Uruguay the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.44 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of 176,000 square kilometres, Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, after Suriname. Uruguay was inhabited by the Charrúa people for 4,000 years before the Portuguese established Colonia del Sacramento in 1680. Montevideo was founded as a military stronghold by the Spanish in the early 18th century, signifying the competing claims over the region. Uruguay won its independence between 1811 and 1828, following a four-way struggle between Spain and Argentina and Brazil, it remained subject to foreign influence and intervention throughout the 19th century, with the military playing a recurring role in domestic politics.
A series of economic crises put an end to a democratic period that had begun in the early 20th century, culminating in a 1973 coup, which established a civic-military dictatorship. The military government persecuted leftists and political opponents, resulting in several deaths and numerous instances of torture by the military. Uruguay is today a democratic constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. Uruguay is ranked first in Latin America in democracy, low perception of corruption, e-government, is first in South America when it comes to press freedom, size of the middle class and prosperity. On a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions than any other country, it tops the rank of absence of a unique position within South America. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, per-capita income and inflows of FDI. Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth and infrastructure.
It is regarded as a high-income country by the UN. Uruguay was ranked the third-best in the world in e-Participation in 2014. Uruguay is an important global exporter of combed wool, soybeans, frozen beef and milk. Nearly 95% of Uruguay's electricity comes from renewable energy hydroelectric facilities and wind parks. Uruguay is a founding member of the United Nations, OAS, Mercosur, UNASUR and NAM. Uruguay is regarded as one of the most advanced countries in Latin America, it ranks high on global measures of personal rights and inclusion issues. The Economist named Uruguay "country of the year" in 2013, acknowledging the policy of legalizing the production and consumption of cannabis; the name of the namesake river comes from the Spanish pronunciation of the regional Guarani word for it. There are several interpretations, including "bird-river"; the name could refer to a river snail called uruguá, plentiful in the water. In Spanish colonial times, for some time thereafter and some neighbouring territories were called the Cisplatina and Banda Oriental for a few years the "Eastern Province".
Since its independence, the country has been known as la República Oriental del Uruguay, which means "the eastern republic of the Uruguay ". However, it is translated either as the "Oriental Republic of Uruguay" or the "Eastern Republic of Uruguay"; the documented inhabitants of Uruguay before European colonization of the area were the Charrúa, a small tribe driven south by the Guarani of Paraguay. It is estimated that there were about 9,000 Charrúa and 6,000 Chaná and Guaraní at the time of contact with Europeans in the 1500s. Fructuoso Rivera - Uruguay's first president – organized the Charruas' genocide; the Portuguese were the first Europeans to enter the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512. The Spanish arrived in present-day Uruguay in 1516; the indigenous peoples' fierce resistance to conquest, combined with the absence of gold and silver, limited their settlement in the region during the 16th and 17th centuries. Uruguay became a zone of contention between the Spanish and Portuguese empires.
In 1603, the Spanish began to introduce cattle. The first permanent Spanish settlement was founded in 1624 at Soriano on the Río Negro. In 1669–71, the Portuguese built a fort at Colonia del Sacramento. Montevideo was founded by the Spanish in the early 18th century as a military stronghold in the country, its natural harbor soon developed into a commercial area competing with Río de la Plata's capital, Buenos Aires. Uruguay's early 19th century history was shaped by ongoing fights for dominance in the Platine region, between British, Spanish and other colonial forces. In 1806 and 1807, the British army attempted to seize Buenos Aires and Montevideo as part of the Napoleonic Wars. Montevideo was occupied by a British force from February to September 1807. In 1811, José Gervasio Artigas, who became Uruguay's national hero, launched a successful revolt against the Spanish authorities, defeating them on 18 May at the Battle of Las Piedras. In 1813, the new government in Buenos Aires convened a constituent assembly where Artigas emerged as a champ
Avenida Corrientes is one of the principal thoroughfares of the Argentine capital of Buenos Aires. The street is intimately tied to the porteño sense of identity. Like the parallel avenues Santa Fe, Córdoba, San Juan, it takes its name from one of the Provinces of Argentina, it extends 69 blocks from Eduardo Madero Avenue in the eastern Puerto Madero neighborhood to the West and to the Northwest, ends at Federico Lacroze Avenue in the Chacarita neighborhood. Automobile traffic runs from west to east. Line B of the Buenos Aires Metro runs most of its length underneath the street; the Asociación Amigos de la Calle Corrientes is a group that collaborates on the urban planning of the street. They have placed commemorative plaques on 40 street corners bearing the distinguished figures from the history of the tango, it was named Del Sol during the 17th century, San Nicolás from 1738 to 1808, De Incháurregui from 1808 until 1822, when it received its current name. Never more than a street of average width during the nineteenth century, traffic swelled after the city began its rapid westward expansion, around 1880.
