The largest city on the river Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s. The Rhine and the Danube formed most of the inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days. The many castles and fortifications along the Rhine testify to its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire, in the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism. The variant of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-. The Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- to move, run, the grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, and the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as masculine or feminine, the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in Rhine-kilometers, a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland.
The river length is shortened from the rivers natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century. The total length of the Rhine, to the inclusion of Lake Constance and its course is conventionally divided as follows, The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Vorderrhein and Hinterrhein near Tamins-Reichenau. Above this point is the catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine. It belongs almost exclusively to the Swiss Canton of Graubünden, ranging from Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Vorderrhein and the Rhine as a whole. The Hinterrhein rises in the Rheinwald valley below Mount Rheinwaldhorn, the Vorderrhein, or Anterior Rhine, springs from Lai da Tuma, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide. A multiday trekking route is signposted along the young Rhine called Senda Sursilvana, the Hinterrhein/Rein Posteriur, or Posterior Rhine, starts from the Paradies Glacier, near the Rheinwaldhorn.
One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory, after three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau. The Vorderrhein arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva, one source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, which is usually indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it. Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Reno di Medel, the Rein da Maighels, and the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the Canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, all streams in the source area are partially, sometimes completely and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants. In its lower course the Vorderrhein flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta through the Flims Rockslide, the whole stretch of the Vorderrhein to the Rhine confluence near Reichenau-Tamins is accompanied by a long-distance hiking trail called Senda Sursilvana
James M. Buchanan
James McGill Buchanan, Jr. was an American economist known for his work on public choice theory, for which he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in 1986. Buchanans work initiated research on how politicians and bureaucrats self-interest, utility maximization, Buchanan was born in Murfreesboro, the eldest child of James and Lila Buchanan. He was a grandson of John P. Buchanan, a governor of Tennessee in the 1890s and he graduated from Middle Tennessee State Teachers College, now known as Middle Tennessee State University, in 1940. Buchanan completed his M. S. from the University of Tennessee in 1941 and he spent the war years on the staff of Admiral Nimitz in Honolulu, when he met Anne Bakke, whom he married on October 5,1945. Anne, of Norwegian descent, was working as a nurse at the base in Hawaii. Buchanan identified as a socialist in his youth, and was unaware of the University of Chicagos strong market-oriented approach to economics and his studies there, particularly under Frank H. Knight, converted him to a zealous advocate of the market order.
Buchanan received his Ph. D. from the University of Chicago in 1948 for his thesis Fiscal Equity in a Federal State and it was at Chicago that he first read and found enlightening the work of Swedish economist Knut Wicksell. Photographs of Knight and Wicksell hung from his office walls ever after, Buchanan was the founder of a new Virginia school of political economy. He taught at the University of Virginia from 1956–1968, where he founded the Thomas Jefferson Center for Studies in Political Economy, from 1955 to 1956 he was a Fulbright Scholar in Italy. He taught at UCLA 1968–1969, followed by Virginia Tech 1969–1983 and he taught at Florida State University and the University of Tennessee. In 1988 Buchanan returned to Hawaii for the first time since the War, in 2001 Buchanan received an honorary doctoral degree from Universidad Francisco Marroquín, in Guatemala City, for his contribution to economics. Buchanans work focused on finance, the public debt, rigorous analysis of the theory of logrolling, constitutional economics.
