pi пи
ᠬᠢ ᠬᠢ‍ ‍ᠬᠢ‍ ‍ᠬᠢ ki хи
gi ги
 ‍ᠢ‍  ‍ᠢ i и
O ᠣ‍ ‍ᠣ‍ ‍ᠣ o о Transcribes Chakhar /ɔ/;[12][36] Khalkha /ɔ/, /ə/, and //.[25]:40-42

Referred to as a back, masculine, hard, or yang vowel; only in words with any other such vowels, as well as with neutral i.[17]:10[12]

Written identically to u in native words;[16]:19[17]:9 distinction depending on context.

‍ᠣ᠋ = the final form used in loanwords.[18]:98

Derived from old uyghur Waw; preceded by an Aleph for isolate and initial forms.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113[18]:98

ᠪᠣ ᠪᠣ‍ ‍ᠪᠣ‍ ‍ᠪᠣ bo бо
ᠫᠣ ᠫᠣ‍ ‍ᠫᠣ‍ ‍ᠫᠣ po по
U ᠤ‍ ‍ᠤ‍ ‍ᠤ u у Transcribes Chakhar /ʊ/;[12][36] Khalkha /ʊ/, /ə/, and //.[25]:40-42

Referred to as a back, masculine, hard, or yang vowel; only in words with any other such vowels, as well as with neutral i.[17]:10[12]

Written identically to o in native words;[16]:19[17]:9 distinction depending on context.

Derived from old uyghur Waw; preceded by an Aleph for isolate and initial forms.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113[18]:98

ᠪᠤ ᠪᠤ‍ ‍ᠪᠤ‍ ‍ᠪᠤ bu бу
ᠫᠤ ᠫᠤ‍ ‍ᠫᠤ‍ ‍ᠫᠤ pu пу
 ᠤ‍  ‍ᠤ‍  ‍ᠤ u у
OE ᠥ‍ ‍ᠥ᠋‍ ‍ᠥ ö ө Transcribes Chakhar /o/;[12][36] Khalkha /o/[ɵ], /ə/, and //.[25]:40-42

Referred to as a front, feminine, soft, or yin vowel; only in words with any other such vowels, as well as with neutral i.[17]:10[12]

Written identically to ü in native words;[16]:20[17]:9 distinction depending on context.

‍ᠥ᠋ = an older final form; also used in loanwords.[18]:105

The first medial form is used in the first syllable of native words,[37]:546 and in subsequent medial positions of loanwords.

Derived from old uyghur Waw, in a digraph with Yodh in word-initial syllables; preceded by an Aleph for isolate and initial forms.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113[18]:98

‍ᠥ‍
ᠪᠥ᠋ ᠪᠥ‍ ‍ᠪᠥ‍ ‍ᠪᠥ бө
ᠫᠥ᠋ ᠫᠥ‍ ‍ᠫᠥ‍ ‍ᠫᠥ пө
ᠭᠥ᠋ ᠬᠥ‍ ‍ᠬᠥ‍ ‍ᠬᠥ хө
гө
UE ᠦ‍ ‍ᠦ᠋‍ ‍ᠦ ü ү Transcribes Chakhar /u/;[12][36] Khalkha /u/, /ə/, and //.[25]:40-42

Referred to as a front, feminine, soft, or yin vowel; only in words with any other such vowels, as well as with neutral i.[17]:10[12]

Written identically to ö in native words;[16]:20[17]:9 distinction depending on context.

‍ᠦ᠋ = an older final form; also used in loanwords.[18]:105

The first medial form is used in the first syllable of native words,[37]:546 and in subsequent medial positions of loanwords.

Derived from old uyghur Waw, in a digraph with Yodh in word-initial syllables; preceded by an Aleph for isolate and initial forms.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113[18]:98

‍ᠦ‍
ᠪᠦ᠋ ᠪᠦ‍ ‍ᠪᠦ‍ ‍ᠪᠦ бү
ᠫᠦ᠋ ᠫᠦ‍ ‍ᠫᠦ‍ ‍ᠫᠦ пү
ᠬᠦ᠋ ᠬᠦ‍ ‍ᠬᠦ‍ ‍ᠬᠦ хү
гү
 ᠦ‍  ‍ᠦ‍  ‍ᠦ ü ү
EE ᠧ‍ ‍ᠧ‍ ‍ᠧ ē/é е Stands in for e in loanwords.[18]:104, 108[36]
NA ᠨ‍ ‍ᠨ‍ ‍ᠨ n н Transcribes Chakhar /n/;[12][36] Khalkha /n/, and /ŋ/.[25]:40-42

Distinction from other tooth-shaped letters by position in syllable sequence.