Horse-drawn tramways first ran on the avenue in 1887. The plan called for the massive razing of most of the avenue's north-side real estate and, so, met with strenuous opposition from affected landlords, retailers, as well as intellectuals like Roberto Arlt. A coup d'ètat in 1930, made way for the plan's implementation, carried out relentlessly until its completion, in 1936. Today, when referring to Corrientes prior to the term "Narrow Corrientes" is used; the newly inaugurated avenue coincided with the construction of the Buenos Aires Obelisk, since one of the city's most recognizable landmarks, visible for several blocks of the avenue´s downtown stretch. The opening of the Obelisk and surrounding Plaza de la República in 1936 created a roundabout at the 9th of July Avenue intersection. Corrientes, like most major city avenues, was made a one-way thoroughfare by a 1967 municipal ordinance. Growing traffic demands led to the opening of the avenue through the plaza, around the Obelisk, in 1971.
The name "Corrientes Street" is still preferred over "Corrientes Avenue" specially on the famous centrical stretch. With that name it appears famously in several tango lyrics; the first few blocks encompass Buenos Aires financial district forming its Northern boundary, are bustling with activity during banking hours – traversed after several blocks by popular Florida Street. Further down, for some blocks from 9 de Julio Avenue to Uruguay St. the avenue forms the Southern border of the lawyers' district surrounding the nearby Plaza Lavalle and the Supreme Court. For most of the 20th century Calle Corrientes was a symbol of night life in Buenos Aires, traditionally nicknamed "the street that never sleeps", In the 10 blocks West of downtown from Maipu St to Callao Avenue it held the largest concentration of theatres and cinemas, making it the center of commercial theatre in the city.. The corridor includes some outstanding examples of Art Deco cinema architecture of the'30s and'40s such as Teatro Gran Rex, Teatro Opera and Teatro Premier.
With the largest concentration of bookshops Corrientes was during the day a favourite haunt for intellectuals during the'50s,'60s and'70s while its famous pizza parlours and restaurants attracted city crowds on Fridays or Saturdays evenings – a night out of "pizza and cinema" on Corrientes and neighbouring Calle Lavalle being the standard form of urban weekend entertainment for generations of porteños. The Revista porteña or Teatro de revistas with its glittering vedettes and racy capo-cómicos is still centered around this stretch of Corrientes – the lure of red carpet opening nights where celebrities can be glimpsed adding to the folklore. At the farther end – the Luna Park is still synonymous with mass sports and entertainment events such as box matches or concerts. Throughout the decades the street has seen its own fauna of urban stereotypes, from the "innocent barrio girl" corrupted by the "bright city lights" of many a tango lyric in the cabarets and nightclubs of the 1920s and'30s to the valijero lone salesmen or office workers on lunch breaks, who sneaked to watch X-rated European movies when they appeared in the'60s and'70s to the "psico-bolche" – artsy students and intellectuals who peopled its bookstores and cafes after the return of democracy in the early'80s.
