A bicycle trainer is a piece of equipment that makes it possible to ride a bicycle while it remains stationary. They are used to warm up before races, or when riding conditions outside are not favorable. A trainer consists of a frame, a clamp to hold the bicycle securely, a roller that presses up against the rear wheel, a mechanism that provides resistance when the pedals are turned. In a wind trainer, the roller drives fan blades; these are the least expensive and noisiest trainers. Magnetic trainers have a conducting flywheel operating as an eddy current brake, they are moderately noisy. Some magnetic trainers have handlebar-mounted control boxes to change the level of resistance during a training session. Fluid trainers use liquid-filled chambers to create resistance, they are the most quietest trainers. A small number of trainers use a centrifugal pressure mechanism to create resistance, involving pressure plates, ball bearings and specially shaped grooves; these are similar to fluid trainers in performance.
Trainers make it possible to build bicycle skills and power efficiently in a controlled environment, without the unavoidable interruptions of outdoor riding. For instance, in hill training, instead of being limited to whatever hills are around one's home, one can simulate any size and steepness. Trainers provide better preparation for racing than stationary bicycles. Trainers require better technique than stationary bicycles, they provide a more realistic-feeling ride; the geometry and resulting body position of a stationary bicycle may be different from a racing bike. Some trainers are equipped with sensors. Power output, virtual speed and heart rate are among the metrics that can be transmitted electronically. Analyzing these figures can help to fine-tune the athlete's training. Bicycle trainers are categorized by. Wind — The unit uses a fan powered by the cyclist's legpower to provide resistance on the rear tire. Pros: Resistance progresses with cyclist's speed, creating a realistic feeling of cycling on a road.
Cons: Noise, limited resistance. Magnetic — A magnetic flywheel creates resistance on the rear wheel. Pros: Nearly silent operation. Cons: Resistance has an upper limit, prone to breaking. Fluid — Combines magnetic flywheel with fluid resistance chambers. Pros: Nearly silent magnetic operation with added progressive resistance. Cons: Repeated friction heating and consequential expansion and contraction of the fluid can result in seal leaks. Centrifugal — Specially designed centrifugal pressure plates provide resistance. Pros: Nearly Silent, resistance curves may be adjusted by the user. Utilitarian — The output power is used to drive a useful device such as generator. Pros: Pedal-powered clean clothes. Cons: Considerable do-it-yourself engineering required. Virtual Reality — this is a comprehensive simulator, the rear wheel sits on a motorized roller and the front forks fit in a frame equipped with steering sensors, the whole system is linked to a computer with'virtual world' software. Riders steer their way through this virtual world and pedaling gets harder when going uphill.
The sophistication of the computer system allows it to be linked to the internet to provide additional information. Pros: Intent is to hold the bicyclist's interest and the user can fit their own bike into it. Cons: requires a computer with an advanced graphics card and a monitor. Direct Drive - trainers that act as a replacement for the rear wheel. Pros: No tire noise or wear, accurate power to within 1%, allow for virtual world and real life simulation indoor cycling. Cons: Heavy, require electricity, require rear cassette. All trainers can be adjusted for most sizes of road and mountain bikes. However, knobby tires can cause noise, defeating the purpose of noiseless units. Bicycle rollers - a similar device, but the bicycle is not held stationary Bicycle tires for indoor use Outline of cycling Spinning Peloton Zwift
The Arc Trainer is a stationary, non-impact exercise machine, is a registered trademark of Cybex International, Inc. The Arc Trainer is manufactured in Owatonna MN. First introduced in 2003, the Arc Trainer’s footplates move in an arcuate path of motion as opposed to the elliptical pattern seen in elliptical trainers; the arc pattern of motion is a patented technology, designed to generate force only when the user is in the load-bearing phase of the gait cycle. This generates forces in the legs which balance the loading between the knee joints; the result of this balanced loading design creates less stress on the knee joint and allows higher muscle training effect with lower perceived exertion. Like an elliptical trainer, the Arc Trainer is considered to be an example of a weight-bearing form of exercise, linked to prevention of osteoporosis, it is comparable to a treadmill in its ability to induce heart muscle activity, but reduces the impact shock associated with treadmill running. The Arc Trainer has a variable stride rate.