Buchanan died January 9,2013, in Blacksburg, the Badische Zeitung called Buchanan, who showed how politicians undermine fair and simple tax systems, the founder of the New Political Economy. Buchanan was largely responsible for the rebirth of political economy as a scholarly pursuit, crucial to understanding Buchanans system of thought is the distinction he made between politics and policy. Politics is about the rules of the game, where policy is focused on strategies that players adopt within a set of rules. Buchanans important contribution to constitutionalism is his development of the sub-discipline of constitutional economics, Buchanan rejects any organic conception of the state as superior in wisdom, to the citizens of this state. This philosophical position forms the basis of constitutional economics, Buchanan believed that every constitution is created for at least several generations of citizens. Therefore, it must be able to balance the interests of the state, Buchanans work Cost and Choice is often overlooked for its contributions in defining the parameters of opportunity cost
Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine
It is the worlds oldest extant international organization. The Commission and its Secretariat is based in Strasbourg, in Le Palais du Rhin, the Commissions authority comes from agreements made at the Congress of Vienna, held in 1815 in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars. The first meeting place on 15 August 1816 in Mainz. In 1831, the Convention of Mainz was adopted, establishing a number of the first laws governing Rhine navigation, in 1861, the commissions seat was moved to Mannheim, and on 17 October 1868, the Convention of Mannheim was agreed to. This agreement still governs the principles of Rhine navigation today, there have since been additional protocols. Shortly after the end of the First World War, in 1920, individual German states were members before World War I. The United States was temporarily a member immediately after World War II, while Germany was under Allied occupation and the United Kingdom were members following the Treaty of Versailles, though Italy renounced its position in 1935 and the UK renounced in 1993.
International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River European Institutions in Strasbourg Commission Website
Harvard Law Review
The Harvard Law Review is a law review published by an independent student group at Harvard Law School. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the Harvard Law Reviews 2015 impact factor of 4.979 placed the journal first out of 143 journals in the category Law. It is published monthly from November through June, with the November issue dedicated to covering the previous term of the Supreme Court of the United States. The journal publishes the online-only Harvard Law Review Forum, a journal of scholarly responses to the main journals content. The Harvard Law Review published its first issue on April 15,1887, from the 1880s to the 1970s, editors were selected on the basis of their grades, the president of the Review was the student with the highest academic rank. The first female African-American president, ImeIme Umana, was elected in 2017, Gannett House, a white building constructed in the Greek Revival style that was popular in New England during the mid-to-late 19th century, has been home to the Harvard Law Review since the 1920s.
Before moving into Gannett House, the journal resided in the Law Schools Austin Hall, since the change of criteria in the 1970s, grades are no longer the primary basis of selection for editors. The writing competition includes two components, an edit of an article and an analysis of a recent United States Supreme Court or Court of Appeals case. The writing competition submissions are graded blindly to assure anonymity, fourteen editors are selected based on a combination of their first-year grades and their competition scores. Twenty editors are selected based solely on their competition scores, the remaining twelve editors are selected on a discretionary basis. According to the law reviews webpage, Some of these discretionary slots may be used to implement the Reviews affirmative action policy, the president of the Harvard Law Review is elected by the other editors. Roberts, Jr. served as managing editor for volume 92 Antonin Scalia, served as editor for volume 73 Edward Sanford David J. Secretary of Transportation.
Solicitor General, served as Supreme Court editor Archibald Cox, late U. S, solicitor General Christopher Cox, former chairman of U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission Ted Cruz, U. S. Senator from Texas Viet Dinh, former Assistant Attorney General, served as Bluebook editor Charles Evans Hughes Jr. former U. S. Solicitor General Michael Froman, U. S. Trade Representative Julius Genachowski, former chairman of the Federal Communications Commission Ian Gershengorn, edith Ramirez, chairwoman of the Federal Trade Commission Rod Rosenstein, nominee for U. S. Deputy Attorney General Jamie Raskin, U. S. Representative from Maryland Robert A. Taft, U. S, former United States Ambassador to Norway Preeta D. He was the Reviews first Canadian editor in the late 1930s
Robber baron (feudalism)
A robber baron or robber knight was an unscrupulous feudal landowner who resorted to banditry while protected by his fiefs legal status. Medieval robber barons robbed merchants, land travelers, and river traffic and they might rob cargoes, steal entire ships, or kidnap for ransom. During the period in the history of the Holy Roman Empire known as the Great Interregnum, the term Raubritter was coined by Friedrich Bottschalk in 1810. For one thousand years, from around 800 AD to 1800 AD, during this time, various feudal lords, among them archbishops who held fiefs from the Holy Roman Emperor, collected tolls from passing cargo ships to bolster their finances. Only the Holy Roman Emperor could authorise the collection of such tolls, allowing the nobility and Church to collect tolls from the busy traffic on the Rhine seems to have been an attractive alternative to other means of taxation and funding of government functions. Often iron chains were stretched across the river to prevent passage without paying the toll, the Holy Roman Emperor and the various noblemen and archbishops who were authorised to levy tolls seem to have worked out an informal way of regulating this process.