The emergence of video, the Internet and shopping malls reduced much of the allure of Corrientes, saw the closing of several famous cinemas and theatres. Yet sidewalks were widened and beautified in 2005 to facilitate retail activity along the avenue, which had declined since the 1970s, and today Corrientes is once again thriving at night - specially among theatre goer
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public, as seen in multiple countries listed below; such incidents may occur after a coup d'état. Martial law may be declared in cases of major natural disasters. Martial law has been imposed during conflicts, in cases of occupations, where the absence of any other civil government provides for an unstable population. Examples of this form of military rule include post World War II reconstruction in Germany and Japan, the recovery and reconstruction of the former Confederate States of America during Reconstruction Era in the United States of America following the American Civil War, German occupation of northern France between 1871 and 1873 after the Treaty of Frankfurt ended the Franco-Prussian War; the imposition of martial law accompanies curfews.
Civilians defying martial law may be subjected to military tribunal. The Black War was a period of violent conflict between British colonists and Aboriginal Australians in Tasmania from the mid-1820s to 1832. With an escalation of violence in the late 1820s, Lieutenant-Governor George Arthur declared martial law in November 1828—effectively providing legal immunity for killing Aboriginal people, it would remain in force for more than three years, the longest period of martial law in Australian history. Brunei has been under a martial law since a rebellion occurred on 8 December 1962 known as the Brunei Revolt and was put down by British troops from Singapore; the Sultan of Brunei, Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah, is presently the head of state and the Minister of Defense and Commander in Chief of Royal Brunei Armed Forces The War Measures Act was a Government of Canada statute that allowed the government to assume sweeping emergency powers, stopping short of martial law, i.e. the military does not administer justice, which remains in the hands of the courts.
The Act has been invoked three times: During World War I, World War II, the October Crisis of 1970. In 1988, the War Measures Act was replaced by the Emergencies Act. During the colonial era, martial law was proclaimed and applied in the territory of the Province of Quebec during the invasion of Canada by the army of the American Continental Congress in 1775–1776, it was applied twice in the territory of Lower Canada during the 1837–1838 insurrections. On December 5, following the events of November 1837, martial law was proclaimed in the district of Montréal by Governor Gosford, without the support of the Legislative Assembly in the Parliament of Lower Canada, it was imposed until April 27, 1838. Martial law was proclaimed a second time on November 4, 1838, this time by acting Governor John Colborne, was applied in the district of Montreal until August 24, 1839. In Egypt, a State of Emergency has been in effect continuously since 1967. Following the assassination of President Anwar el-Sadat in 1981, a state of emergency was declared.
Egypt has been under state of emergency since. The legislation was extended in 2003 and were due to expire at the end of May 2006, but after the Dahab bombings in April of that year, state of emergency was renewed for another two years. In May 2008 there was a further extension to June 2010. In May 2010, the state of emergency was further extended, albeit with a promise from the government to be applied only to'Terrorism and Drugs' suspects. A State of Emergency gives military courts the power to try civilians and allows the government to detain for renewable 45-day periods and without court orders anyone deemed to be threatening state security. Public demonstrations are banned under the legislation. On 10 February 2011, the ex-president of Egypt, Hosni Mubarak, promised the deletion of the relevant constitutional article that gives legitimacy to State of Emergency in an attempt to please the mass number of protesters that demanded him to resign. On 11 February 2011, the president stepped down and the vice president Omar Suleiman de facto introduced the country to martial law when transferring all civilian powers from the presidential institution to the military institution.
It meant that the presidential executive powers, the parliamentary legislative powers and the judicial powers all transferred directly into the military system which may delegate powers back and forth to any civilian institution within its territory. The military issued in its third announcement the "end of the State of Emergency as soon as order is restored in Egypt". Before martial law, the Egyptian parliament under the constitution had the civilian power to declare a State of Emergency; when in martial law, the military gained all powers of the state, including to dissolve the parliament and suspend the constitution as it did in its fifth announcement. Under martial law, the only legal framework within the Egyptian territory is the numbered announcements from the military; these announcements c
History of the Jews in Argentina
The history of the Jews in Argentina goes back to the early sixteenth centuries, following the Jewish expulsion from Spain. Sephardi Jews fleeing persecution immigrated with explorers and colonists to settle in what is now Argentina. In addition, many of the Portuguese traders in the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata were Jewish. An organized Jewish community, did not develop until after Argentina gained independence from Spain in 1816. By mid-century, Jews from France and other parts of Western Europe, fleeing the social and economic disruptions of revolutions, began to settle in Argentina. Reflecting the composition of the immigration waves, the current Jewish population is 80% Ashkenazi. Argentina has the largest Jewish population of any country in Latin America, although numerous Jews left during the 1970s and 1980s to escape the repression of the military junta, emigrating to Israel, West Europe, North America; the Jewish population in Argentina is the largest in Latin America, the third largest in the Americas, the world's seventh largest outside Israel.