Dotted before a vowel (attached or separated); undotted before a consonant (syllable-final) or a white space.[16]:20[37]:546[22]:6[12] Final dotted n is also found in modern mongolian words.[18]:101 Historically also consistently undotted (ᠨ᠋‍ etc).[16]:20[38]:114[18]:97

Derived from old uyghur Nun.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 114[18]:98

‍ᠨ᠋‍
‍ᠨ᠌‍᠎‍ᠠ᠋ n-a на
n-e нэ
 ᠨ‍ n н
ANG (—) ‍ᠩ‍ ‍ᠩ ng/ŋ нг Transcribes Chakhar /ŋ/;[12][36] Khalkha /ŋ/.[25]:40-42

Only at end of word (medial for composites).

Transcribes /ng/ in Tibetan /nga/; Sanskrit /ṅa/.[16]:28

Derived from old uyghur Nun-Kaph digraph.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 115[18]:98

BA ᠪ‍ ‍ᠪ‍ ‍ᠪ b б Transcribes Chakhar /b/;[12][36] Khalkha /p/, /w/, and //.[25]:40-42

For Classical Mongolian, latin v is used only for transcribing foreign words, so most в (v) in Cyrillic Mongolian correspond to б (b) in Classical Mongolian.

‍ᠪ᠋ = an alternative/older final form.[17]:58[18]:100, 105[33]:4

Derived from old uyghur Pe.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 115[18]:98

ᠪᠠ ᠪᠠ‍ ‍ᠪᠠ‍ ‍ᠪᠠ ba ба
be бэ
ᠪᠢ ᠪᠢ‍ ‍ᠪᠢ‍ ‍ᠪᠢ bi би
ᠪᠣ ᠪᠣ‍ ‍ᠪᠣ‍ ‍ᠪᠣ bo бо
bu бу
ᠪᠥ᠋ ᠪᠥ‍ бө
бү
 ᠪᠠ‍ ba ба
be бэ
PA ᠫ‍ ‍ᠫ‍ (‍ᠫ) p п Transcribes Chakhar /p/;[12][36] Khalkha //.[25]:40-42

Only at the beginning of Mongolian words (although words with an initial p tend to be foreign).[19]:5[21]:27[12]

Transcribes /p/ in Tibetan /pa/.[41]:(ᢒ?) 96, 155, 247[16]:28

Galik letter, derived from Mongolian b.[18]:98

ᠫᠠ ᠫᠠ‍ ‍ᠫᠠ‍ ‍ᠫᠠ pa па
pe пэ
ᠫᠢ ᠫᠢ‍ ‍ᠫᠢ‍ ‍ᠫᠢ pi пи
ᠫᠣ ᠫᠣ‍ ‍ᠫᠣ‍ ‍ᠫᠣ po по
pu пу
ᠫᠥ᠋ ᠫᠥ‍ пө
пү
QA ‍ᠬ‍ (‍ᠬ) q х Transcribes Chakhar /x/;[12][36] Khalkha /x/.

Only in words with back a, o, and u vowels.[16]:15[17]:10

Distinction from other tooth-shaped letters by position in syllable sequence. Not occurring word- or syllable-finally.[22]:5, 6[12]

Variously dotted/undotted, or written Kaph-shaped as an initial in early ortography.[38]:114

Derived from merger of old uyghur Gimel and Heth.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113-115[18]:98

‍ᠬ᠎‍ᠠ᠋ q-a ха
ᠬᠡ ᠬᠡ‍ ‍ᠬᠡ‍ ‍ᠬᠡ ke хэ Transcribes Chakhar /x/;[12][36] Khalkha /x/.

Only in words with neutral i and front e, ö, and ü vowels.[16]:15[17]:10

Undistinguished from GA-g.[16]:15, 24[17]:9

Not occurring word- or syllable-finally.[22]:5, 6[12]

Derived from old uyghur Kaph.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113, 115[18]:98

ᠬᠢ ᠬᠢ‍ ‍ᠬᠢ‍ ‍ᠬᠢ ki хи
ᠭᠥ᠋ ᠬᠥ‍ ‍ᠬᠥ‍ ‍ᠬᠥ хө
хү
 ᠬᠢ‍ ki хи
 ᠬᠢ
GA ‍ᠭ‍ ‍ᠭ γ г Transcribes Chakhar /ɣ/;[12] Khalkha /ɢ/, and //.[25]:40-42

Only in words with back a, o, and u vowels.[16]:15[17]:10

Dotted before a vowel (attached or separated); undotted before a consonant (syllable-final) or a white space.[16]:21[37]:546[22]:5[12]

As initial: historically and in loans written Kaph-shaped (ᠭᠱᠠᠨ gšan 'moment' [16]:32[35] or ᠭᠷᠠᠮ / ᠭᠷᠠᠮᠮ gramm 'gram').

