Field sobriety testing
Field Sobriety Tests referred to as Standardized Field Sobriety Tests, are a battery of tests used by police officers to determine if a person suspected of impaired driving is intoxicated with alcohol or drugs. FSTs are used in the US, to meet "probable cause for arrest" requirements, necessary to sustain an alcohol-impaired driving conviction based on a chemical blood alcohol test. Impaired driving, referred to as Driving under the influence, or Driving while intoxicated, is the crime of driving a motor vehicle while impaired by alcohol or other drugs, to a level that renders the driver incapable of operating a motor vehicle safely. People who receive multiple DUI offenses are people struggling with alcoholism or alcohol dependence. Traffic accidents are predominantly caused by driving under the influence. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration alcohol-related crashes cause $37 billion in damages annually. DUI and alcohol-related crashes produce an estimated $45 billion in damages every year.
With alcohol, a drunk driver's level of intoxication is determined by a measurement of blood alcohol content or BAC. A BAC or BrAC measurement in excess of the specific threshold level, such as 0.08%, defines the criminal offense with no need to prove impairment. In some jurisdictions, there is an aggravated category of the offense at a higher BAC level, such as 0.12%, 0.15% or 0.20%. In many jurisdictions, police officers can conduct field tests of suspects to look for signs of intoxication; the US state of Colorado has a maximum blood content of THC for drivers. In most countries, driver's licence suspensions and prison sentences for DUI offenders are used as a deterrent. Anyone, convicted of driving while under the influence of alcohol or other drugs can be fined and/or given a prison sentence. In some jurisdictions, impaired drivers who injure or kill another person while driving may face heavier penalties. In addition, many countries have prevention campaigns that use advertising to make people aware of the danger of driving while impaired and the potential fines and criminal charges, discourage impaired driving, encourage drivers to take taxis or public transport home after using alcohol or drugs.
In some jurisdictions, the bar that served an impaired driver may face civil liability. In some countries, non-profit advocacy organizations, a well-known example being Mothers Against Drunk Driving run their own publicity campaigns against drunk driving; the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration began research in 1975 on how to test suspects for impaired driving. The NHTSA developed a series of tests that police officers could use when evaluating suspected impaired drivers. By 1981, officers in the United States began using the organization's battery of standardized sobriety tests to help make decisions about whether to arrest suspected impaired drivers; the tests were designed to indicate intoxication associated with a blood alcohol concentration of 0.10%. An early NHTSA report described a 6-test battery. A 1981 report became the basis of SFTs used in the United States, including the NHTSA's Standardized Field Sobriety Test battery published Mar-1999. After some US states began lowering their BAC limits to 0.08%, a study was done to see if the battery could be used to detect BACs at or above 0.08% and above and below 0.04%.
This was done to deal with the changes in the laws that led to lower legal BAC limits across the US. One of the most controversial aspects of a DUI stop is the use of Field Sobriety Tests; the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has developed a model system for managing Standardized Field Sobriety Test training. They have published several training manuals associated with FSTs; as a result of the NHTSA studies, the walk-and-turn test was determined to be 68% accurate, the one-leg stand test is only 65% accurate when administered to people within the study parameters. The tests were not validated for people with medical conditions, injuries, 65 years or older, 50 pounds or greater overweight; the officer will administer one or more field sobriety tests. FSTs are considered "divided attention tests" that test the suspect's ability to perform the type of mental and physical multitasking, required to operate an automobile; these tests can be problematic for people with non-obvious disabilities affecting proprioception, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
FSTs and SFSTs are promoted as, "used to determine whether a subject is impaired", but FST tests are regarded having, as their primary purpose, establishing tangible evidence of "probable cause for arrest". A secondary purpose, is to provide supporting corroborative tangible evidence for use against the suspect for use at trial. Probable cause is necessary under US law to sustain an arrest and invocation of the implied consent law. Similar considerations apply under the Canadian requirement to establish "reasonable grounds" for making an approved instrument demand, by establishing that there is reasonable and probable cause which lies at the point where "point where credibly-based probability replaces suspicion", it is that, if FSTs are being used, some equivalent to probable cause is necessary to sustain a conviction based on a demand for a chemical test. While the primary purpose of FSTs is to document probable cause or the
Turn on red
A turn on red is a principle of law permitting vehicles at a traffic light showing a red signal to turn into the direction of traffic nearer to them when the way is clear, without having to wait for a green signal. It is intended to allow traffic to resume moving, with minimal risk provided that proper caution is observed, it is known as a right turn on red in countries that drive on the right side of the road, or a left turn on red in countries which drive on the left side of the road. Right turns on red are permitted in many regions of North America. In the United States, western states have allowed it for more than 50 years, eastern states amended their traffic laws to allow it in the 1970s as a fuel-saving measure in response to motor fuel shortages in 1973; the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 required in §362 that in order for a state to receive federal assistance in developing mandated conservation programs, they must permit right turns on red lights. All 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico have allowed right turns on red since 1980, except where prohibited by a sign or where right turns are controlled by dedicated traffic lights.