While this decision process was no less complex by being informal, common factors included the local power structure. Tolls were standardized either in terms of an amount of silver allowed to be charged or an in-kind toll of cargo from the ship. During the period in the history of the Holy Roman Empire known as the Great Interregnum, when there was no Emperor, in addition, robber barons began to earn their newly coined term of opprobrium by robbing ships of their cargoes, stealing entire ships and even kidnapping. Officially launched in 1254, the Rhine League wasted no time putting robber barons out of business by the expedient of taking and destroying their castles. In the next three years, four robber barons were targeted and between ten and twelve robber castles destroyed or inactivated, the Rhine League was not only successful in suppressing illicit collection of tolls and river robbery. On at least one occasion, they intervened to rescue a kidnap victim who had been kidnapped by the Baron of Rietberg, while robber barony never entirely ceased, especially during the Hundred Years War, the excesses of their heyday during the Interregnum never recurred.
The reign of King Stephen of England was a period of civil unrest commonly known as The Anarchy. They had done him homage and sworn oaths of fealty to him and they were all forsworn and their oaths broken. They hung them up by the feet and smoked them with foul smoke and they strung them up by the thumbs, or by the head, and hung coats of mail on their feet. They tied knotted cords round their heads and twisted it until it entered the brain and they put them in dungeons wherein were adders and snakes and toads and so destroyed them. Many thousands they starved to death, michael Heller refers to the original robber barons to illustrate his tragedy of the anticommons in his 2008 book. State and Nobility in Early Modern Germany, The Knightly Feud in Franconia, 1440–1567
A startup is usually a company such as a small business, a partnership or an organization designed to rapidly develop a scalable business model. Startup companies can come in all forms and sizes, some of the critical tasks are to build a co-founder team to secure key skills, know-how, financial resources and other elements to conduct research on the target market. Typically, a startup will begin by building a first minimum viable product, in addition, startups founders do research to deepen their understanding of the ideas, technologies or business concepts and their commercial potential. Business models for startups are generally found via a bottom-up or top-down approach, given that startups operate in high-risk sectors, it can be hard to attract investors to support the product/service development or attract buyers. The size and maturity of the startup ecosystem where the startup is launched, the startup ecosystem consists of the individuals and organizations business incubators and business accelerators and top-performing entrepreneurial firms and startups. A region with all of elements is considered to be a strong entrepreneurship ecosystem.
Investors are generally most attracted to new companies distinguished by their strong co-founding team. Attractive startups generally have lower bootstrapping costs, higher risk, successful startups are typically more scalable than an established business, in the sense that the startup has the potential to grow rapidly with a limited investment of capital, labor or land. Startups have several options for funding, venture capital firms and angel investors may help startup companies begin operations, exchanging seed money for an equity stake in the firm. Venture capitalists and angel investors provide financing to a range of startups, with the expectation that a small number of the startups will become viable. Factoring is another option, though it is not unique to startups, startups usually need to form partnerships with other firms to enable their business model to operate. To become attractive to businesses, startups need to align their internal features, such as management style. In their 2013 study and Linton develop two ideal profiles, or known as configurations or archetypes, for startups that are commercializing inventions, the inheritor profile calls for management style that is not too entrepreneurial and the startup should have an incremental invention.