Resistance settings are proportional to body-weight such that the same amount of relative work is performed by a 110 lb female and a 250 lb male when the same resistance level is selected. There are two versions of a lower body version and a total body version; the Total Body Arc Trainer uses a same side forward pattern of motion where the arm and leg on the same side move together. This movement pattern allows the user to transfer work to their upper body without increasing the work rate of the legs. Cross-training Weight training Hendrickson,K. Porcari, J. Foster, C. Relative Exercise Intensity, Heart Rate, Oxygen Consumption, Caloric Expenditure When Exercising on Various Non-Impact Cardio Trainers
A personal trainer is an individual certified to have a varying degree of knowledge of general fitness involved in exercise prescription and instruction. They motivate clients by providing feedback and accountability to clients. Trainers measure their client's strengths and weaknesses with fitness assessments; these fitness assessments may be performed before and after an exercise program to measure their client's improvements in physical fitness. They should educate their clients in many other aspects of wellness besides exercise, including general health and nutrition guidelines, it is important that a trainer takes their time to evaluate a clients personal life outside of the gym. This way, personal trainers can figure out what kind of stress their client may be putting on certain areas of the body during their every day lives. Qualified personal trainers or certified personal trainers recognize their own areas of expertise. If a trainer suspects that one of their clients has a medical condition that could prevent the client from safe participation in an exercise program, they must refer the client to the proper health professional for prior clearance.
The scope of practice for a personal trainer is to enhance the components of fitness for the general, healthy population. Proper exercise prescription may result in improved body composition, physical performance, heart condition and health outcomes; the decision to hire a trainer may be related to a perceived ability to facilitate these factors through proper prescription and instruction or factors related to motivation and adherence. A trainer pays close attention to their client's exercise form, workout routine, nutrition plan. Personal training in men and women has been shown to exercise behavior patterns, improve perceptual benefit-to-concern ratio for exercise, increase confidence to choose exercise in the face of other time demands. Personal training results in higher strength, higher workout intensities, higher perceived exertion during exercise; the profession is not restricted by venue, personal trainers may work in fitness facilities, in their personal homes, in client homes, over live video, or outdoors.
All personal trainers and group exercise instructors work in physical fitness facilities, health clubs, fitness centers located in the amusement and recreation industry or in civic and social organizations. Personal training is not regulated in any jurisdiction in the United States except for Washington D. C. which adopted registration requirements for personal fitness trainers in February 2014. Some employers, such as gyms require personal trainers to be certified. However, this is not always the case and some personal trainers are able to find work without certification. Overall, personal trainers must possess certain skills, such as a passion for fitness and helping others achieve their goals, industry knowledge and the ability to communicate with their clients. Personal trainers may specialize in a certain training type, training philosophy, performance type, exercise modality, or client population. In general, most personal trainers develop exercise prescription plans for aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and/or flexibility training.
With aerobic exercise prescription, personal trainers determine the type of exercise, duration of exercise, frequency of exercise. For resistance exercise prescription, the type of exercise, total session volume, rest period and intensity are determined. Personal trainers may be involved in prescription of stretching routines or other approaches. Personal trainers help clients to perform exercises with correct technique, minimising the risk of injury. While some discuss nutrition, ergogenic supplementation, spiritual practices with clients, there is debate within the industry as to whether it fits within their scope of practice and training qualifications. Personal trainer accreditation is a process that provides certification of competency as a personal trainer. Qualification standards for personal trainers vary between countries. In Australia, personal trainers may work independently with suitable insurance or choose to be a member of a registering body; the qualifications levels include. These can be obtained from nationally accredited colleges.