The few exceptions include New York City, where right turns on red are prohibited, unless a sign indicates otherwise. In some states, such as New York, North Carolina, Nebraska and California, a right turn on red is prohibited when a red arrow is displayed. At intersections where U-turns are permitted and controlled by a U-turn arrow from the left-most lane, motorists turning right on red onto the same road must yield to those making U-turns before turning, as the motorists making U-turns have the right of way and a collision could occur. At intersections where U-turns are prohibited in the same fashion, a green right turn arrow will sometimes appear for those turning right onto the road, allowing only traffic turning right to proceed without having to stop or yield to other vehicles or pedestrians; some states such as California have "No U-Turn" signs posted at these intersections because of the green right turn arrow. Most Caribbean countries with right-hand traffic, such as the Dominican Republic, allow right turn on red unless a sign prohibits it.
Some vehicles, such as those carrying hazardous materials and school buses, are not allowed to turn on red under any circumstance and must wait for a green light or arrow. During 1982–1992 84 fatal crashes per year occurred in the U. S. where a vehicle was turning right at intersections where right turn on red was permitted. As of 1992, right turn on red is governed federally by 42 U. S. C. § 6322. All turns on red are forbidden in New York City. Through most of Canada, a driver may turn right at a red light after coming to a complete stop unless a sign indicates otherwise. In the province of Quebec, turning right on a red was illegal until a pilot study carried out in 2003 showed that the right turn on red manoeuvre did not result in more accidents. Subsequent to the study, the Province of Quebec now allows right turns on red except where prohibited by a sign. However, like in New York City, it remains illegal to turn right on a red anywhere on the Island of Montreal. Motorists are reminded of this by large signs posted at the entrance to all bridges.
In Mexico, right turns on red are allowed unless a sign indicates otherwise. Mexico City has implemented a new transit law which prohibits right turns and motorists can be issued a citation for noncompliance. In Costa Rica, right turns on red are allowed in general. In Chile, right turns on red are only allowed. In Paraguay, right turns on red are allowed in some towns. In Argentina, Colombia and Uruguay, right turns on red are not allowed. In the European Union member states in general, it is illegal to turn on a red light, unless it is indicated otherwise, for example by a green arrow on a red light, a flashing amber arrow with a red light or a permanent green board next to the red light. In Poland, right turns on red are permitted, only if an additional green arrow light is present and lit. However, the regulations require drivers to stop as their paths intersect with other vehicles or pedestrians in at least one direction. Green arrow light can be directed left. In Germany, right turns on red are only permitted, after a complete stop, when a specific sign is present.
This rule was first introduced in 1978 in East Germany and was supposed to become obsolete together with the East German highway code by the end of 1990, following German reunification. However, authorities were unable to remove the signs in time, public opinion caused them to leave the regulation unchanged extending its scope to the areas of the former West Germany in 1994. By 1999, there were 300 turn-on-red intersections on the territory of the former West Germany while that of the former East Germany featured 2,500. However, the numbers in the former West Germany have risen since and as of 2002 a total of 5,000 turn-on-red intersections were counted, representing 48% of the
Left- and right-hand traffic
Left-hand traffic and right-hand traffic are the practice, in bidirectional traffic, of keeping to the left side or to the right side of the road, respectively. A fundamental element to traffic flow, it is sometimes referred to as the rule of the road. RHT is used in 165 countries and territories, with the remaining 75 countries and territories using LHT. Countries that use LHT account for about a sixth of the world's area with about 35% of its population and a quarter of its roads. In 1919, 104 of the world's territories were LHT and an equal number were RHT. From 1919 to 1986, 34 of the LHT territories switched to RHT. Many of the countries with LHT were part of the British Empire. In addition, Thailand and other countries have retained the LHT tradition. Conversely, many of the countries with RHT were part of the French colonial empire or, in Europe, were subject to French rule during the Napoleonic conquests. For rail traffic, LHT predominates in Western Europe, Latin America, in countries in the British and French Empires, whereas North American and central and eastern European train services operate RHT.
