Krapina Neanderthal site
The following tables give a brief overview of several notable hominin fossil finds relating to human evolution beginning with the formation of the Hominini tribe in the late Miocene. Deprecated classifications may be found on the fossils page, most of the fossils shown are not considered direct ancestors to Homo sapiens but are closely related to direct ancestors and are therefore important to the study of the lineage. Westview Press, Boulder CO. ISBN 978-0-8133-3482-0, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Larsen, Clark Spencer, Robert M, Daniel L. CS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Smithsonian Human Origins Program, schultz, J. Phenetic Affinities Among Early Homo Crania from East and South Africa
The Seward Peninsula is a large peninsula on the western coast of the U. S. state of Alaska. It projects about 320 kilometers into the Bering Sea between Norton Sound, the Bering Strait, the Chukchi Sea, and Kotzebue Sound, just below the Arctic Circle, the entire peninsula is about 330 kilometers long and 145 km -225 km wide. Like Seward, Alaska, it was named after William H. Seward, the Seward Peninsula is a remnant of the Bering land bridge, a roughly thousand mile wide swath of land connecting Siberia with mainland Alaska during the Pleistocene Ice Age. This land bridge aided in the migration of humans, as well as plant, archeological discoveries throughout the Chukotka Peninsula and Seward Peninsula show proof that Inupiat people have been living in the region for thousands of years. Most of the peninsula is in the Nome Census Area, while still frequented by locals of neighboring communities, there are no longer year round residents in these locations. There is a United States Coast Guard LORAN station at Port Clarence, the U. S.
Air Force operates a radar station at the Tin City site,7 miles southeast of Wales. The Seward Peninsula has several distinct geologic features, the Devil Mountain Lakes on the northern portion of the peninsula are the largest maar lakes in the world. They were formed over 21,000 years ago as the result of a steam explosion. The Killeak Lakes and White Fish Lake are volcanic maar lakes of notable size on the northern Seward Peninsula, four mountain ranges line the southern side of the peninsula, the most prominent being the Kigluaik Mountains. The highest point in the range and the peninsula is the peak of 4, other mountain ranges on the Seward Peninsula include the Bendeleben Mountains, Darby Mountains, and York Mountains. The Lost Jim Lava Flow north of Kuzitrin Lake is a field formed roughly 1,000 to 2,000 years ago. Several geothermal hot springs are located throughout the peninsula, including Serpentine Hot Springs, Pilgrim Hot Springs, Granite Mountain, Clear Creek, the Seward Peninsula has several rivers.
The largest include the Koyuk, Niukluk, Tubuktilik, Kiwalik and these play a vital role in the subsistence lifestyles of many peninsula residents and ease travel and fishing. Most peninsula rivers have at least a yearly run of several varieties of salmon, as well as Dolly Varden, Arctic Grayling, whitefish of various species, Northern Pike. Most rivers on the Seward Peninsula freeze in mid-October, spring break-up usually occurs in mid- to late May, the Seward Peninsula is the western-most limit of distribution for the Black spruce, Picea mariana, a dominant overstory species of the region. Alaskas reindeer herding was concentrated on Seward Peninsula ever since the first shipment of reindeer were imported there from eastern Siberia in 1892, however, in 1997 the domesticated reindeer joined the Western Arctic Caribou Herd on their summer migration and disappeared. Cape Prince of Wales, the westernmost point on the mainland of the Americas, is on the western tip, the cape is only 51 miles from Cape Dezhnev, the closest point on the Russian mainland.
In August 2011 Russia announced a project to construct a rail tunnel under the Bering Strait
Cave paintings are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, to some 40,000 years ago in Eurasia. The exact purpose of the Paleolithic cave paintings is not known, evidence suggests that they were not merely decorations of living areas since the caves in which they have been found do not have signs of ongoing habitation. They are located in areas of caves that are not easily accessible. Some theories hold that cave paintings may have been a way of communicating with others, the paintings are remarkably similar around the world, with animals being common subjects that give the most impressive images. Humans mainly appear as images of hands, mostly hand stencils made by blowing pigment on a hand held to the wall. The earliest known cave paintings/drawings of animals are at least 35,000 years old and are found in Pettakere cave on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia, previously it was believed that the earliest paintings were in Europe. The earliest non-figurative rock art dates back to approximately 40,000 years ago, nearly 340 caves have now been discovered in France and Spain that contain art from prehistoric times.
