The waltz is a ballroom and folk dance in triple time, performed in closed position. There are many references to a sliding or gliding dance that would evolve into the waltz that date from 16th century Europe, including the representations of the printmaker Hans Sebald Beham; the French philosopher Michel de Montaigne wrote of a dance he saw in 1580 in Augsburg, where the dancers held each other so that their faces touched. Kunz Haas wrote, "Now they are dancing the godless Weller or Spinner." "The vigorous peasant dancer, following an instinctive knowledge of the weight of fall, uses his surplus energy to press all his strength into the proper beat of the bar, thus intensifying his personal enjoyment in dancing." The peasants of Bavaria and Styria began dancing a dance called Walzer, a dance for couples, around 1750. The Ländler known as the Schleifer, a country dance in 34 time, was popular in Bohemia and Bavaria, spread from the countryside to the suburbs of the city. While the eighteenth century upper classes continued to dance the minuet, bored noblemen slipped away to the balls of their servants.
In the 1771 German novel Geschichte des Fräuleins von Sternheim by Sophie von La Roche, a high-minded character complains about the newly introduced waltz among aristocrats thus: "But when he put his arm around her, pressed her to his breast, cavorted with her in the shameless, indecent whirling-dance of the Germans and engaged in a familiarity that broke all the bounds of good breeding—then my silent misery turned into burning rage."Describing life in Vienna, Don Curzio wrote, "The people were dancing mad... The ladies of Vienna are celebrated for their grace and movements of waltzing of which they never tire." There is a waltz in the second act finale of the 1786 opera Una Cosa Rara by Martin y Soler. Soler's waltz was marked andante con moto, or "at a walking pace with motion", but the flow of the dance was sped-up in Vienna leading to the Geschwindwalzer, the Galloppwalzer. In the transition from country to town, the hopping of the Ländler, a dance known as Langaus, became a sliding step, gliding rotation replaced stamping rotation.
In the 19th century, the word indicated that the dance was a turning one. The Viennese custom is to anticipate the second beat of each bar, making it sound as if the third is late and creating a certain buoyancy; the younger Strauss would sometimes break up the one-two-three of the melody with a one-two pattern in the accompaniment along with other rhythms, maintaining the 34 time while causing the dancers to dance a two-step waltz. The metronome speed for a full bar varies between 60 and 70, with the waltzes of the first Strauss played faster than those of his sons. Shocking many when it was first introduced, the waltz became fashionable in Vienna around the 1780s, spreading to many other countries in the years to follow. According to contemporary singer Michael Kelly, it reached England in 1791. During the Napoleonic Wars, infantry soldiers of the King's German Legion introduced the dance to the people of Bexhill, Sussex from 1804, it became fashionable in Britain during the Regency period, having been made respectable by the endorsement of Dorothea Lieven, wife of the Russian ambassador.
Diarist Thomas Raikes recounted that "No event produced so great a sensation in English society as the introduction of the waltz in 1813." In the same year, a sardonic tribute to the dance by Lord Byron was anonymously published. Influential dance master and author of instruction manuals, Thomas Wilson published A Description of the Correct Method of Waltzing in 1816. Almack's, the most exclusive club in London, permitted the waltz, though the entry in the Oxford English Dictionary shows that it was considered "riotous and indecent" as late as 1825. In The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, by Anne Brontë, in a scene set in 1827, the local vicar Reverend Milward tolerates quadrilles and country dances but intervenes decisively when a waltz is called for, declaring "No, no, I don't allow that! Come, it's time to be going home."The waltz its closed position, became the example for the creation of many other ballroom dances. Subsequently, new types of waltz have developed, including several ballroom dances.