May turn silent between two adjacent vowels, and merge these into a long vowel or diphtong.[16]:36-37[17][18]:49[note 2]

Historically also undotted,[16]:21[38]:114[18]:97.

Also transliterated with latin ɣ.[33]

Also derived from old uyghur Gimel-Heth.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113-115[18]:98

‍ᠭ᠋‍
‍ᠬ᠋‌᠎‍ᠠ᠋ γ-a га
(ᠭ᠌‍) ᠭ᠌‍ ‍ᠭ᠌ g г Transcribes Chakhar /g/;[12][36] Khalkha /g/.

Only in words with neutral i and front e, ö, and ü vowels.[16]:15[17]:10

Undistinguished from QA-k.[16]:15, 24[17]:9

Not occurring word-initially without a vowel following it (native words). The final form is also found written like manchu ‍ᡴ᠋ k.[42][18]:104

May turn silent between two adjacent vowels, and merge these into a long vowel or diphtong.[16]:36-37[17][18]:49[note 3]

Also derived from old uyghur Kaph.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113, 115[18]:98

ᠭᠡ ᠭᠡ‍ ‍ᠭᠡ‍ ‍ᠭᠡ ge гэ
ᠭᠢ ᠭᠢ‍ ‍ᠭᠢ‍ ‍ᠬᠢ gi ги
ᠭᠥ᠋ ᠭᠥ‍ ‍ᠭᠥ‍ ‍ᠭᠥ гө
гү
MA (ᠮ‍) ‍ᠮ‍ ‍ᠮ m м Transcribes Chakhar /m/;[12][36] Khalkha /m/.[25]:40-42

Mongolian script ml ligature.svg = ml (‍ᠮᠯ‍) written as a medial ligature.[13]:029[16]:24, 36[17]:58[37]:546[18]:100

Derived from old uyghur Mem.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113[18]:98

‍ᠮ᠎‍ᠠ᠋ m-a ма
m-e мэ
LA ᠯ‍ ‍ᠯ‍ ‍ᠯ l л Transcribes Chakhar /l/;[12][36] Khalkha /ɮ/.[25]:40-42

Forms a ligature with a preceding "bow"-shaped consonant in loanwords such as ᠪᠯᠠᠮ᠎‍ᠠ᠋ blam-a 'lama' from tibetan བླ་མ་ Wylie: bla-ma.[16]:15, 32[18]:100

Derived from old uyghur hooked Resh.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113[18]:98

‍ᠯ᠎‍ᠠ᠋ l-a ла
l-e лэ
 ᠯ‍ l л
SA ᠰ‍ ‍ᠰ‍ ‍ᠰ s с Transcribes Chakhar /s/, or /ʃ/ before i;[17]:58[12] Khalkha /s/, or /ʃ/ before i.

‍ᠰ᠋ = an older final variant form for /s/ derived from old uyghur Zayin (example from the Stele of Yisüngge (ru): ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ᠋ činggis).[16]:23[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113-114[18]:98

Derived from merger of old uyghur Samekh and Shin.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113[18]:98

‍ᠰ᠎‍ᠠ᠋
s-a са
s-e сэ
SHA ᠱ‍ ‍ᠱ‍ (‍ᠱ) š ш Transcribes Chakhar /ʃ/;[12][36] Khalkha /ʃ/.

Historically also undotted.[16]:20[38]:114[18]:97

Final š is only found in modern mongolian words.[16]:15[18]:101

Also derived from old uyghur Samekh-Shin.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113-114[18]:98

TA ᠲ‍ ‍ᠲ‍ (—) t т Transcribes Chakhar /t/;[12][36] Khalkha /t/.[25]:40-42

Syllable-initially undistinguished from d in native words.[16]:23[17]:9[12] Not occurring word- or syllable-finally.[22]:5, 6[12]

Derived from old uyghur Taw, and Lamedh (initial, and medial form respectively).[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113[18]:98

Positional variants on Tawᠲ‍/‍ᠲ᠋‍/‍ᠲ⟩ are used consistently for t in foreign words.[16]:23[18]:101, 104

The Lamedh glyph may appear with a diagonal oval shape in handwriting, similar in form to galik TA ,[13]:096[43][44] or more angular and closer in shape to galik DA in older texts.[13]

 ᠲ‍ t т
DA ᠳ‍ ‍ᠣᠠ‍ ‍ᠳ d д Transcribes Chakhar /d/;[12][36] Khalkha /t/, and //.[25]:40-42

Syllable-initially undistinguished from t in native words.[16]:23[17]:9[12]

The first medial firm is used before consonants (syllable-final), the second before vowels.[17]:58[22]:5