But subsequent technology has made it possible to date the paintings by sampling the pigment itself, the choice of subject matter can indicate chronology. For instance, the reindeer depicted in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas places the drawings in the last Ice Age. The oldest date given to a cave painting is now a pig that has a minimum age of 35,400 years old at Pettakere cave in Sulawesi. Indonesian and Australian scientists have dated other non-figurative paintings on the walls to be approximately 40,000 years old, the method they used to confirm this was dating the age of the stalactites that formed over the top of the paintings. The art is similar in style and method to that of the Indonesian caves as there were hand stencils and this date coincides with the earliest known evidence for Homo sapiens in Europe. Because of the cave arts age, some scientists have conjectured that the paintings may have made by Neanderthals. The earliest known European figurative cave paintings are those of Chauvet Cave in France and these paintings date to earlier than 30,000 BCE according to radiocarbon dating.
Some researchers believe the drawings are too advanced for this era, the radiocarbon dates from these samples show that there were two periods of creation in Chauvet,35,000 years ago and 30,000 years ago. In 2009, cavers discovered drawings in Coliboaia Cave in Romania, an initial dating puts the age of an image in the same range as Chauvet, about 32,000 years old. Some caves probably continued to be painted over a period of thousands of years. This was created roughly between 10,000 and 5,500 years ago, and painted in rock shelters under cliffs or shallow caves, though individual figures are less naturalistic, they are grouped in coherent grouped compositions to a much greater degree
Kozarnika or Peshtera Kozarnika is a cave in northwestern Bulgaria that was used as a hunters’ shelter as early as the Lower Paleolithic. It marks an older route of human migration from Africa to Europe via the Balkans. The cave probably keeps the earliest evidence of symbolic behaviour. Kozarnika cave is located 6 km from the town of Belogradchik in northwestern Bulgaria, on the slopes of the Balkan Mountains. It is opened to the south, at 85 m above the valley, with its length of 210 m, the cave is among the small-sized in the Belogradchick karst region. The Kozarnika cave project started in 1984, since 1996, it has been headed by Dr. Prof. Nikolay Sirakov and Dr. Jean-Luc Guadelli. In the ground layers, dated to 1. 6–1, the findings from Middle Paleolithic layers, rather bifacial points, dating from 300, 000–50,000 BP prove presence of hunters’ groups possibly of Homo neanderthalensis. Upper Paleolithic layers consist flint assemblages from the earliest European Gravette complex dating from 43,000 up to 39,000 BP belonging to Homo sapiens sapiens, magura Cave Bacho Kiro cave Sićevo Gorge Peștera cu Oase Vértesszőlős Proto-Indo-Europeans Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption Rincon, Paul
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve
The Bering Land Bridge National Preserve is one of the most remote United States national park areas, located on the Seward Peninsula. The National Preserve protects a remnant of the Bering Land Bridge that connected Asia with North America more than 13,000 years ago during the Pleistocene ice age, the majority of this land bridge now lies beneath the waters of the Chukchi and Bering Seas. During the glacial epoch this bridge was a route for people, animals. Archeologists disagree whether it was across this Bering Land Bridge, called Beringia, Bering Land Bridge National Monument was established in 1978 by Presidential proclamation under the authority of the Antiquities Act. The preserve includes significant archaeological sites and a variety of geological features, the preserve has seen recent volcanic activity, with lava flows and lake-filled maars. Hot springs are a destination for tourists. The preserve lies on the side of the Seward Peninsula. The preserve extends along the coast from a point to the west of Deering along Goodhope Bay to Cape Espenberg, the boundary moves inland to avoid the village of Shishmaref and the Shishmaref Inlet, rejoins the coast to include Ikpek Lagoon.