During a major emigration wave in the 2000s, more than 10,000 Argentine Jews settled in Israel. Some Spanish conversos, or secret Jews, settled in Argentina during the Spanish colonial period, had assimilated into the Argentine population. After Argentina gained independence, the General Assembly of 1813 abolished the Inquisition. A second wave of Jewish immigration from Europe began in the mid-19th century, during revolutions and extensive social disruption. Much of the Great European immigration wave to Argentina came from Western Europe France. In 1860, the first Jewish wedding was recorded in Buenos Aires. A minyan was organized for High Holiday services a few years leading to the establishment of the Congregación Israelita de la República. In the late 19th century, Ashkenazi immigrants fleeing poverty and pogroms in Russia and Eastern Europe settled in Argentina, attracted by its open-door immigration policy; these Jews became known as rusos, "Russians". In 1889, group of 824 Russian Jews arrived in Argentina on the S.
S. became gauchos. They established a colony named Moises ville. In dire economic straits, they appealed to the French Jewish philanthropist Baron Maurice de Hirsch, who founded the Jewish Colonization Association. In its heyday, the Association owned more than 600,000 hectares of land. Between 1906 and 1912, some 13,000 Jews immigrated to Argentina every year from Europe, but from Morocco and the Ottoman Empire. By 1920, more than 150,000 Jews were living in Argentina. After the death of his son and heir, de Hirsch devoted himself to Jewish philanthropy and alleviating Jewish suffering in Eastern Europe, he developed a plan to bring Jews to Argentina as autonomous agricultural settlers. This meshed with Argentina's campaign to attract immigrants; the 1853 constitution guaranteed religious freedom, the country had vast, unpopulated land reserves. Under President Domingo F. Sarmiento, a policy of mass immigration was encouraged. Jewish agricultural settlements were established in the provinces of Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos, Santa Fe.
The national census of 1895 recorded that, of the 6,085 people who identified as Jewish, 3,880 lived in Entre Ríos. Despite antisemitism and increasing xenophobia, Jews became involved in most sectors of Argentine society. Many settled in cities Buenos Aires; as they were prohibited from positions in the government or military, many became farmers, peddlers and shopkeepers. Argentina kept its doors open to Jewish immigration until 1938, when Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in Germany began to take more actions against Jews, tensions rose across Europe in preparation for war; the government imposed new regulations on immigration. Six million Jews died in Europe during the Holocaust. Juan Domingo Perón's rise to power in 1946 in Argentina after the war worried many Jews in the country; as Minister of War, he had signed Argentina's declaration of war against the Axis Powers, but as a nationalist, he had earlier expressed sympathy for them. He was known to admire Benito Mussolini. Perón introduced Catholic religious instruction in Argentine public schools.