According to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, water traffic is RHT: a vessel proceeding along a narrow channel must keep to starboard, when two power-driven vessels are meeting head-on both must alter course to starboard also. For aircraft the US Federal Aviation Regulations suggest RHT principles, both in the air and on water. In LHT vehicles keep left, cars are RHD with the steering wheel on the right-hand side and the driver sitting on the offside or side closest to the centre of the road; the passenger sits on the nearside, closest to the kerb. Roundabouts circulate clockwise. In RHT everything is reversed: cars keep right, the driver sits on the left side of the car, roundabouts circulate anticlockwise. Ancient Greek and Roman troops kept to the left when marching. In 1998, archaeologists found a well-preserved double track leading to a Roman quarry near Swindon, in southern England; the grooves in the road on the left side were much deeper than those on the right side, suggesting LHT, at least at this location, since carts would exit the quarry loaded, enter it empty.
In the year 1300, Pope Boniface VIII directed pilgrims to keep left. Following the French Revolution, all traffic in France kept right; the first reference in English law to an order for LHT was with regard to London Bridge. The United Kingdom is LHT, but its overseas territories of Gibraltar and British Indian Ocean Territory are RHT. In the late 1960s, the UK Department for Transport considered switching to RHT, but declared it unsafe and too costly for such a built-up nation. Road building standards, for motorways in particular, allow asymmetrically designed road junctions, where merge and diverge lanes differ in length. Sweden switched to RHT in 1967, having been LHT since from about 1734 despite having land borders with RHT countries, 90 percent of cars being left-hand drive vehicles. A referendum was held in 1955, with an overwhelming majority voting against a change to RHT; some years the government ordered a conversion, which took place at 5 am on Sunday, 3 September 1967. The accident rate dropped after the change, but soon rose back to near its original level.
The day was known as the'H' being for Högertrafik. When Iceland switched the following year, it was known as H-dagurinn, again meaning "H-Day". Most passenger cars were LHD. LHT was used in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, when the empire was split up, the countries all changed to RHT. Austria switched sides in 1921 in Vorarlberg, 1930 in North Tyrol, 1935 in Carinthia and East Tyrol, in 1938 in the rest of the country. Partitions of Poland changed to RHT in the 1920s, Partitions belonging to the German Empire and the Russian Empire were RHT. Croatia-Slavonia switched to RHT on joining the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, although Istria and Dalmatia were RHT. Nazi Germany introduced the switch to right-hand traffic in Czechoslovakia and Slovakia in 1938–39. West Ukraine was LHT, although the rest of Ukraine, having been part of the Russian Empire drove on the right. In Romania Transylvania, the Banat and Bukovina were LHT until 1919, while Wallachia and Moldavia were RHT. In Italy the countryside was RHT while cities were LHT until 1927.
Rome changed to RHT in 1924 and Milan in 1926. Alfa Romeo and Lancia did produce RHD cars until as late as 1950 and 1953 only to special order, as many drivers favoured the RHD layout in RHT as this offered the driver a clearer view of the edge of the road in mountainous regions at a time when many such roads lacked barriers or walls; the Rome Metro uses LHT. Finland ruled as part of LHT Sweden, switched to RHT in 1858 as the Grand Duchy of Finland by Russian decree. Rotterdam was LHT until 1917, although the rest Today, four countries in Europe continue to use left-hand traffic, all island nations: the UK, Cyprus and Malta. LHT was introduced in British West Africa. All of the countries part of this colony have borders with former French RHT jurisdictions and have switched sides since decolonization; these include Ghana, The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria. LHT was introduced by the British in the East Africa Protectorate and the Cape Colony. All of these have remained LHT. Sudan part of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan switched to RHT in 1973, as it
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
In transportation infrastructure, a bidirectional traffic system divides travelers into two streams of traffic that flow in opposite directions. In the design and construction of tunnels, bidirectional traffic can markedly affect ventilation considerations. Microscopic traffic flow models have been proposed for bidirectional automobile and railway traffic. Bidirectional traffic can be observed in ant trails and this has been researched for insight into human traffic models. In a macroscopic theory proposed by Laval, the interaction between fast and slow vehicles conforms to the Newell kinematic wave model of moving bottlenecks. In air traffic control traffic is separated by elevation, with east bound flights at odd thousand feet elevations and west bound flights at thousand feet elevations. Above 28,000 ft only odd flight levels are used, with FL 290, 330, 370, etc. for eastbound flights and FL 310, 350, 390, etc. for westbound flights. Entry to and exit from airports is always one-way traffic, as runways are chosen to allow aircraft to take off and land into the wind, to reduce ground speed.