Also derived from old uyghur Taw, and Lamedh (initial / first medial / final, and second medial form respectively).[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113[18]:98

Positional variants on Lamedhᠳ᠋‍/‍ᠲ‍/‍ᠳ᠋⟩ are used consistently for d in foreign words.[16]:23

The Lamedh glyph may appear with a diagonal oval shape in handwriting, similar in form to galik TA ,[13]:096[43][44][45] or more angular and closer in shape to galik DA in older texts.[13]

‍ᠲ‍
 ᠳ᠋‍ d д
CHA ᠴ‍ ‍ᠴ‍ (‍ᠴ‌) č ч Transcribes Chakhar /t͡ʃ/;[12][36] Khalkha /t͡ʃʰ/, or /t͡sʰ/ (also transliterated with cyrillic ц).[12]:§1.2[19]:2 Distinction between /t͡ʃʰ/ and /t͡sʰ/ in Khalkha Mongolian.

Derived from old uyghur Tsade, and in the 17th–18th century Classical Mongolian language distinguished from medial ǰ ‍ᠵ‍ through its angular form.[17]:59[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113[18]:98

JA ᠵ‍ ‍ᠵ‍ (‍ᠵ‌) ǰ ж Transcribes Chakhar /d͡ʒ/;[12][36] Khalkha /d͡ʒ/, or d͡z (also transliterated with cyrillic з).[12]:§1.2[19]:2 Distinction by context between /d͡ʒ/ and /d͡z/ in Khalkha Mongolian.

Not occurring word- or syllable-finally.[22]:5, 6[12]

Also transliterated with latin j.[33]

Derived from old uyghur Yodh (initial) and Tsade (medial), and in the 17th–18th century Classical Mongolian language distinguished from č through its rounder medial form.[17]:59[37]:545[18]:98

‍ᠵ᠋‍᠎‍ᠠ᠋ ǰ-a жа
YA ᠶ‍ ᠶ‍ (‍ᠶ) y й (е*, ё*, ю*, я*) Transcribes Chakhar /j/;[12][36] Khalkha /j/.[25]:40-42

The second unhooked initial and medial forms are older ones.[37]:545, 546[18]:108

Derived from old uyghur Yodh, and in the 19th century distinguished from initial ǰ by the borrowing of manchu hooked Yodh.[37]:545[17]:59

ᠵ‍ ‍ᠶ᠋‍
‍ᠶ᠎‍ᠠ᠋
y-a йа (я)
y-e йэ
 ᠶ‍ y й
 ᠵ‍
RA (ᠷ‍) ‍ᠷ‍ ‍ᠷ r р Transcribes Chakhar /r/;[12][36] Khalkha /r/.[25]:40-42

Not normally at the beginning of words.[note 4]

Derived from old uyghur Resh.[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113[18]:98

‍ᠷ᠎‍ᠠ᠋ r-a ра
r-e рэ
WA ᠸ‍ ‍ᠸ‍ (‍ᠸ) w в Transcribes Chakhar /w/;[12][36]

Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for v in Sanskrit /va/). Transcribes /w/ in Tibetan ཝ /wa/;[41]:254[16]:28[38]:113 old uyghur and chinese loanwords.[18]:113

[18]:104

Also transliterated with latin v.[33]

Derived from old uyghur Beh,[37]:539-540, 545-546[38]:111, 113[18]:97 and "Waw" (before a separated vowel).

‍ᠸ᠋᠎‍ᠠ᠋
w-a ва
w-e вэ
FA ᠹ‍ ‍ᠹ‍ ‍ᠹ f ф Transcribes Chakhar /f/;[12][36]

Used to transcribe foreign words.

Transcribes /pʰ/ in Tibetan /pʰa/.[41]:96, 247[16]:28

Galik letter, derived from Mongolian b.[18]:98

ᠹᠠ ᠹᠠ‍ ‍ᠹᠠ‍ ‍ᠹᠠ fa фа
ᠹᠧ ᠹᠧ‍ ‍ᠹᠧ‍ ‍ᠹᠧ фе
ᠹᠢ ᠹᠢ‍ ‍ᠹᠢ‍ ‍ᠹᠢ fi фи
ᠹᠣ ᠹᠣ‍ ‍ᠹᠣ‍ ‍ᠹᠣ fo фо
ᠹᠦ᠋ ᠹᠦ‍ ‍ᠹᠦ᠋‍ ‍ᠹᠦ᠋ фү
KA ᠺ‍ ‍ᠺ‍ ‍ᠺ g к Transcribes Chakhar /k/;[12][36]

Also transliterated with latin k.[33]

Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for g in Tibetan /ga/; Sanskrit /ga/).[41]:87, 244, 251[16]:28

Galik letter.[17]:59-60

ᠺᠠ ᠺᠠ‍ ‍ᠺᠠ‍ ‍ᠺᠠ ga ка
ᠺᠧ ᠺᠧ‍ ‍ᠺᠧ‍ ‍ᠺᠧ ке
ᠺᠢ ᠺᠢ‍ ‍ᠺᠢ‍ ‍ᠺᠢ gi ки
ᠺᠣ ᠺᠣ‍ ‍ᠺᠣ‍ ‍ᠺᠣ go ко
ᠺᠣᡳ᠌ ᠺᠦ‍ ᠺᠦ‍ ‍ᠺᠣᡳ᠌ кү
KHA ᠻ‍ ‍ᠻ‍ ‍ᠻ k к Also transliterated with latin kh.[33]

Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for in Tibetan /kʰa/; Sanskrit /kha/).[41]:86, 244, 251[16]:28

ᠻᠠ ᠻᠠ‍ ‍ᠻᠠ‍ ‍ᠻᠠ ka ка
ᠻᠧ ᠻᠧ‍ ‍ᠻᠧ‍ ‍ᠻᠧ ке
ᠻᠢ ᠻᠢ‍ ‍ᠻᠢ‍ ‍ᠻᠢ ki ки
ᠻᠣ ᠻᠣ‍ ‍ᠻᠣ‍ ‍ᠻᠣ ko ко
ᠻᠦ᠋ ᠻᠦ‍ ᠻᠦ‍ ᠻᠦ᠋ кү
TSA ᠼ‍ ‍ᠼ‍ ‍ᠼ‌ c ц Transcribes Chakhar /t͡s/;[12][36]

Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for tsʰ in Tibetan /tsʰa/; Sanskrit /cha/).[41]:89, 144, 245, 254[16]:28

Galik letter, derived from Preclassical Mongolian Tsade č-ǰ‍ᠴ‍~‍ᠵ‍.[18]:98

ZA ᠽ‍ ‍ᠽ‍ ‍ᠽ‌ z з Transcribes Chakhar /d͡z/;[12][36]

Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for dz in Tibetan /dza/; Sanskrit /ja/).[41]:89, 144, 245, 254[16]:28

Galik letter, derived from Preclassical Mongolian Tsade č-ǰ‍ᠴ‍~‍ᠵ‍.[18]:98

HAA ᠾ‍ ‍ᠾ‍ ‍ᠾ‌ h х Transcribes Chakhar /h/[x];[12][36]

Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for h in Tibetan /ha/, /-ha/; Sanskrit /ha/).[41]:69, 102, 194, 244-249, 255[16]:27-28[17]:59

Galik letter;[17]:59[18]:98 preceded by an "Aleph" for initial form.[17]:59[18]:98

ZRA ᠿ‍ ž ж Transcribes Chakhar /ʐ/;[12][36]

Transcribes Chinese r /ɻ/ ([ɻ ~ ʐ]),[a] as in ri 日 – used in Inner Mongolia. Always folllowed by an i.[36]

Transliterates /ʒ/ in Tibetan /ʒa/.[41]:254 (紗)

LHA ᡀ‍ lh лх Transcribes Tibetan lh. Example: ᡀᠠᠰᠠ lhasa.[36][47]

Digraph composed of l and h.[21]:30 Transcribes /lh/ in Tibetan ལྷ /lha/.[41]:220[16]:27

ZHI ᡁ‍ zh з Transcribes zh in the Chinese syllable zhi – used in Inner Mongolia.[18]:105[36]

Galik letter.[18]:98

CHI ᡂ‍ ch ч Transcribes ch in the Chinese syllable chi (as in Chī) – used in Inner Mongolia.[41]:91, 145, 153, 246[16]:28[36]

Notes:

  1. ^ With rare exceptions like ᠨᠠᠶ᠋ᠮᠠ naima ('eight') or ᠨᠠᠶ᠋ᠮᠠᠨ Naiman (tribal name).
  2. ^ Examples: Qa-γ-an (ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ) 'Khagan' is read as Qaan unless reading classical literary Mongolian. Some exceptions like tsa-g-aan 'white' exist.
  3. ^ Example: de-g-er is read as deer. Some exceptions like ügüi 'no' exist.
  4. ^ Transcribed foreign words usually get a vowel prepended. Example: Transcribing Русь (Russia) results in ᠣᠷᠤᠰ Oros.
  1. ^ Lee & Zee (2003) and Lin (2007) transcribe these as approximants, while Duanmu (2007) transcribes these as voiced fricatives. The actual pronunciation has been acoustically measured to be more approximant-like.[46]

Examples[edit]