In the 19th and early 20th century, numerous different waltz forms existed, including versions performed in 34, 38 or 68, 54 time. In the 1910s, a form called the "Hesitation Waltz" was introduced by Irene Castle, it was danced to fast music. A hesitation is a halt on the standing foot during the full waltz bar, with the moving foot suspended in the air or dragged. Similar figures are incorporated in the International Standard Waltz Syllabus; the Country Western Waltz is progressive, moving counter clock wise around the dance floor. Both the posture and frame are relaxed, with posture bordering on a slouch; the exaggerated hand and arm gestures of some ballroom styles are not part of this style. Couples may dance in the promenade position, depending on local preferences. Within Country Western waltz, there is the more modern Pursuit Waltz. At one time it was considered ill treatment for a man to make the woman walk backwards in some locations. In California the waltz was banned by Mission priests until after 1834 because of the "closed" dance position
The hurdy-gurdy is a stringed instrument that produces sound by a hand crank-turned, rosined wheel rubbing against the strings. The wheel functions much like a violin bow, single notes played on the instrument sound similar to those of a violin. Melodies are played on a keyboard that presses tangents—small wedges made of wood—against one or more of the strings to change their pitch. Like most other acoustic stringed instruments, it has a sound board and hollow cavity to make the vibration of the strings audible. Most hurdy-gurdies have multiple drone strings, which give a constant pitch accompaniment to the melody, resulting in a sound similar to that of bagpipes. For this reason, the hurdy-gurdy is used interchangeably or along with bagpipes in Occitan, Cajun French and contemporary Asturian, Cantabric and Hungarian folk music. Many folk music festivals in Europe feature music groups with hurdy-gurdy players; the most famous has been held since 1976 at Saint-Chartier in the Indre département in Central France.
In 2009, it relocated nearby to the Château d'Ars at La Châtre, where it continues to take place during the week nearest July 14. The hurdy-gurdy is thought to have originated from fiddles in either Europe or the Middle East some time before the eleventh century A. D; the first recorded reference to fiddles in Europe was in the 9th century by the Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih describing the lira as a typical instrument within the Byzantine Empire. One of the earliest forms of the hurdy-gurdy was the organistrum, a large instrument with a guitar-shaped body and a long neck in which the keys were set; the organistrum had a single melody string and two drone strings, which ran over a common bridge, a small wheel. Due to its size, the organistrum was played by two people, one of whom turned the crank while the other pulled the keys upward. Pulling keys upward is cumbersome, so only slow tunes could be played on the organistrum; the pitches on the organistrum were set according to Pythagorean temperament and the instrument was used in monastic and church settings to accompany choral music.
Abbot Odo of Cluny is supposed to have written a short description of the construction of the organistrum entitled Quomodo organistrum construatur, known through a much copy, but its authenticity is doubtful. Another 10th-century treatise thought to have mentioned an instrument like a hurdy-gurdy is an Arabic musical compendium written by Al Zirikli. One of the earliest visual depictions of the organistrum is from the twelfth-century Pórtico da Gloria on the cathedral at Santiago de Compostela, Spain: it has a carving of two musicians playing an organistrum. On, the organistrum was made smaller to let a single player both turn the crank and work the keys; the solo organistrum was known from Spain and France, but was replaced by the symphonia, a small box-shaped version of the hurdy-gurdy with three strings and a diatonic keyboard. At about the same time, a new form of key pressed from beneath was developed; these keys were easier to handle. Medieval depictions of the symphonia show both types of keys.
During the Renaissance, the hurdy-gurdy was a popular instrument and the characteristic form had a short neck and a boxy body with a curved tail end. It was around this time; the buzzing bridge is an asymmetrical bridge. When the wheel is accelerated, one foot of the bridge lifts from the soundboard and vibrates, creating a buzzing sound; the buzzing bridge is thought to have been borrowed from the tromba marina, a bowed string instrument. During the late Renaissance, two characteristic shapes of hurdy-gurdies developed; the first was guitar-shaped and the second had a rounded lute-type body made of staves. The lute-like body is characteristic of French instruments. By the end of the 17th century changing musical tastes demanded greater polyphonic capabilities than the hurdy-gurdy could offer and pushed the instrument to the lowest social classes. During the 18th century, French Rococo tastes for rustic diversions brought the hurdy-gurdy back to the attention of the upper classes, where it acquired tremendous popularity among the nobility, with famous composers writing works for the hurdy-gurdy.