Perón expressed sympathy for Jewish rights and in 1949 established diplomatic relations with Israel. Perón's government was the first in Argentina to allow Jewish citizens to hold office. Among the most notable Nazis who immigrated to Argentina was Adolf Eichmann, a high-ranking official who had supervised the death camps. Israeli agents tracked him down and abducted him from a Buenos Aires suburb to Israel for trial for war crimes. Eichmann faced trial in Jerusalem beginning in April 1961. Perón was overthrown with the unrest unleashing a wave of antisemitism. Since more than 45,000 Jews have migrated to Israel from Argentina. Others have migrated to other destinations. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Tacuara Nationalist Movement, a fascist organization with political ties, began a series of antisemitic campaigns, they encouraged street fights against Jews, vandalism of synagogues and Jewish cemete
The Naval Infantry Command known as the Naval Infantry of the Navy of the Argentine Republic and referred to in English as the Argentine marines are the amphibious warfare branch of the Argentine Navy and one of its four operational commands. The Argentine marines trace their origins to the Spanish Naval Infantry, which took part in conflicts in South America in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Argentine marines took part in various conflicts of the nineteenth and twentieth century, notably the War of the Triple Alliance and the Falklands War; the marines are considered to have been among the best Argentine combat units present in the Falklands. The most recent war in which Argentine naval infantry took part was the Gulf War of 1990. Today Argentine naval infantry are deployed on UN peace-keeping missions; the Marines trace their origins in Spanish Naval Infantry, at the time of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. After the Argentine War of Independence, it was under joint administration of the Argentine Army and the Argentine Navy.
A 1946 law placed the marines under the jurisdiction of the Navy. Under Spanish dominion Conquest of the islas Malvinas in 1767. Malvinas Crisis Defense of the East Coast 1776. British invasions of the Río de la Plata 1806 and 1807. During independence seizure of Martin Garcia Island in 1814. Landing in Monterey, now part of the United States: 200 men commanded by Hipólito Bouchard, 130 of whom were armed with guns and 70 with lances, disembarked one league from the fort of Monterrey, in a creek hidden from the heights; the fort resisted only weakly, after an hour-long battle the Argentine flag was raised. Argentine confederation Cisplatine War. Uruguayan Civil War, against the forces under the control of Giuseppe Garibaldi. Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata Paraguayan War Argentine Republic 1963 Argentine Navy Revolt Snipe incident Dirty War Falklands War: Take over of the Falklands and South Georgia, Battle of Mount Tumbledown. Gulf War. UN Peacekeeper, observers/peace missions in Cyprus, Western Sahara, the Balkans, Haiti.
IMARA train in joint exercises with similar units of Brazil and the United States. IMARA has two Infantry Companies deployed in Haiti and Cyprus under the auspices of MINUSTAH and UNFICYP in joint operations with the Argentine Army and Argentine Air Force. A small platoon was deployed in Serbia/UN ProvinceKosovo, attached to Argentine Engineers Company, in turn attached to the Italian Brigade. Several Marine Officers and NCO's are deployed as military observers for the UN. Argentine Marines have the same rank insignia and titles as the rest of the Argentine Navy; the FMF was called the Brigada de IM No. 1 2nd Marine Corps Battalion 1st Amphibious Vehicles Battalion Amphibious Engineers Battalion Command and Logistical Support Battalion 1st Communications Battalion 1st Field Artillery Battalion Anti-aircraft artillery Battalion Amphibious Commandos Group The SMF was called the Fuerza de M No. 1. 4th Marine Corps Battalion 5th Marine Corps Battalion Naval Detachment Río Grande 3rd Marine Corps Battalion Navy General Staff Security Battalion Puerto Belgrano Naval Base Security Battalion 15 Security Companies at Marine and Naval Air Bases.
List of all equipment of the IMARA. Argentine ground forces in the Falklands War Argentine Navy Marines Military history of Argentina Argentine Navy Official website Argentine Marines official website Argentine Marines Unofficial website Organization and equipment Argentine Marine Corps Association Argentine Marine Fallen in Malvinas World Navies As part of his journey of reconciliation Mike Seers travels to Argentina to interview Marine artillery gunners whom he fought against Reassessing the Fighting Performance of the Argentine 5th Marines
Argentine Regional Workers' Federation
The Argentine Regional Workers' Federation, founded in 1901, was Argentina's first national labor confederation. It split into two wings in 1915, the larger of which merged into the Argentine Syndicates' Union in 1922, while the smaller disappeared in the 1930s. From the second half of the 19th century up to around 1920, Argentina experienced rapid economic growth and industrial expansion, becoming a world economic power. Foreign capital was the driving force for this development, with 92% of the workshops and factories in 1887 being owned by non-Argentines, according to a census. Most of the workers in this period were immigrants. In 1876, the country's first trade union was founded, in 1887, the first national labor organization. In 1879 an anarchist organisation, the International Socialist Circle, was founded in Buenos Aires. Both the industrialization of the country and its labor movement were centered on the capital Buenos Aires and by 1896, there were more thirty trade unions in the city alone.