Manuscript Type Unicode Transliteration
(first word)
Mclassical mimic.jpg Wikiclassicalmongol.svg ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶᠠ᠂ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠠᠢ᠃ ᠸ‍ w
‍ᠢ‍ i
‍ᠺᠢ‍ ki
‍ᠫᠧ‍
‍ᠲ‍‍ d
‍ᠢ‍ i
‍‍ᠶ‍ y
‍ᠠ a
  • Transliteration: Vikipediya čilügetü nebterkei toli bičig bolai.
  • Cyrillic: Википедиа чөлөөт нэвтэрхий толь бичиг болой.
  • Transcription: Vikipedia chölööt nevterkhii toli bichig boloi.
  • Gloss: Wikipedia free omni-profound mirror scripture is.
  • Translation: Wikipedia is the free encyclopedia.
Mongolian Wikipedia preview. A representation of what mn.wiki would look like if Mongolian script support was properly implemented. Mn.wiki already exists, but support has not been implemented. Not all text is "real Mongolian" — only the actual text of the article, and the name thereof.

Child systems[edit]

The Mongol script has been the basis of alphabets for several languages. First, after overcoming the Uyghur script ductus, it was used for Mongolian itself.

Clear script (Oirat alphabet)[edit]

In 1648, the Oirat Buddhist monk Zaya-pandita Namkhaijamco created this variation with the goals of bringing the written language closer to the actual pronunciation of Oirat and making it easier to transcribe Tibetan and Sanskrit. The script was used by the Kalmyks of Russia until 1924, when it was replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet. In Xinjiang, China, the Oirat people still use it.

Manchu alphabet[edit]

The Manchu alphabet was developed from the Mongolian script in the early 17th century to write the Manchu language. A variant is still used to write Xibe. It is also used for Daur. Its folded variant may for example be found on Chinese Qing seals.

Vagindra alphabet[edit]

Another alphabet, sometimes called Vagindra or Vaghintara, was created in 1905 by the Buryat monk Agvan Dorjiev (1854–1938). It was also meant to reduce ambiguity, and to support the Russian language in addition to Mongolian. The most significant change, however, was the elimination of the positional shape variations. All letters were based on the medial variant of the original Mongol alphabet. Fewer than a dozen books were printed using it.[citation needed]

Evenki alphabet[edit]

The Qing dynasty Qianlong Emperor erroneously identified the Khitan people and their language with the Solons, leading him to use the Solon language (Evenki) to "correct" Chinese character transcriptions of Khitan names in the History of Liao in his "Imperial Liao Jin Yuan Three Histories National Language Explanation" (欽定遼金元三史國語解/钦定辽金元三史国语解 Qīndìng Liáo Jīn Yuán Sānshǐ Guóyǔjiě) project. The Evenki words were written in the Manchu script in this work.

In the 1980s, an experimental alphabet for Evenki was created.

Additional characters[edit]

Galik characters[edit]

In 1587, the translator and scholar Ayuush Güüsh (Аюуш гүүш) created the Galik alphabet (Али-гали), inspired by the third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso. It primarily added extra characters for transcribing Tibetan and Sanskrit terms when translating religious texts, and later also from Chinese. Some of those characters are still in use today for writing foreign names (compare table above).[48]

Unicode[edit]

Mongolian script was added to the Unicode Standard in September 1999 with the release of version 3.0.

Blocks[edit]

The Unicode block for Mongolian is U+1800–U+18AF. It includes letters, digits and various punctuation marks for Hudum Mongolian, Todo Mongolian, Xibe (Manchu), Manchu proper, and Ali Gali, as well as extensions for transcribing Sanskrit and Tibetan.

Mongolian[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+180x FV
 S1 
FV
 S2 
FV
 S3 
 MV 
S
U+181x
U+182x
U+183x
U+184x
U+185x
U+186x
U+187x
U+188x
U+189x
U+18Ax
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

The Mongolian Supplement block (U+11660–U+1167F) was added to the Unicode Standard in June, 2016 with the release of version 9.0:

Mongolian Supplement[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1166x 𑙠 𑙡 𑙢 𑙣 𑙤 𑙥 𑙦 𑙧 𑙨 𑙩 𑙪 𑙫 𑙬
U+1167x
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Font issues[edit]

Although the Mongolian script has been defined in Unicode since 1999, there was no native support for Unicode Mongolian from the major vendors until the release of the Windows Vista operating system in 2007 and fonts need to be installed in Windows XP and Windows 2000 to show properly, and so Unicode Mongolian is not yet widely used. In China, legacy encodings such as the Private Use Areas (PUA) Unicode mappings and GB18030 mappings of the Menksoft IMEs (espc. Menksoft Mongolian IME) are more commonly used than Unicode for writing web pages and electronic documents in Mongolian.