The most famous of these is Nicolas Chédeville's Il pastor Fido, attributed to Vivaldi. At this time the most common style of hurdy-gurdy developed, the six-string vielle à roue; this instrument has four drones. The drone strings are tuned so that by turning them on or off, the instrument can be played in multiple keys. During this time the hurdy-gurdy spread further to Central Europe, where further variations developed in western Slavic countries, German-speaking areas and Hungary. Most types of hurdy-gurdy were extinct by the early twentieth century, but a few have survived; the best-known are the French vielle à roue, the Hungarian tekerőlant, the Spanish zanfoña. In Ukraine, a variety called the lira was used by blind street musicians, most of whom were purged by Stalin in the 1930s; the hurdy-gurdy tradition is well developed in Hungary, Belarus and U
The birch trumpet is a type of natural trumpet made of spruce covered with birch bark, known in Norway, Finland, Denmark, Lithuania and Estonia. Cruder and less durable versions were made of plain birch bark, they are associated with the early European Chalet culture, where it was used to intimidate predators, frighten supernatural enemies, convene council meetings. The neverlur, as a natural horn, thus has no valves. A player can play 10 tones from the natural scale on the instrument. In the modern era, the neverlur is a cultural curiosity, used for the occasional fanfare. Tolga kulturskole in Norway teaches playing the neverlur to all interested people living in the municipality; the oldest recovered näverlur in Sweden dates back to the 10th century, resembles earlier bronze trumpets. Magnar Storbækken at the company Naturinstrumenter in Tolga Rune Selén was Sweden's best known näverlur manufacturer, he manufactured more than 11000 näverlurar between 1959 and 2005 when he retired because of dust allergy.
He died 28 October 2011. Lisa Byers Runberg in Alunda, she was taught by Rune Selén. Her husband Per Runberg is riksspelman. Jan Nordkvist at the company Lurmakaren in Tällberg With length up to 4–5 meters are known from the Alps, Carpathian Mountains, Pyrenees. Midwinter horn known from the border area between Germany and Netherlands in Bentheim and Twente, it is only played in the period between Advent Sunday and Epiphany Büchel Ligawka Karjapasun Trembita Lur Professional musician Sissel Morken Gullord has specialized in playing the natural horn working with the leading Baroque orchestras in Scandinavia and playing the lur and the billy goat's horn. Sissel Morken Gullord plays the cattle call "Koma guta liggje" on a neverlur on a Norwegian seter The Wooden Lurs part of The Nordic Lurs part of O. J.'s Trumpet Page Template:Latvian folk music
A bukkehorn or bockhorn called ″Billy Goat Horn″ in English, is an ancient Scandinavian musical instrument, made from the horn of a ram or a goat. The horn is made from a goat horn harvested 5 to 7 years before the instrument is crafted, it was traditionally used by shepherds and milkmaids on summer dairy farms in the mountains, as a signal-instrument or as a scaring instrument. When the horn got finger holes it became possible to play melodies with it; the instrument has two blowing-techniques: the trumpet-principle is the most common, but the clarinet-principle is used. Music of Norway Music of Sweden Karl Seglem plays the bukkehorn: https://web.archive.org/web/20150411044854/http://www.karlseglem.no/appbox/modules/cutecms/?key=biography&lg=en_en Sissel Morken Gullord plays the bukkehorn in Disney's Frozen: https://web.archive.org/web/20131113212448/http://gullord.no/index.php/en/my-work
Sympathetic strings or resonance strings are auxiliary strings found on many Indian musical instruments, as well as some Western Baroque instruments and a variety of folk instruments. They are not played directly by the performer, only indirectly through the tones that are played on the main strings, based on the principle of sympathetic resonance; the resonance is most heard when the fundamental frequency of the string is in unison or an octave lower or higher than the catalyst note, although it can occur for other intervals, such as a fifth, with less effect. Sympathetic strings are used to enhance the sound of an instrument; some instruments have only a few sympathetic strings such as the Hardanger fiddle. Other instruments which have more include the sitar with 11-13 sympathetic strings and sarod with 15 sympathetic strings, the sarangi which has a total of 37 sympathetics. In Western music, some members of the viola family appeared in the middle of the 17th century which were fitted with an extra choir of thin wire strings running through a hollow chamber through the neck of the instrument, the head of, elongated to accommodate as many extra tuning pegs as necessary.
These were called viola d'amore. Other instruments such as the harp, guitar and piano do not have additional strings, but make use of the effect by allowing their playing strings to vibrate sympathetically when they are not being played directly. In keyboard instruments like the piano, the string dampers can be raised to produce this effect; the guitar is unable to produce effective sympathetic string resonance for tones other than E, B, D, A. However, the ten-string guitar invented in 1963 by Narciso Yepes, adds four strings tuned to C, A♯, G♯, F♯, which resolves the imbalance of resonance on the guitar. By adding the abovementioned resonances and, of course, their fifths —that is to say, G, F, D♯, C♯—the guitar's strings now resonate more with all 12 notes of the chromatic scale, bringing the guitar's sound closer to the consistency and sustainability of the harpsichord and piano. Strings or parts of strings may resonate at their fundamental or harmonic frequencies when other strings are sounded.