In no wind cases, a preferred calm wind runway and direction is chosen and used by all flights, to avoid collisions. In uncontrolled airports, airport information can be obtained from anyone at the airport. Traffic follows a specific traffic pattern, with designated entry and exits. Radio announcements are made, whether anyone is listening or not, to allow any other traffic to be aware of other traffic in the area. In the earliest days of railways in the United Kingdom, most lines were built double tracked because of the difficulty of coordinating operations in pre-telegraphy times. Most modern roads carry bidirectional traffic, although one-way traffic is common in dense urban centres. Bidirectional traffic flow is believed to influence the rate of traffic collisions. In an analysis of head-on collisions, rear-end collisions, lane-changing collisions based on the Simon-Gutowitz bidirectional traffic model, it was concluded that "the risk of collisions is important when the density of cars in one lane is small and that of the other lane is high enough", that "heavy vehicles cause an important reduction of traffic flow on the home lane and provoke an increase of the risk of car accident".
Bidirectional traffic is the most common form of flow observed in trails, some larger pedestrian concourses exhibit multidirectional traffic. "Structural design issues". Transportation research record. National Research Council, Transportation Research Board. 2000. ISBN 978-0-309-06744-7. Two-lane rural highways with bidirectional traffic Michael S. Bernick. Transit villages in the 21st century. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-005475-2. Satellite subcenters would function as countermagnets to central Stockholm, leading to efficient bidirectional traffic flows. "Annual meeting". Compendium of technical papers. Institute of Transportation Engineers. 53. 1983. Madras conducted some field studies to evolve a relationship between speed and volume of traffic on single and two lane bidirectional traffic roads. Bickel, John. Tunnel engineering handbook. University of California: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. P. 499. ISBN 978-0-442-28127-4; this results in bidirectional traffic in a single tunnel. Highway Research Board.
"Proceedings of a workshop held May 17–19, 1971". Systems building for bridges. P. 46. ISBN 978-0-309-02063-3; the hazards are far more numerous and the need for better headlighting much greater on these millions of miles of streets and highways carrying bidirectional traffic because so few of these miles have mediocre fixed highway lighting. National Research Council. Pavement management systems. National Academy Press. P. 24. ISBN 978-0-309-05468-3. Transportation Research Board. "Report 65: "Evaluation of Bus Bulbs"". Transit Cooperative Research Program: 20. Retrieved 2009-09-09. Conversely, at 44 sq ft, passing slower pedestrian traffic is easier, crossing bidirectional traffic is nearly unhindered, traveling through the zone is less affected by other walking or standing pedestrians. Stone, H. David. Vital rails: the Charleston & Savannah Railroad and the Civil War in coastal South Carolina. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1-57003-716-0. Single tracking and the relative lack of sidings made bidirectional traffic difficult — a difficulty that became more obvious during the conflict with the North.
Behrens, John. "A staff technical report". Recommendation for the Chicago area freight system for 1995. Chicago Area Transportation Study; the average yard handle 350 vans of bidirectional traffic each day. National Research Council. "Transportation system management and travel demand management". Transportation Research Record. 1404: 39. ISBN 978-0-309-05550-5; this is true for physically challenged users and the elderly, who have to weave through bidirectional traffic. Borndörfer, Ralf. "Optimal Fares for Public Transport". In Haasis, Hans-Dietrich. Operations Research Proceedings 2005. 2005. Bremen: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Doi:10.1007/3-540-32539-5. It consists of a network containing 23 nodes and a corresponding upper-triangular origin-destination matrix with 210 nonzero entries that account for a symmetric bidirectional traffic. Burger, H.. "Options for tunnelling". Developments in Geotechnical Engineering: 35. ISBN 978-0-444-89935-4. A tunnel with an inner diameter of 9.75 meters allowing a bidi
Overtaking or passing is the act of one vehicle going past another slower moving vehicle, travelling in the same direction, on a road. The lane used for overtaking another vehicle is always a passing lane further from the road shoulder, to the left in places that drive on the right and to the right in places that drive on the left. On a single-carriageway/undivided-carriageway road, the lane used for overtaking is the same lane, used by oncoming traffic, it is only advisable to overtake on long straightaways with plenty of visibility. In some jurisdictions, the "overtaking zone" is indicated by a single broken centerline if overtaking is allowed in either direction, or paired with a single solid line beside it to indicate there is no overtaking from the solid side. In the UK, the format of the centerline is not used to regulate overtaking, only to indicate whether crossing of the line is prohibited or permitted. In the Republic of Ireland, many national primary roads were upgraded in the 1990s and 2000s to wide two-lane road to allow more space for overtaking.
However, due to the deceptive perception of safety given by such roads, future upgrade projects are to be 2+1 road where traffic volume suits. This form of road is of similar profile to wide two-lane, but includes a central crash barrier, has three lanes, with an overtaking lane on one side or the other, alternating every 2 km, it has been used in Sweden since the 1990s. On a dual-carriageway/divided-carriageway highway/motorway or arterial road, any lane can be an overtaking lane though in many places undertaking is prohibited. Lanes are separated by broken lines but may be a single solid white to indicate lane-changing is allowed but discouraged. Double lines indicate that lane-changing is prohibited, such as in tunnels or sometimes for HOV lanes and HOT lanes. Overtaking in an HOV or HOT lane is illegal for cars that do not meet the HOV/HOT criteria, except when directed by the police. A few places use the one-broken/one-solid marking at slip roads/entrance ramps, to indicate to highway drivers that the new lane merges and does not continue, so they do not attempt to overtake in a lane that ends shortly.
This is used at other points where lanes merge. In countries bounded by Vienna Convention on Road Traffic, article 11 states that: Drivers overtaking shall do so on the side opposite to that appropriate to the direction of traffic. Drivers should check the following driver is not overtaking them, drivers ahead have not warned of their intention to overtake, the lane is clear far enough ahead, the lane is available to continue driving once the overtaking manoeuver is completed. Overtaking on two-way carriageways might be forbidden according to the nearness of the crest of a hill or the longitudinal road markings the width of the road should be sufficient Overtaking is forbidden in crossing Overtaking is forbidden where a pedestrian crossing is marked on the carriageway The one, overtaken should refrain from accelerating. Local governments may introduce variations to the Convention. Overtaking on the inside or undertaking refers to the practice of overtaking a slower vehicle on a road using the lane, kerb side of the vehicle being passed.
The practice of passing on the inside, therefore only occurs on a motorway or other road where there is more than one lane in the same direction or when the width of the roads makes this possible. Many countries consider overtaking on the inside dangerous and therefore designate it a driving offence, most countries make the distinction between involuntary undertaking as opposed to the deliberate attempt to pass a slower moving vehicle for one's own benefit. Australia and New Zealand – Undertaking is legal on multi-lane roads, or where a car is indicating to turn right. Canada – Varies by province. Denmark – Undertaking is prohibited, unless passing a vehicle turning left or riding a bicycle or small moped. However, drivers may pass other vehicles to the right in certain circumstances. Finland – Undertaking is prohibited, except for inner-city traffic and vehicle waiting to turn left or on the motorway if the vehicles in the lane to the left are queueing and slow moving. France – Undertaking is prohibited, except for vehicle waiting to turn left or if the vehicles in the lane to the left are queueing and slow moving.