Once working in the industry, trainers who are members of associations are required to complete short courses to obtain continuing education credit points they need to keep their registration. A minimum of 20 CEC points. Many personal trainers have additional qualifications in weight loss, strength training, kid's fitness, nutrition, in part due to the CEC program. CEC courses can cover a wide variety of topics such as different training techniques, exercise styles, health conditions, physiology and rehabilitation. In Brazil, personal trainers must have a bachelor's degree in "Physical Education" and be registered with the Conselho Federal de Educação Física, risk criminal charges if they operate without these two requirements. In Canada, the main certifying bodies are Canadian Fitness Education Services, Canadian Fitness Professionals, Certified Personal Trainers Network, Canadia
Animal training is the act of teaching animals specific responses to specific conditions or stimuli. Training may be for purposes such as companionship, detection and entertainment; the type of training an animal receives will vary depending on the training method used, the purpose for training the animal. For example, a seeing eye dog will be trained to achieve a different goal than a wild animal in a circus. In some countries animal trainer certification bodies exist, they do not share consistent requirements. The United States does not require animal trainers to have any specific certification. An animal trainer should consider the natural behaviors of the animal and aim to modify behaviors through a basic system of reward and punishment. During training, an animal trainer can administer one of four potential consequences for a given behavior: Positive reinforcement Occurs when an animal's behavior is followed by a stimulus that increases occurrences of the behavior in the future. Negative reinforcement Occurs when a behavior is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus, which causes the occurrences of the behavior to increase in the future.
Positive punishment Occurs. This causes a decrease in occurrences of behavior in the future. Negative punishment Occurs; as a result, the occurrences of the behavior decrease in the future. Behavior analysts emphasize the use of positive reinforcement for increasing desirable behaviors and negative punishment for decreasing undesirable behaviors. If punishment is going to be used to decrease an undesirable behavior, the animal must be able to receive positive reinforcement for an alternative behavior. Reinforcement should be provided according to a predetermined schedule; such a schedule of reinforcement specifies whether all responses or only some are reinforced and includes the following: Variable ratio A reinforcer delivery occurs after a set number of responses, but that number varies around an average number. Fixed ratio A specific number of responses occur before a reinforcer is delivered. Variable interval Is the first response, emitted after a set but variable amount of time has elapsed is reinforced.
Fixed interval The first response, emitted after a set time has elapsed is reinforced. While continuous reinforcement in a fixed ratio schedule may be necessary for the initial learning stages, a variable ratio schedule is the most effective at maintaining behavior over long periods of time. There are various methods animal trainers can use to prompt an animal to respond to a stimulus in a specific way. For example, shaping is a process by which successive approximations are rewarded until the desirable response topography is attained. An animal trainer can use conditioned reinforcers, like clickers, to bridge the interval between response and positive reinforcement; some stimuli, considered discriminative are signals and cues. They can be used to prompt a response from an animal, can be changed to other stimuli or faded in magnitude. In order to delay satiation, reinforcer size should be as small as possible and still be effective for reinforcement; the timing of the delivery of a reinforcer is crucial.
The interval between response and consequence must be minimal in order for the animal to associate the consequence with the response. Other important issues related to this method are: stimulus control motivating operations Desensitization chaining S-deltas discrimination generalization. Certain sub-fields of animal training tend to have certain philosophies and styles. For example, fields such as: Companion bird training Hunting bird training Companion dog training Show dog training Dressage horse training Mahout elephant training Circus elephant training Zoo elephant training Zoo exotic animal training Marine mammal trainingThe degree of trainer protection from the animal and the tasks trained may vary, they can range from entertainment, husbandry behaviors, physical labor or athleticism, habituation to averse stimuli, interaction with other humans, or research. Training may take into consideration the natural social tendencies of the animal species, such as predilections for attention span, food-motivation, dominance hierarchies, aggression, or bonding to individuals.
Consideration must be given to practical aspects on the human side such as the ratio of the number of trainers to each animal. In some circumstances one animal may have multiple trainers, in others, a trainer might attend to many animals in a training session. Sometimes training is accomplished with a single trainer working individually with a single animal. In some species, the number of trainers is irrelevant, yet it can achieve the wanted outcome. Service animals, such as assistance dogs, Capuchin monkeys and miniature horses, are trained to utilize their sensory and social skills to bond with a human and help that person to offset a disability in daily life; the use of service animals dogs, is an ever-growing field, with a wide range of special adaptations. In the United States, selected inmates in prisons are used to train service dogs. In addition to adding to the short supply of service animals, such programs have produced benefits in improved socialization skills and behavior of inmates.