In general, non-played strings respond in sympathy to other strings being played. Two tones of the same pitch will give maximum sympathetic resonance as all harmonics of both strings will overlap. Other harmonic combinations will cause sympathetic resonance at the fifth and major third. For example, an A string at 440 Hz will cause an E string at 330 Hz to resonate, because they share an overtone of 1320 Hz; the musician retunes the sympathetic strings for each mode or raga, so that when the corresponding note is played on the main strings of the instrument, the sympathetic strings will vibrate in response, providing a lingering halo of sound. Aliquot stringing Drone
Nordic folk music
Nordic folk music includes a number of traditions in Northern European Scandinavian, countries. The Nordic countries are taken to include Iceland, Sweden and Finland; the Nordic Council, an international organization includes the autonomous territories of Åland and the Faroe Islands. The term Nordic was applied to Baltic countries of Estonia and Lithuania; the many regions of the Nordic countries share certain traditions, many of which have diverged significantly. It is possible to group together the Baltic states and northwest Russia as sharing cultural similarities, contrasted with Norway, Sweden and the Atlantic islands of Iceland and the Faroe Islands. Greenland's Inuit culture has its own musical traditions, influenced by Scandinavian culture. Finland shares many cultural similarities with the Scandinavian nations; the Saami of Sweden, Norway and Russia have their own unique culture, with ties to the neighboring cultures. The dulcimer and fiddle are the two most characteristic instruments found throughout Scandinavia.
In Norway, the eight- or nine-stringed hardanger fiddle is found. Gammaldans are a kind of dance song played by harmonica and accordion, popular in both Sweden and Norway in the late 19th and early 20th century. Circle dancing while singing ballads are a historic part of the folk traditions of all of northern Europe. Only the Faroe Islands have maintained this tradition to the present day, though it has been revived in some other areas. Iceland is home to many ancient musical practices no longer found elsewhere in the Nordic area, such as the use of parallel fifths and organum. Greenland's Inuit population has their own musical traditions, which have been melded with elements of Nordic music, such as the kalattuut style of Danish polka. Finland was long ruled by Sweden, so much of Finnish culture is influenced by Swedish. There are a number of Swedes living in Finland, vice versa; these communities have produced traditional and neo-folk musicians like the Swedish-Finn Scea Jansson and Gjallarhorn, the Finnish-Swedish Norrlåtar and JP Nyströms.
Finland's musical ties are to the Balto-Finnic peoples of Russia and Estonia. Runolaulu is a kind of song found throughout this area. Estonia and Finland both have national epics based on interconnected forms of runo-song and Kalevala, respectively. "Estonian runo-song has the same basic form as the Finnish variety to which it is related: the line has eight beats, the melody spans more than the first five notes of a diatonic scale and its short phrases tend to use descending patterns". Baltic psalteries are a family of related plucked box zithers played throughout Finland, the Baltic states and northwest Russia. A bowed lyre was played among Swedes living in Estonia, but usage declined until a recent revival. In the 19th century, all the Baltic states saw an influx of foreign instruments and styles, resulting in fusions like the zither kokles and German-influenced ziņģe singing style of Latvia; the Sami are found in Norway, Sweden and the northwest corner of Russia. The only traditional Sami instruments are drums and the flute, though modern bands use a variety of instrumentation.