From 1896, the labor movement started developing a clear working class program and the first sympathy strikes began taking place. The extent of anarchism's influence is disputed: Ronaldo Munck claims that the "dominant tendency in the labour movement was represented by the anarchists of various persuasions", while Ruth Thompson holds that "a closer examination of Argentine trade unions around the turn of the century suggests that the importance of anarchism has been exaggerated", Roberto P. Korzeniewicz contends "that anarchism was not as prevalent within the labour movement in Argentina around the turn of the century as studies of the period have maintained", although he concedes that "anarchism achieved greater labour support during the early 1900s". In any case, there was considerable anarchist union activity in the 1890s. Most of the European immigration to South America as a whole came from Spain and Italy, the two European countries in which anarchism was most influential; these immigrants included.
During his 1885–1889 visit to Argentina, the anarchist Errico Malatesta encouraged anarchist involvement in the labor movement. The working class was hardly integrated into the political system at the time, with 70% of the adult males in Buenos Aires disenfranchised as foreigners in 1912. On March 25 and 26, 1901, fifty delegates from thirty-five unions met at a congress in the capital to found the syndicalist Argentine Workers' Federation, with 10,000 members initially, its founding principles were influenced by anarchists, most notably Pietro Gori and Antonio Pellicer Paraire. Working class solidarity was seen as the only means of liberating the workers, with the general strike being their ultimate weapon in their fight against capital. Accordingly, they rejected party politics, including socialist parties. A wave of successful strikes soon followed. A 1902 strike by the stevedores in Rosario turned into a general strike. In November of the same year, the Buenos Aires dock workers gained the nine-hour-day.
The most important strike of this year, that of the fruit handlers, was about to involve the whole membership of the FOA at the height of the harvest, but the government passed the Residence Law—which allowed the expulsion of subversive foreigners—to break it. In 1903, the General Workers' Union was established as a more moderate, less anarchist, yet more or less syndicalist rival union, its founding coincided with a further radicalization of the FOA, which would peak in 1905. The infighting between the moderate and anarchist factions of the FOA was a contributory factor. In 1903 and 1904, Argentina saw no less than twelve general strikes and many more at individual plants, with the FOA being involved in many of them. At the 1903 FOA May Day demonstration, a clash with police left two twenty-four wounded. At a bakers' strike in Rosario, one worker was shot by police. By 1904, the FOA had a possible 11,000 members. At the FOA's fifth congress in 1905, it renamed itself FORA, the Argentine Regional Workers' Federation, to express its internationalism.
It passed a resolution declaring "hat it advises and recommends the widest possible study and propaganda to all its adherents with the object of teaching the workers the economic and philosophical principles of anarchist communism" becoming the programmatic basis of the union for the following years and reflecting the radicalization of the preceding. Anarchist communism became the sole doctrine in the FORA, causing statist socialists to leave the union; the FORA continued to grow quite reaching a peak at 30,000 members in 1906. In 1909, its moderate wing left the organization to found the Argentine Regional Workers' Confederation with syndicalists from the UGT. At the First International Syndicalist Congress in London in 1913, both the FORA and the CORA were represented; because the FORA could not afford the long trip and because of a lack of time, it did not send a delegate of its own, but gave its mandate to the Italian Alceste De Ambris. The FORA considered the congress a great success and was confident it would lead to the founding of a "purely worker and anti-statist" international.
The FORA's ninth congress, in April 1915, reversed the avowal to anarcho-communism of the fifth. It did not "pronounce itself favorable to, nor advise the adoption of, philosophical systems or determined ideologies" renouncing anarchist communism; the move was complemented by the unification of the CORA and the FORA. However, not all agreed on this new set of principles. A minority left the FORA and founded the FORA V, as it stuck to the resolution from the fifth