Organizations such as the American Humane Association monitor the use of animals such as those used in the entertainment industry, but they do not monitor their training. The Patsy Award (Picture Animal Top
Sneakers are shoes designed for sports or other forms of physical exercise, but which are now widely used for everyday wear. The term describes a type of footwear with a flexible sole made of rubber or synthetic material and an upper part made of leather, synthetic substitutes or cloth; the shoes have gone by a variety of names, depending on geography, changing over the decades. The term "sneakers" is most used in the Northeastern United States, South Florida, North Carolina, parts of Canada and New Zealand; the British English equivalent of "sneaker" in its modern form is "trainer". In some urban areas in the United States, the slang for sneakers is kicks. Other terms include training shoes or trainers, gym boots or joggers, running shoes, runners or gutties, daps in Wales, runners in Hiberno-English, tennis shoes, gym shoes, sports shoes, takkies, rubber shoes or canvas shoes. Plimsolls are "low tech" athletic shoes, are called'sneakers' in American English; the word "sneaker" is attributed to American Henry Nelson McKinney, an advertising agent for N. W. Ayer & Son.
In 1917, he used the term. The word was in use at least as early as 1887, as The Boston Journal made reference to "sneakers" as "the name boys give to tennis shoes." The name "sneakers" referred to how quiet the rubber soles were on the ground, in contrast to noisy standard hard leather sole dress shoes. Someone wearing sneakers could "sneak up" on someone. Earlier, the name "sneaks" had been used by prison inmates to refer to warders because of the rubber-soled shoes they wore; these shoes acquired the nickname'plimsoll' in the 1870s, derived according to Nicholette Jones' book The Plimsoll Sensation, from the coloured horizontal band joining the upper to the sole, which resembled the Plimsoll line on a ship's hull. Alternatively, just like the Plimsoll line on a ship, if water got above the line of the rubber sole, the wearer would get wet. Plimsolls were worn by vacationers and began to be worn by sportsmen on the tennis and croquet courts for their comfort. Special soles with engraved patterns to increase the surface grip of the shoe were developed, these were ordered in bulk for the use of the British Army.
Athletic shoes were used for leisure and outdoor activities at the turn of the 20th century - plimsolls were found with the ill-fated Scott Antarctic expedition of 1911. Plimsolls were worn by pupils in schools' physical education lessons in the UK from the 1950s until the early 1970s. British company J. W. Foster and Sons designed and produced the first shoes designed for running in 1895; the company sold its high-quality handmade running shoes to athletes around the world receiving a contract for the manufacture of running shoes for the British team in the 1924 Summer Olympics. Harold Abrahams and Eric Liddell won the 100-m and 400-m events, kitted out with Foster's running gear; this style of footwear became prominent in America at the turn of the 20th century, where they were called'sneakers'. In 1892, the U. S. Rubber Company introduced the first rubber-soled shoes in the country, sparking a surge in demand and production; the first basketball shoes were designed by Spalding as early as 1907.
The market for sneakers grew after World War I, when sports and athletics became a way to demonstrate moral fiber and patriotism. The U. S. market for sneakers grew as young boys lined up to buy sneakers endorsed by football player Jim Thorpe and Converse All Stars endorsed by basketball player Chuck Taylor. During the interwar period, athletic shoes began to be marketed for different sports, differentiated designs were made available for men and women. Athletic shoes were used by competing athletes at the Olympics, helping to popularise athletic shoes among the general public. In 1936, a French brand, Spring Court, marketed the first canvas tennis shoe featuring signature eight ventilation channels on a vulcanised natural rubber sole. Adolf "Adi" Dassler began producing his own sports shoes in his mother's wash kitchen in Herzogenaurach, after his return from World War I, went on to establish one of the leading athletic shoe manufacturers, Adidas, he successfully marketed his shoes to athletes at the 1936 Summer Olympics, which helped cement his good reputation.