This profile is set out to be successful in a market that has a dominant design. In contrast to this profile is the originator which has a management style that is highly entrepreneurial and this profile is set out to be more successful in a market that does not have a dominant design. New startups should align themselves to one of the profiles when commercializing an invention to be able to find, by finding a business partner a startup will have greater chances to become successful. Startup founders often have a casual or offbeat attitude in their dress, office space and marketing. Startup founders in the 2010s may wear hoodies and other clothes to business meetings
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention. An invention is a solution to a technological problem and is a product or a process. Patents are a form of intellectual property, the procedure for granting patents, requirements placed on the patentee, and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Typically, however, a patent application must include one or more claims that define the invention. A patent may include many claims, each of which defines a specific property right and these claims must meet relevant patentability requirements, such as novelty and non-obviousness. Nevertheless, there are variations on what is patentable subject matter from country to country, the word patent originates from the Latin patere, which means to lay open. More directly, it is a version of the term letters patent.
Similar grants included land patents, which were land grants by early state governments in the USA, and printing patents, a precursor of modern copyright. In modern usage, the term patent usually refers to the granted to anyone who invents any new, useful. The additional qualification utility patent is used to distinguish the primary meaning from these other types of patents. Particular species of patents for inventions include biological patents, business method patents, chemical patents, the period of protection was 10 years. These were mostly in the field of glass making, as Venetians emigrated, they sought similar patent protection in their new homes. This led to the diffusion of patent systems to other countries, by the 16th century, the English Crown would habitually abuse the granting of letters patent for monopolies. After public outcry, King James I of England was forced to revoke all existing monopolies, the Statute became the foundation for developments in patent law in England and elsewhere.
Important developments in patent law emerged during the 18th century through a process of judicial interpretation of the law. During the reign of Queen Anne, patent applications were required to supply a complete specification of the principles of operation of the invention for public access. Influenced by the philosophy of John Locke, the granting of patents began to be viewed as a form of property right. The English legal system became the foundation for patent law in countries with a common law heritage, including the United States, New Zealand, in the Thirteen Colonies, inventors could obtain patents through petition to a given colonys legislature
Intellectual property refers to creations of the intellect for which a monopoly is assigned to designated owners by law. Intellectual property rights are the protections granted to the creators of IP, and include trademarks, patents, industrial design rights, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets. Artistic works including music and literature, as well as discoveries, words, symbols, the Statute of Monopolies and the British Statute of Anne are seen as the origins of patent law and copyright respectively, firmly establishing the concept of intellectual property. The first known use of the intellectual property dates to 1769. The first clear example of modern usage goes back as early as 1808, the German equivalent was used with the founding of the North German Confederation whose constitution granted legislative power over the protection of intellectual property to the confederation. According to Lemley, it was only at point that the term really began to be used in the United States. The history of patents does not begin with inventions, but rather with royal grants by Queen Elizabeth I for monopoly privileges, the evolution of patents from royal prerogative to common-law doctrine.
The term can be used in an October 1845 Massachusetts Circuit Court ruling in the patent case Davoll et al. v. Brown. The statement that discoveries are. property goes back earlier, in Europe, French author A. Nion mentioned propriété intellectuelle in his Droits civils des auteurs, artistes et inventeurs, published in 1846. Until recently, the purpose of property law was to give as little protection as possible in order to encourage innovation. Historically, they were granted only when they were necessary to encourage invention, limited in time, the concepts origins can potentially be traced back further. In 500 BCE, the government of the Greek state of Sybaris offered one years patent to all who should discover any new refinement in luxury. Intellectual property rights include patents, industrial design rights, plant variety rights, trade dress, geographical indications, a copyright gives the creator of an original work exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time. Copyright may apply to a range of creative, intellectual, or artistic forms.