The inclusion of a Unicode Mongolian font and keyboard layout in Windows Vista has meant that Unicode Mongolian is now gradually becoming more popular,[citation needed] but the complexity of the Unicode Mongolian encoding model and the lack of a clear definition for the use variation selectors are still barriers to its widespread adoption, as is the lack of support for inline vertical display. As of 2015 there are no fonts that successfully display all of Mongolian correctly when written in Unicode. A report published in 2011 revealed many shortcomings with automatic rendering in all three Unicode Mongolian fonts the authors surveyed, including Microsoft's Mongolian Baiti.[49]

Furthermore, Mongolian language support has suffered from buggy implementations: the initial version of Microsoft's Mongolian Baiti font (version 5.00) was, in the supplier's own words, "almost unusable",[50] and as of 2011 there remain some minor bugs with the rendering of suffixes in Firefox.[51] Other fonts, such as MonoType's Mongol Usug and Myatav Erdenechimeg's MongolianScript, suffer even more serious bugs.[49]

In January 2013, Menksoft released several OpenType Mongolian fonts, delivered with its Menksoft Mongolian IME 2012. These fonts strictly follow Unicode standard, i.e. bichig is no longer realized as "B+I+CH+I+G+FVS2" (incorrect) but "B+I+CH+I+G" (correct), which is not done by Microsoft and Founder's Mongolian Baiti, MonoType's Mongol Usug, or Myatav Erdenechimeg's MongolianScript.[52] However, due to the impact of Mongolian Baiti, many still use the Microsoft defined incorrect realization "B+I+CH+I+G+FVS2", which results in an incorrect rendering in correctly-designed fonts like Menk Qagan Tig.