Joiks, unrhymed works without definite structure, are the most characteristic kind of song. Nordic popular music Nettl, Bruno. Folk and Traditional Music of the Western Continents. 1965. Prentice-Hall. Eaglewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Broughton and Mark Ellingham with James McConnachie and Orla Duane, World Music, Vol. 1: Africa and the Middle East. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0, The Book of Music and Nature: An Anthology of Sounds, Thoughts Smith, Frederick Key. Nordic Art Music: From the Middle Ages to the Third Millennium. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0275973999. Yoell, John H.. The Nordic Sound: Explorations into the Music of Denmark, Sweden. Crescendo Pub. Co. ISBN 0-87597-090-7
The polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. It originated in the middle of the 19th century in Bohemia, now part of the Czech Republic; the polka remains a popular folk music genre in many European countries, is performed by folk artists in the Czech Republic, Austria, Switzerland and Finland, to a lesser extent in Poland, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Italy, Romania, Belarus and Slovakia. Local varieties of this dance are found in the Nordic countries, Spain's Basque Country, the United Kingdom, Latin America and the United States; the term polka comes from the Czech word "půlka", referring to the short half-steps featured in the dance. Czech cultural historian and ethnographer Čeněk Zíbrt, who wrote in detail about the origin of the dance, in his book, Jak se kdy v Čechách tancovalo cites an opinion of František Doucha that "polka" was supposed to mean "dance in half", both referring to the half-tempo 24 and the half-jump step of the dance.
Zíbrt dismisses the etymology suggested by A. Fähnrich that "polka" comes from the Czech word "pole". On the other hand, Zdeněk Nejedlý suggests. Doucha is nothing but an effort to prove the "true Czech folk" origin of polka. Instead, he argues that according to Jaroslav Langr in the area of Hradec Králové, the tune Krakoviáky from the collection Slovanské národní písně of František Ladislav Čelakovský became popular so that it was used to dance třasák, břitva, kvapík, this way was called "polka". Nejedlý writes that Václav Vladivoj Tomek claims the Hradec Králové roots of a polka; the OED suggests that the name may have been derived from the Czech Polka meaning "Polish woman". The word was introduced into the major European languages in the early 1840s, it should not be confused with a Swedish 34-beat dance with Polish roots. A related dance is the redowa. Polkas always have a 24 time signature. Folk music of polka style appeared in written music about 1800; the beginning of the propagation of dance and accompanying music called polka is attributed to a young woman, Anna Slezáková.
The music teacher Josef Neruda noticed her dancing in an unusual way to accompany a local folk song called "Strýček Nimra koupil šimla", or "Uncle Nimra Bought a White Horse", in 1830. She is said to have called the dance Maděra because of its liveliness; the dance was further propagated by Neruda, who put the tune to paper and taught other young men to dance it. Čeněk Zíbrt notices that a common claim that the events happened in Týnec nad Labem, Bohemia, in 1834 is incorrect. Zibrt writes that when he published this traditional story in 1894 in Narodni Listy newspaper, he received a good deal of feedback from eyewitnesses. In particular, he wrote that according to further witness, the originating event happened in 1830, in Kostelec nad Labem, where she worked as a housemaid. Zíbrt writes that he published the first version of the story in Bohemia, from where it was reprinted all over Europe and in the United States. Zíbrt wrote that simple Czech folk said they knew and danced polka long before the nobles got hold of it, i.e. it is a folk Czech dance.
By 1835, this dance had spread to the ballrooms of Prague. From there, it spread to Vienna by 1839, in 1840 was introduced in Paris by Raab, a Prague dance instructor, it was so well received by both dancers and dance masters in Paris that its popularity was referred to as "polkamania." The dance soon spread to London and was introduced to America in 1844. It remained a popular ballroom dance until the late 19th century, when it would give way to the two-step and new ragtime dances. Polka dancing enjoyed a resurgence in popularity after World War II, when many Polish refugees moved to the US, adopting this Bohemian style as a cultural dance. Polka dances are still held on a weekly basis across many parts of the US with significant populations of central European origin, it was found in parts of South America. There are various styles of contemporary polka besides the original Czech dance, still the chief dance at any formal or countryside ball in the Czech Republic. One of the types found in the United States is the North American "Polish-style polka," which has roots in Chicago, with large Czech and Polish minorities.
North American "Slovenian-style polka" is fast and features piano accordion, chromatic accordion, and/or diatonic button box accordion. North American "Dutchmen-style" features an oom-pah sound with a tuba and banjo, has roots in the American Midwest. "Conjunto-style" polkas have roots in northern Mexico and Texas, are called "Norteño". Traditional dances from this region reflect the influence of polka-dancing European immigrants. In the 1980s and 1990s, several American bands began to combine polka with various rock styles, "alternative polka", or "San Francisco-style". There exist Curaçaoan polkas, Peruvian polkas. In the pampas of Argentina, the "polca" has a fast beat with a 34 time signature. Instruments used are: acoustic guitar (usually