Business boomed and the Dasslers were selling 200,000 pairs of shoes each year before World War II. During the 1950s, leisure opportunities expanded, children and adolescents began to wear sneakers as school dress codes relaxed. Sneaker sales rose so high, they began to adversely affect the sales of conventional leather shoes, leading to a fierce advertising war for market share in the late'50s. In the 1970s, jogging for exercise became popular, trainers designed for comfort while jogging sold well. Companies started to target some of their products at the casual fashion market. Soon, shoes were available for football, basketball, etc. Many sports had their relevant shoe, made possible by podiatrist development of athletic shoe technology. During the 1990s, shoe companies perfected their marketing skills. Sports endorsements with famous athletes grew larger, marketing budgets went t
A facilitator is someone who engages in facilitation—any activity that makes a social process easy or easier. A facilitator helps a group of people to understand their common objectives and assists them to plan how to achieve these objectives; some facilitator tools will try to assist the group in achieving a consensus on any disagreements that preexist or emerge in the meeting so that it has a strong basis for future action. There are a variety of definitions for facilitator: "An individual who enables groups and organisations to work more effectively, he or she is a'content neutral' party who by not taking sides or expressing or advocating a point of view during the meeting, can advocate for fair and inclusive procedures to accomplish the group's work" – Doyle "One who contributes structure and process to interactions so groups are able to function and make high-quality decisions. A helper and enabler whose goal is to support others as they pursue their objectives." – Bens, p.viii. "The facilitator's job is to support everyone to do practice.
To do this, the facilitator encourages full participation, promotes mutual understanding and cultivates shared responsibility. By supporting everyone to do their best thinking, a facilitator enables group members to search for inclusive solutions and build sustainable agreements" – Kaner "A meeting or workshop leader who creates an environment where every participant has the opportunity to collaborate and excel." – Metz The concept of authority is one which can cause confusion. Heron espouses three alternates as being: Tutelary authority – based on the competences and skills of the tutor/facilitator Political authority – involving the exercise of educational decision-making with respect to the objectives, methods and assessment of learning. Charismatic authority – influence by presence and manner; however it is quite possible to draw from this the requirements for a facilitator to be clear how they are operating in any environment. Business facilitators work in business, other formal organizations but facilitators may work with a variety of other groups and communities.
It is a tenet of facilitation that the facilitator will not lead the group towards the answer that he/she thinks is best if they possess an opinion on the facilitation subject. The facilitator's role is to make it easier for the group to arrive at its own answer, decision, or deliverable; this can and does give rise to organizational conflict between hierarchical management and theories and practice of empowerment. Facilitators have to navigate between the two where overt statements about empowerment are not being borne out by organizational behaviors. Conflict resolution facilitators are used in peace and reconciliation processes both during and after the conflict, their role is to support constructive and democratic dialogue between groups with diverse and diametrically opposite positions. Conflict resolution facilitators must be impartial to the conflicting groups and must adhere to the rules of democratic dialogue, they may not express personal opinions. Their most usual role is to support groups develop shared vision for an ideal future, learn to listen to each other, understand and appreciate the feelings and positions of the'enemy'.
Educators in dialogic learning and other peer instruction approaches serve as facilitators. According to one common definition, an educational facilitator has the same level of knowledge about both education and the subject matter as a teacher, but works with the goal of having students take as much responsibility for their own learning as possible. Instructors at Shimer College, for example, are referred to as facilitators due to their role in provoking learning by facilitating a conversation among students about the text rather than instructing the students directly. In language teaching, teachers may shift to a facilitative role to increase student ownership of the learning process. Effective facilitation requires self-monitoring and careful attention to the details of interaction as well as the content of the material. Facilitators can be appointed to accommodate the engagement of participants, who in small and medium-sized groups, aim to work through a particular agenda. In order to ensure the successful working of the group, the facilitator is appointed in place of what would once have been a chairperson's role.
Along with other officers, the facilitator is appointed at the group's AGM to fill the role for the year ahead. Groups that have adopted this model include prayer groups, men's groups, writing groups and other community organisations. Training facilitators are used in adult education; these facilitators are not always subject experts, attempt to draw on the existing knowledge of the participant, to facilitate access to training where gaps in knowledge are identified and agreed on. Training facilitators focus on the foundations of adult education: establish existing knowledge, build on it and keep it relevant; the role is different from a trainer with subject expertise. Such a person will take a more leading role and take a group through an agenda designed to transmit a body of knowledge or a set of skills to be acquired. Wraparound facilitators are facilitators in the social services community, they served disabled teens who were
Coach (2018 film)
Coach is a 2018 Russian sports drama film directed by and starring Danila Kozlovsky. The film premiere is planned on the 19 April 2018, before the 2018 FIFA World Cup. Danila Kozlovsky's debut project, where, in addition to the usual main role, he took on the role of director for the first time. A football drama about the star striker of the national team, after a loud failure, leaves the big sport, but he becomes the coach of an unknown team. While teaching it the art of defeating opponents the hero himself learns to conquer his internal breakdowns; the forward of the Russian national team Yuri Stoleshnikov makes a mistake in an important match - he does not score a penalty. A scandal erupts, as a result of which Yuri finishes his playing career and leaves for a small town where he accepts the offer to start coaching at the local football club Meteor; as a trainer of Meteor, Stoleshnikov will have to start believing in himself again, rehabilitation doctor Varya will play an important role in this.
Danila Kozlovsky as Yuri Stoleshnikov, football player and coach of the team "Meteor" Olga Zueva as Varya, rehabilitologist of the Meteor Mariya Lobanova as Dasha, Varya's sister Irina Gorbacheva as Larisa "Lara" Volskaya, president of the Meteor Rostislav Bershauer as Semyon Smolin, director of the Meteor Vladimir Ilyin as Adolf Berger, football coach Andrey Smolyakov as Stoleshnikov's father Viktor Verzhbitsky as Vladimir, mayor of Novorossiysk, Larisa's father Pavel Vorozhtsov as Valdis Igor Gordin as president of FC Spartak Moscow Aleksandr Ilyin Jr. as bartender, gets fans of the Meteor Aleksandr Oblossov as Vitya, trainer Dmitriy Chebotaryov as Igor Masikov, captain of the Meteor Askar Ilyasov as Rafael Khamitzhanov Dmitri Sychev as Dodin, football player of the team "Meteor" Vitaliy Andreev as Zuev Sergey Shatalov as Melnikov Nikolay Samsonov as Varennikov Alan Gatagov as Petrovsky Vladislav Khatazhyonkov as Zorky Denis Pirozhkov as physician of the Meteor Yevgeny Savin as Anurov, captain of the Spartak Georgy Cherdantsev as cameo Konstantin Genich as cameo This film is the directorial and screenwriting debut of Danila Kozlovsky.
Danila Kozlovsky thought that he would participate in the project only as an actor and producer. However, in the end, he became the director of the project, as well as a co-author of the script. Danila Kozlovsky played the role of a football player in the film Garpastum directed by Aleksei German Jr. Olga Zueva, who worked with Danila Kozlovsky in the film In the Hood asked for the role of Varya, but Danila felt that she did not fit in the style and image, continued to look for another performer. Meanwhile, Olga Zueva reworked the script, giving the character of her character more strength, courage and a bit of eccentricity; the director positively approved the actress for the role. All the workers of the set were dressed in the branded jackets of the Meteor team. If the camera captured one of them when shooting, that person fit into the frame as an employee of the club; the project was created with the support of the Ministry of Sport of the Russian Federation, the Russian Football Union and Vitaly Mutko.
The film received financial support from the Cinema Foundation of Russia. About three thousand professional football players auditioned for a role in the picture, from whom the creators of the project selected about 200 people. Among them were Alan Gatagov and Dmitri Sychev. For two months, the team, assembled from athletes and professional actors, lived on a tough athletic regimen. Kozlovsky trained with them too; the filming process continued in 2017. The training base of FC "Meteor" was shot at the Central Stadium of Novorossiysk - the home arena of FC Chernomorets. In total, six football stadiums were used in the film, including "Otkritie Arena", "Arena Khimki" and "Krasnodar Stadium". According to the calculations of the magazine "StarHit", the cost of the crowd scenes amounted to about 5 million rubles; the production budget of the film is 390 million the projected gross - 680 million rubles. Legend № 17 Going Vertical Coach on IMDb