Mongolian script can be represented in LaTeX with the MonTeX package.[53]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Campbell, George L. (1997). Handbook of Scripts and Alphabets. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415183444. 
  2. ^ a b György Kara, "Aramaic Scripts for Altaic Languages", in Daniels & Bright The World's Writing Systems, 1994.
  3. ^ Chinggeltei. (1963) A Grammar of the Mongol Language. New York, Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. p. 15.
  4. ^ Translation of the Ts'ing wan k'e mung, a Chinese Grammar of the Manchu Tartar Language; with introductory notes on Manchu Literature: (translated by A. Wylie.). Mission Press. 1855. pp. xxvii–. 
  5. ^ Shou-p'ing Wu Ko (1855). Translation (by A. Wylie) of the Ts'ing wan k'e mung, a Chinese grammar of the Manchu Tartar language (by Woo Kĭh Show-ping, revised and ed. by Ching Ming-yuen Pei-ho) with intr. notes on Manchu literature. pp. xxvii–. 
  6. ^ http://www.dartmouth.edu/~qing/WEB/DAHAI.html
  7. ^ Meadows 1849, p. 3.
  8. ^ Saarela 2014, p. 169.
  9. ^ Gertraude Roth Li (2000). Manchu: a textbook for reading documents. University of Hawaii Press. p. 16. ISBN 0824822064. Retrieved 25 March 2012. Alphabet: Some scholars consider the Manchu script to be a syllabic one. 
  10. ^ Gertraude Roth Li (2010). Manchu: A Textbook for Reading Documents (Second Edition) (2 ed.). Natl Foreign Lg Resource Ctr. p. 16. ISBN 0980045959. Retrieved 1 March 2012. Alphabet: Some scholars consider the Manchu script to be a syllabic one. Others see it as having an alphabet with individual letters, some of which differ according to their position within a word. Thus, whereas Denis Sinor aruged in favor of a syllabic theory,30 Louis Ligeti preferred to consider the Manchu script and alphabetical one.31 ()
  11. ^ "Unicode Technical Report #2". ftp.tc.edu.tw. Retrieved 2017-12-13. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc "Mongolian Traditional Script". cjvlang.com. Retrieved 2017-12-07. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f "Digitales Turfanarchiv". turfan.bbaw.de. Retrieved 2017-12-18. 
  14. ^ Library, Harvard-Yenching; Adolphson, Mikael S. (2003). Treasures of the Yenching: Seventy-fifth Anniversity of the Harvard-Yenching Library : Exhibition Catalogue. Chinese University Press. ISBN 9789629961022. 
  15. ^ commons:File:Mongolia letter of independence 1912 p1.png
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq Poppe, Nicholas (1974). Grammar of Written Mongolian. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 9783447006842. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Grønbech, Kaare; Krueger, John Richard (1993). An Introduction to Classical (literary) Mongolian: Introduction, Grammar, Reader, Glossary. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 9783447032988. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be Janhunen, Juha (2006-01-27). The Mongolic Languages. Routledge. ISBN 9781135796891. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f "Mongolian / ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ Moŋġol" (PDF). www.eki.ee. Retrieved 2017-11-18. 
  20. ^ "The Mongolian Script" (PDF). Lingua Mongolia. 
  21. ^ a b c d Janhunen, Juha A. (2012). Mongolian. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 9027238200. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "A Study of Traditional Mongolian Script Encodings and Rendering: Use of Unicode in OpenType fonts" (PDF). w.colips.org. Retrieved 9 November 2017. 
  23. ^ "What is the Mongolian vowel separator for?". linguistics.stackexchange.com. Retrieved 2017-12-01. 
  24. ^ a b c "The Unicode® Standard Version 10.0 – Core Specification: South and Central Asia-II" (PDF). Unicode.org. Retrieved 3 December 2017. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Svantesson, Jan-Olof (2005). The Phonology of Mongolian. https://media.turuz.com/Language/2012/0122-(5)moghol_(monqol)_dilinin_ses_bilimi-fonoloji(18.163KB).pdf#page=61: Oxford University Press. pp. 40–42. ISBN 0199260176. 
  26. ^ a b c d http://andreasviklund.com/, Original design: Andreas Viklund -. "Lingua Mongolia - Mongolian Grammar". www.linguamongolia.com. Retrieved 2017-12-13. 
  27. ^ "PROPOSAL Encode Mongolian Suffix Connector (U+180F) To Replace Narrow Non-Breaking Space (U+202F)" (PDF). Unicode.org. Retrieved 23 August 2017. 
  28. ^ a b by Manchu convention
  29. ^ a b in Inner Mongolia.
  30. ^ "Unicode 10.0 Mongolian" (PDF). www.unicode.org. Retrieved 2017-11-18. 
  31. ^ "Mongolian variant forms". r12a.github.io. Retrieved 2017-07-28. 
  32. ^ "online transliteration/transcription tool". www.ushuaia.pl. Retrieved 2017-10-25. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g "Mongolian transliterations" (PDF). Institute of the Estonian Language. 
  34. ^ "Bolor Dictionary". www.bolor-toli.com. Retrieved 2017-12-06. 
  35. ^ a b "Mongolian State Dictionary". mongoltoli.mn. Retrieved 2017-12-14. 
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai "Writing | Study Mongolian". www.studymongolian.net. Retrieved 2017-12-14. 
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Daniels, Peter T. (1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195079937. 
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Clauson, Gerard (2005-11-04). Studies in Turkic and Mongolic Linguistics. Routledge. ISBN 9781134430123. 
  39. ^ "Retrieval in Texts with Traditional Mongolian Script Realizing Unicoded Traditional Mongolian Digital Library (PDF Download Available)". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2017-12-01. 
  40. ^ Baumann, Brian Gregory (2008). Divine Knowledge: Buddhist Mathematics According to the Anonymous Manual of Mongolian Astrology and Divination. BRILL. ISBN 9004155759. 
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "BabelStone : Mongolian and Manchu Resources". babelstone.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-08-17. 
  42. ^ Inner Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party emblem
  43. ^ a b Arghun Letter To Philippe Le Bel, in Mongolian language and script, Extract, 1289 ink on parchment 185 × 25 cm (72.8 × 9.8 in)
  44. ^ a b Letter from Arghun, Khan of the Mongol Ilkhanate, to Pope Nicholas IV, 1290.
  45. ^ Letter from Oljeitu to Philippe le Bel, 1305.
  46. ^ Lee-Kim, Sang-Im (2014), "Revisiting Mandarin 'apical vowels': An articulatory and acoustic study", Journal of the International Phonetic Association (3): 261–282 
  47. ^ "ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠌ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ - ᠮᠤᠩᠭ᠋ᠤᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠌". www.mongolfont.com. Retrieved 2017-12-15. 
  48. ^ Otgonbayar Chuluunbaatar (2008). Einführung in die Mongolischen Schriften (in German). Buske. ISBN 978-3-87548-500-4. 
  49. ^ a b Biligsaikhan Batjargal; et al. (2011). "A Study of Traditional Mongolian Script Encodings and Rendering: Use of Unicode in OpenType fonts" (PDF). International Journal of Asian Language Processing. 21 (1): 23–43. Retrieved 2011-09-10. 
  50. ^ Version 5.00 of the Mongolian Baiti font may be displayed incorrectly in Windows Vista
  51. ^ Bug 490534 - ZWJ and NNBSP rendered incorrectly in scripts like Mongolian
  52. ^ Menk Qagan Tig, Menk Hawang Tig, Menk Garqag Tig, Menk Har_a Tig, and Menk Scnin Tig.
  53. ^ "CTAN: Package montex". ctan.org. Retrieved 2018-01-21. 

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