Germany – Undertaking is prohibited, exceptions exist for inner-city traffic and overtaking trams and vehicles waiting to turn left. Hungary – Undertaking is prohibited outside built-up areas. Inside built-up areas, passing on the right is permitted, but only if there are road markings; the undertaking manoeuvre in built-up areas is referred to as "driving in parallel traffic" instead of "passing on the right" as it is used outside built-up areas. Ireland – Undertaking permitted in three prescribed cases: 1) You want to go straight ahead when the driver in front of you has moved out an
School bus traffic stop laws
School bus stop laws are laws dictating what a motorist must do in the vicinity of a bus stop being used by a school bus or other bus, coach or minibus providing school transport. Jurisdictions in the United States and Canada have adopted various school bus stop laws that require drivers to stop and wait for a stopped school bus loading or unloading, so as to protect school children boarding or alighting. If a stopped school bus is displaying a flashing, alternating red lamp, a driver of a vehicle meeting or overtaking the stopped bus from either direction must stop and wait until the bus moves again or the red light is off. Police officers, school crossing guards, school bus drivers themselves may have the power to wave traffic on when a red light is flashing. On divided highways, most American and Canadian jurisdictions do not require vehicular drivers to stop when on the opposite side of the road from a stopped school bus; those that do require vehicles to stop are: West Virginia upon a non-controlled-access highway Arkansas in case a divider has less than 20 feet in width.
New York State American Samoa Guam British Columbia Nova Scotia Prince Edward Island Northwest Territories NunavutAmerican and Canadian jurisdictions have sought to deter illegal passing stopped school buses by increased enforcement and heavy penalties, including fines, application of demerit points against a driver's license or license suspension. Violations are common. An officer must witness the violation, when citations issued, getting convictions is difficult. There are, exceptions. Missouri has Jessica's Law, which grants the right of a school bus driver to report the offense, in which case the driver is automatically cited. Cobb County, an urban county in Metro Atlanta, has added bus cameras, as a deterrent, which can detect and automatically report vehicles passing a bus. Drivers in Washington state are not required to stop for a school bus on any highway with three or more lanes when traveling in the opposite direction; this has been interpreted to mean that when approaching a bus from the opposite direction on a normal road with a turn lane, or a road with two lanes in each direction, etc.
A driver is not required to stop their vehicle. This is an unusual law, but arguably leads to a higher safety level for children, as they are required to be picked up or dropped on the same side of the road as the bus exit on anything greater than a two-lane road as provided by RCW 46.61.370. Ohio has a similar exception for roads with four or more lanes. Drivers in Idaho and Kentucky are not required to stop for a school bus on any highway with four or more lanes when traveling in the opposite direction. Drivers in California do not have to stop on any highway, divided or is multi-lane when traveling in the opposite direction. In Pennsylvania, the only vehicle that may pass a stopped school bus with the red lights flashing is an emergency vehicle with its flashing lights and siren activated, but only after the emergency vehicle has come to a complete stop and proceeds with due caution for any students embarking or disembarking. In New York State, an official estimate is that 50,000 vehicles pass stopped school buses illegally every day.
However, as New York State requires traffic to stop for a school bus stopped on the opposing roadway of a divided highway, the estimate may include "New York violations" that would be legal in other states. The New York State Department of Transportation once recommended that the State Legislature exempt traffic from stopping for a school bus stopped on the opposing roadway of a divided highway, but this has not been done. On a national basis, school bus drivers in the United States have reported a decrease in passing violators in recent years with improved warning devices. Despite an increase in traffic and school bus ridership, annual fatalities and injuries to children struck by other vehicles has decreased as well. However, it is unclear whether having reported a decrease in passing violators is due to difficulty to report or better compliance by motorists; when and where enforcement against violators becomes too hard, some residential streets may prohibit entry of vehicles other than school buses at certain times to eliminate passing stopped school buses illegally.
Bus drivers are prohibited to turn around at intersections with students on the bus. If laws are broken, the bus driver may be charged with including but not limited to: child endangerment and disobeying laws; this section may not include all bylaws. Traffic laws in other countries do not require vehicles to stop The speed limit is 40 km/h in Australia and 20 km/h in New Zealand when passing a stopped school bus. In New Zealand, the New Zealand Transport Agency decided that the speed limit passing a stopped school bus should not be raised based on probabilities of pedestrian deaths if hit at different speeds, nor has it supported requiring stopping and waiting for school buses loading and unloading children as in the United States and Canada. In Belgium and Germany, traffic is required to pass stopped school buses at slow speeds that allow for quick stopping. While in South Korea, Japan and the United Kingdom, drivers are directed to drive past stopped school buses. U. S, Bureau of Transportation Statistics STN 100 Years of the School Bus National Association of State Directors of Pupil Transportation Services National Committee on Unifo