A narrow corridor connects the Ikpek Lagoon section to the main preserve, the interior portions extend to and across the Continental Divide as far as the Bendeleben Mountains. The region around the continental divide includes volcanic areas such as Serpentine Hot Springs, the preserves high point is Mount Boyan on the south border. There are no roads into the preserve, access to the preserve is by bush planes or boats during summer months and by ski planes, snowmobiles or dog sleds during the winter. Bering Land Bridge National Preserve contains several sites of geological and prehistorical significance, Serpentine Hot Springs is the preserves most visited location. Other notable locations in the include the Trail Creek Caves, Devil Mountain Lakes. The Seward Peninsula is a remnant of the Beringia subcontinent that linked Alaska, the region was mostly untouched by glaciers during the ice age. The Seward Peninsula is primarily composed of metamorphic blueschist, with deposits of sand, silt, the area around Cape Espenberg includes a series of relict beach ridges like those found farther north at Cape Krusenstern.
These deposits are mainly in the coastal plain, where they form a system of lagoons. The rolling uplands lie inland and to the south of the coastal plain, the Serpentine Hot Springs and Trail Creek Caves are in this region of limestone and other minerals. Volcanic activity in the interior has left areas of basalt on the Imuruk lava plateau, the volcanic activity has been recent — the Lost Jim lava flow is estimated to be only 1,000 to 2,000 years old, produced from around 75 vents
Northwest Arctic Borough, Alaska
Northwest Arctic Borough is a borough located in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,523, the borough was formed on June 2,1986. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the borough has an area of 40,749 square miles. By land area, it is bigger than the state of Indiana. Its coastline is limited by the Chukchi Sea, the Kotzebue Sound, a significant wildlife area, is a prominent water body within the Northwest Arctic Borough. At Kotzebue Sound was recorded the largest polar bear sighted in history, the population density was 0.18 per square mile. There were 2,540 housing units at a density of 0 per square mile. 0. 79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,40. 00% reported speaking Inupik or Eskimo at home. 16. 60% of all households were made up of individuals and 2. 10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 3.87 and the average family size was 4.36. Age distribution was 41. 50% under the age of 18,10. 00% from 18 to 24,28. 10% from 25 to 44,15. 50% from 45 to 64, the median age was 24 years.
For every 100 females there were 114.50 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.70 males. Hosted by the Alaska State Publications Program, subsistence wildlife harvests in five northwest Alaska communities, 2001-2003, results of a household survey / by Kawerak, Inc. Maniilaq Association, and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, hosted by Alaska State Publications Program
The Areni-1 cave complex is located near the Areni village in southern Armenia along the Arpa River. In 2010, it was announced that the earliest known shoe was found at the site, in January 2011, the earliest known winery in the world was announced to have been found. Also in 2011, the discovery of a straw skirt dating to 3900 BC was reported, in 2009, the oldest brain was discovered
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, in short, often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city, in the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland is a larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold. The southern tip of the country has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography and Herzegovina is a region that traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and socially, the country has a rich history, the Ottomans brought Islam to the region, and altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country. This was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I.
In the interwar period, Bosnia was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the country proclaimed independence in 1992, which was followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. The country is home to three ethnic groups or, constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second and Croats third, a native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. The terms Herzegovinian and Bosnian are maintained as a rather than ethnic distinction. Moreover, the country was simply called Bosnia until the Austro-Hungarian occupation at the end of the 19th century and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is itself complex and consists of 10 cantons, the country has been a member of the Council of Europe since April 2002 and a founding member of the Mediterranean Union upon its establishment in July 2008.
The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could be derived from Illyrian Bass-an-as which would be a diversion of the Proto-Indo-European root bos or bogh, meaning the running water. According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna, the name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stephen Vukčić Kosačas title, Herceg of Hum and the Coast. Hum, formerly Zahumlje, was a medieval principality that was conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century. Bosnia is located in the western Balkans, bordering Croatia to the north and west, Serbia to the east and it has a coastline about 20 kilometres long surrounding the city of Neum. It lies between latitudes 42° and 46° N, and longitudes 15° and 20° E, the countrys name comes from the two regions Bosnia and Herzegovina, which have a very vaguely defined border between them
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks