A mare is an adult female horse or other equine. In most cases, a mare is a female horse over the age of three, a filly is a female horse three and younger. In Thoroughbred horse racing, a mare is defined as a female horse more than four years old; the word can be used for other female equine animals mules and zebras, but a female donkey is called a "jenny". A broodmare is a mare used for breeding. A horse's female parent is known as its dam. An uncastrated adult male horse is called a castrated male is a gelding; the term "horse" is used to designate only a male horse. Mares carry their young for 11 months from conception to birth. Just one young is born; when a domesticated mare foals, she nurses the foal for at least four to six months before it is weaned, though mares in the wild may allow a foal to nurse for up to a year. The estrous cycle known as "season" or "heat" of a mare occurs every 19–22 days and occurs from early spring into autumn; as the days shorten, most mares enter an anestrus period during the winter and thus do not cycle in this period.
The reproductive cycle in a mare is controlled by the photoperiod, the cycle first triggered when the days begin to lengthen. As the days shorten, the mare returns to the anestrus period. Anestrus prevents the mare from conceiving in the winter months, as that would result in her foaling during the harshest part of the year, a time when it would be most difficult for the foal to survive. However, for most competitive purposes, foals are given an official "birthday" of January 1, many breeders want foals to be born as early in the year as possible. Therefore, many breeding farms begin to put mares "under lights" in late winter in order to bring them out of anestrus early and allow conception to occur in February or March. One exception to this general rule is the field of endurance riding, which requires horses to be 60 true calendar months old before competing at longer distances. Fillies are sexually mature by age two and are sometimes bred at that age, but should not be bred until they themselves have stopped growing by age four or five.
A healthy, well-managed mare can produce a foal every year into her twenties, though not all breeders will breed a mare every year. In addition, many mares are kept for riding and so are not bred annually, as a mare in late pregnancy or nursing a foal is not able to perform at as athletic a standard as one, neither pregnant nor lactating. In addition, some mares become anxious when separated from their foals temporarily, thus are difficult to manage under saddle until their foals are weaned. Mares are considered easier to handle than stallions. However, geldings have little to no hormone-driven behavior patterns at all, thus sometimes they are preferred to both mares and stallions. Mares have a notorious, if undeserved, reputation for being "marish," meaning that they can be cranky or unwilling when they come into season. While a few mares may be somewhat more distractible or irritable when in heat, they are far less distracted than a stallion at any time. Solid training minimizes hormonal behavior.
For competitive purposes, mares are sometimes placed on hormone therapies, such as the drug Regumate, to help control hormonally based behavior. Some riders use various herbal remedies, most of which have not been extensively tested for effectiveness. In relation to maternal behaviour, the formation of the bond between a mare and her foal "occurs during the first few hours post-partum, but that of the foal to the mare takes place over a period of days". Mares and geldings can be pastured together. However, mares may be a bit more territorial than geldings though they are far less territorial than stallions. Sex-segregating herds may make for less infighting if kept in close quarters. However, studies have shown that when a "lead mare" or "boss mare" is in charge of a herd, all remaining animals rest for longer periods and seem more at ease than do those in herds led by a gelding. In wild herds, a "boss mare" or "lead mare" leads the band to grazing, to water, away from danger, she drinks first, decides when the herd will move and to where.
The herd stallion brings up the rear and acts as a defender of the herd against predators and other stallions. Mares are used in every equestrian sport and compete with stallions and geldings in most events, though some competitions may offer classes open only to one sex of horse or another in breeding or "in-hand" conformation classes. In horse racing and fillies have their own races and only a small percentage compete against male horses. However, a few fillies and mares have won classic horse races against colts, including the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, the Belmont Stakes, the Melbourne Cup and the Breeders' Cup Classic. Mares are used as dairy animals in some cultures by the nomads and nomadic peoples of Central Asia. Fermented mare's milk, known as kumis, is the national drink of Kyrgyzstan; some mares of draft horse breeding, are kept in North America for the production of their urine. Pregnant mares' urine is the source of the active ingredient in the hormonal drug Premarin.
Until the invention of castration and later where there was less cultural acceptance of the practice, mares were less difficult to manage than stallions and thus preferred for most ordinary work. The Bedouin nomads of the Arabian peninsula preferred mares on their raids, because stallions would nic
Alycidon was a British Thoroughbred racehorse, described as "one of the greatest stayers in history". In a career which lasted from the autumn of 1947 until September 1949 he ran seventeen times and won eleven races, he was the second best British three-year-old of his generation, when he finished second to Black Tarquin in the St. Leger Stakes, he was undefeated in his remaining seven races, defeating Black Tarquin in the 1949 Ascot Gold Cup and going on to win the Stayers' Triple Crown. After his retirement from racing he became the Leading sire in Great Britain & Ireland in 1955, despite having low fertility and a short career at stud. Alycidon was a chesnut horse bred by his owner the 17th Earl of Derby, he was sired by the outstanding racehorse and useful sire, Donatello II out of the 1,000 Guineas runner-up Aurora, a daughter of Hyperion. In addition to Alycidon, Aurora produced Acropolis who ran third in The Derby, Agricola and others, her other descendants include the Epsom Derby winner Larkspur and the Belmont Stakes winner Celtic Ash.
Alycidon was inbred in the fourth generations to Swynford. The colt was sent into training with Walter Earl at Lord Derby's private Stanley House stable. Earl's stable jockey was Doug Smith, but Smith suffered from ill health and was not always available to ride Alycidon. Earl was in failing health and died in 1950. Alycidon was slow to mature and was not hurried by Earl, he made only two appearances. Lord Derby died in February 1948 and the ownership of Alycidon passed to his grandson Edward Stanley, 18th Earl of Derby; as the family was in mourning, Alycidon was registered as being owned by Brigadier Fairfax-Ross for the early part of the season. On Alycidon's three-year-old debut he was ridden by Eph Smith in the Christopher Wren takes at Hurst Park Racecourse; the colt took no part in the race. After this display, Alycidon always raced in blinkers, although there appeared to be nothing irresolute about his racing. Two weeks after his "run" at Hurst Park, Alycidon recorded his first victory in the one mile Classic Trial Stakes at Thirsk Racecourse in which he was ridden by a stable lad named Shaw.
In May he finished third in the Chester Vase and won the Royal Standard Stakes at Manchester Racecourse. Alycidon was regarded as a potential Derby contender, but as Lord Derby had two other colts in the race he was re-routed to Royal Ascot for the King Edward VII Stakes, he finished third to Vic Day, being unsuited by the tactics employed by his jockey T. Lowrey, who restrained the colt before attempting to produce him with a late burst of speed. More positive tactics were used in the Princess of Wales's Stakes at Newmarket in July and he won decsively from the 1947 St. Leger winner Sayajirao. In July he won the St George Stakes at Liverpool over thirteen furlongs, partnered for the first time by Doug Smith who rode him in all his remaining race. In the St. Leger on 11 September, Alycidon started at odds of 20/1 in a field of fourteen runners in front of a crowd estimated at 500,000 which included the King and Queen. Smith attempted to make all the running on Alycidon, but was caught inside the final quarter mile and beaten one and a half lengths by the American-bred Black Tarquin.
Following his St Leger run, Alycidon returned to action at Newmarket where he won the Jockey Club Cup. On his final race of the year he was sent to Ascot for the two-mile King George VI Stakes, an important international event which attracted three French challengers. Alycidon tracked his pacemaker Benny Lynch, before taking the lead half a mile from the finish and drawing clear to win by five lengths; as a four-year-old Alycidon was aimed at the Ascot Gold Cup, in which he was scheduled for a anticipated rematch with Black Tarquin. On his debut he won the Ormonde Stakes by a length from Benny Lynch and was more impressive when winning the Corporation Stakes at Doncaster by twelve lengths. Black Tarquin won his prep races and was made 10/11 favourite for the Gold Cup ahead of Alycidon on 5/4. Alycidon was assisted by two pacemakers to ensure a true test of stamina and took the lead five furlongs from the finish. In the straight, Black Tarquin moved up to challenge and drew level a furlong from the finish, but Alycidon pulled away again in the closing stages to win by five lengths.
His victory was notable as it came after a period in which the race had been dominated by foreign-bred horses. In July he appeared to be unsuited by the firm ground, but still won the Goodwood Cup by two lengths from Riding Mill, he completed his career with an eight length success in the Doncaster Cup in September. By winning the Ascot and Doncaster Cups he completed the Stayers' Triple Crown, a feat that had not been achieved by any horse since Isonomy in 1879 and was not repeated until Le Moss won all three races in 1980. Alycidon retired with a tally of 11 wins worth £37,206 in prize money. Alycidon was retired to stud in 1950 after being syndicated with a value of £120,000, his progeny enabled him to be top stallion in 1955 and he was placed in the top five on the sires list on five other occasions. He sired 19 stakeswinners for 34 stakeswins including the fine stayer Grey of Falloden and other high-class fillies such as The Oaks winners Homeward Bound and Meld.
Middleton known as Chestnut Middleton, was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. His racing career consisted of a single race: a win in the 1825 Epsom Derby. Training problems prevented him from racing again, he was retired undefeated to stud, he was exported to Russia in 1833. Middleton was a big built chestnut horse with a white blaze bred by his owner George Child Villiers, 5th Earl of Jersey at his stud at Middleton Stoney in Oxfordshire, his sire, Phantom went on to be Champion sire on two occasions. Middleton’s dam, was a half-sister of the Derby winner Whisker and became an successful broodmare, her descendents including the Classic winners Glencoe, Charlotte West and Riddlesworth. Middleton did not run as a two-year-old. In early 1825, however, he performed well in private trial races. Despite never having raced in public, he became the leading fancy for The Derby and was the subject of much heavy betting for the race, with Lord Jersey and the Duke of Wellington among the biggest gamblers.
On the morning of the race, Middleton was the target of a plan by bookmakers to prevent him winning the race. A stable lad was bribed to allow the colt to drink several buckets of water. Edwards responded by giving Middleton a four-mile exercise walk after which he professed himself satisfied with the colt's condition. Middleton started at odds of 7/4 against seventeen opponents and won cleverly, from Rufus, with Hogarth third. Both Jersey and Wellington claimed over £1,000 in winning bets. In autumn, Middleton was entered in several match races but did not run after either he or his opponent was withdrawn. Middleton began to suffer from Navicular Disease, it proved impossible to run him again, he was retired to stud with an unbeaten record. Middleton stood as a stallion at the Horse Bazaar, Portman Square, where he had little success. In 1833, he was sold and exported to Russia
Glencoe was a British bred Thoroughbred racehorse, who won the 2,000 Guineas Stakes and the Ascot Gold Cup. He was one of the earliest Thoroughbred stallions imported into the United States and was a top broodmare sire there. Several outstanding sons of Lexington were out of Glencoe mares, including Asteroid and Norfolk, he was a chestnut stallion, foaled at his breeder's stud, located in Middleton Stoney, Oxfordshire. Glencoe was by a versatile stallion who won races from six furlongs to over three miles. Sultan raced until the age of eight, was leading sire in Great Britain for six consecutive years; the dam of Glencoe Trampoline, was a good racemare, an better producer of racehorses, foaling not only Glencoe, but Glenara and Glencaire. Glencoe stood 15 hands 1 3/4 inches high, with half-stockinged hind legs, he had a long, hollow back that sagged as he aged, but still had a fine head, lovely neck, sound legs, deep girth, powerful hindquarters with wide hips, inherited from his sire. Glencoe inherited great staying power from his grandsire, Tramp.
Glencoe was started by trainer James Edwards. Edwards is still the only trainer to have won four successive 2,000 Guineas, all four horses sired by Sultan, bred by the Earl of Jersey. Glencoe, the trainer's favourite horse, was the first of these four winners. Glencoe first ran at the 1834 Second Riddlesworth Stakes, winning a £1,400 purse and finishing in a canter. Two days at the same Newmarket meeting, however, he ran against the regarded Plenipotentiary in a £100 Sweepstakes and was beaten, he won the Desert Stakes in a canter, before winning the 2,000 Guineas Stakes, for a purse of 1,750 sovereigns. Glencoe's second loss in a stakes race was the Derby Stakes, to Shillelah, he had a walk-over in the Royal Stakes, won the rest of his races that season: the Goodwood Cup, by four lengths at the canter and beating Colwick, the Racing Stakes, against three others, the Garden Stakes, by four lengths and defeating Colwick. After his three-year-old season, the London Sporting Magazine wrote: "...from his late performances he has shown himself the best horse in the world.