Copyright does not cover ideas and information themselves, only the form or manner in which they are expressed, an industrial design right protects the visual design of objects that are not purely utilitarian. An industrial design consists of the creation of a shape, configuration or composition of pattern or color, or combination of pattern, an industrial design can be a two- or three-dimensional pattern used to produce a product, industrial commodity or handicraft. Plant breeders rights or plant variety rights are the rights to use a new variety of a plant. The variety must amongst others be novel and distinct and for registration the evaluation of propagating material of the variety is examined, a trademark is a recognizable sign, design or expression which distinguishes products or services of a particular trader from the similar products or services of other traders
JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites.
Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service.
This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTOR
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The title was revived in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne, some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars generally concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, the office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although frequently controlled by dynasties. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806, after the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by Napoleon, before 1157, the realm was merely referred to as the Roman Empire.
In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, by the end of the 18th century, the term Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation had fallen out of official use. As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control, by the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, and the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. In 751, Martel’s son Pepin became King of the Franks, the Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768 Pepin’s son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an expansion of the realm. He eventually incorporated the territories of present-day France, northern Italy, on Christmas Day of 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor, restoring the title in the west for the first time in over three centuries. After the death of Charles the Fat in 888, the Carolingian Empire broke apart, according to Regino of Prüm, the parts of the realm spewed forth kinglets, and each part elected a kinglet from its own bowels.
After the death of Charles the Fat, those crowned emperor by the pope controlled only territories in Italy, the last such emperor was Berengar I of Italy, who died in 924. Around 900, autonomous stem duchies reemerged in East Francia, on his deathbed, Conrad yielded the crown to his main rival, Henry the Fowler of Saxony, who was elected king at the Diet of Fritzlar in 919. Henry reached a truce with the raiding Magyars, and in 933 he won a first victory against them in the Battle of Riade, Henry died in 936, but his descendants, the Liudolfing dynasty, would continue to rule the Eastern kingdom for roughly a century. Upon Henry the Fowlers death, his son and designated successor, was elected King in Aachen in 936 and he overcame a series of revolts from an elder brother and from several dukes. After that, the managed to control the appointment of dukes. In 951, Otto came to the aid of Adelaide, the queen of Italy, defeating her enemies, marrying her. In 955, Otto won a victory over the Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld
They made the first controlled, sustained flight of a powered, heavier-than-air aircraft on December 17,1903, four miles south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. In 1904–05 the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft, although not the first to build and fly experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible. The brothers fundamental breakthrough was their invention of three-axis control, which enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft effectively and this method became and remains standard on fixed-wing aircraft of all kinds. From the beginning of their work, the Wright brothers focused on developing a reliable method of pilot control as the key to solving the flying problem. This approach differed significantly from other experimenters of the time who put emphasis on developing powerful engines. Using a small wind tunnel, the Wrights collected more accurate data than any before, enabling them to design and build wings.
Their first U. S. patent,821,393, did not claim invention of a machine, but rather. They gained the skills essential for their success by working for years in their shop with printing presses, motors. Their work with bicycles in particular influenced their belief that a vehicle like a flying machine could be controlled and balanced with practice. From 1900 until their first powered flights in late 1903, they conducted extensive tests that developed their skills as pilots. Their bicycle shop employee Charlie Taylor became an important part of the team, the Wright brothers status as inventors of the airplane has been subject to counter-claims by various parties. Much controversy persists over the competing claims of early aviators. The Wright brothers were two of seven born to Milton Wright, of English and Dutch ancestry, and Susan Catherine Koerner, of German. Wilbur was born near Millville, Indiana, in 1867, Orville in Dayton, the other Wright siblings were Reuchlin, Lorin and twins Otis and Ida.
In elementary school, Orville was given to mischief and was once expelled, the direct paternal ancestry goes back to a Samuel Wright who sailed to America and settled in Massachusetts in 1636. In 1878 their father, who traveled often as a bishop in the Church of the United Brethren in Christ, the device was based on an invention of French aeronautical pioneer Alphonse Pénaud. Made of paper and cork with a band to twirl its rotor. Wilbur and Orville played with it until it broke, and built their own, in years, they pointed to their experience with the toy as the spark of their interest in flying