Where is there one to be found to meet him at weight for age? Not in England, assuredly."As a four-year-old, Glencoe won his only race of the season, the 2½ mile Ascot Gold Cup. He was entered in The Whip, a four-mile challenge race, during his second season, but there were no responses to the challenge. Glencoe was retired, with this record: 1834: 9 starts, with 7 wins, 1 place, 1 third 1835: 1 start with 1 win Glencoe stayed in Britain for a short time after his retirement, standing at Tattersall's Dawley Wall Farm in Middlesex for his first stud season, he covered forty outside mares for a fee of $80, producing 30 foals. One of these mares, had raced against Glencoe earlier in his career, she produced his daughter, the great filly Pocahontas. Pocahontas is said to be the greatest broodmare in the history of racing, producing three outstanding sons—Stockwell and King Tom. During his first year, Glencoe sired Darkness, an Ascot Stakes winner, the third dam of the French sire, Plutus. Bought by American, James Jackson, Glencoe was shipped to the United States at the end of the 1836 breeding season, arriving in New York before being sent south.
James Jackson was an Irish-American emigrant who had built up a business in Nashville and started the farm Forks of Cypress in northern Alabama. Glencoe was one of the first Thoroughbreds to be imported into the United States, had an incredible effect on the Thoroughbred bloodlines of the country, siring a calculated 481 foals during his twenty-two years at standing at stud in Alabama and Kentucky, it is not known what happened to the last of his foals, which were born during the first years of the American Civil War, it is thought that the births of many foals were not recorded. Many of these fine horses were drafted on both sides. Glencoe was bred in 1836 to two mares, he continued to stand in Alabama with a stud fee of $100, siring 132 offspring. After Jackson's death in 1840, Glencoe was sent to stand in Nashville, for a fee of $50, he was sold in 1848, at the age of seventeen, to W. F. Harper of Midway, for the price of $3,000. Harper sent the horse to his Nantura Stud in 1855, raised the stallion's stud fee to $100, where the chestnut produced 21 live foals from his 1855 covers, 15 from his 1856 covers.
Glencoe was sold again in 1857, at the age of twenty six, to Alexander Keene Richards, owner of Blue Grass Park in Georgetown, Kentucky. Glencoe died in August, "...from a violent attack of lung fever." The British press reported: "With all his ancient pluck, he stood up bravely against spasmodic colic and lung-fever, for ten days, died quite exhausted, from bleeding at the nose." He was buried on Richard's Farm. During his time in the United States, Glencoe was leading sire eight times in the 1850s. Most of his offspring raced in four mile races, he sired more than twice the number of fillies to colts while he stood in America, producing at least 317 fillies, his female offspring were superior to his male in both racing and breeding. Glencoe is therefore most known as a broodmare sire, producing not only the great Pocahontas, but Reel, one of the most influential broodmares in American racing history. Charmer: 1844 filly, was successful as a four-year-old, ran until the age of ten, winning twenty seven races in forty starts.
She was not defeated in any race over three-miles. She produced five foals
Sultan was a British-bred Thoroughbred racehorse and a leading sire in Great Britain and Ireland for six successive seasons. He was by Selim, out of Bacchante by Williamson's Ditto. Sultan was inbred to three great sires, Eclipse, to Herod's best son, Highflyer. Sultan was a bay with a blaze, a sock on off fore and near hind, stocking near fore and off hind leg, he had a refined, beautiful head, well-sprung ribs, deep girth, muscular, powerful hindquarters. Although he was a long horse he was a good sound, racing until the age of eight. Sultan had a good race record; as a two-year-old, racing for Crockford, he placed third in the July Stakes, second in the Derby Stakes, losing to Tiresias. He was one of the favorites in the St. Leger Stakes, but broke down in his morning gallop before the race; as a four-year-old, he placed second in the Port Stakes. When five, he won the Gold Cup at Newmarket Racecourse, he beat Gustavus in a match race as a six-year-old. When he was seven, Sultan was purchased by Lord Exeter.
Racing for him, the stallion won the Trial Stakes for a second time, another race at Newmarket, his preferred venue for running. Sultan was retired to the Marquis' stud farm at Burghley, he went on to be the leading sire in Great Britain & Ireland for six consecutive years, producing classic winners, five of them 2,000 Guineas winners: Bay Middleton, Green Mantle, Augustus, Ibrahim and Glencoe. Sultan, a tail-male descendant of Herod, maintained the Byerley Turk sire line through to Djebel and to the present
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Oaks Stakes is a Group 1 flat horse race in Great Britain open to three-year-old fillies. It is run at Epsom Downs over a distance of 1 mile, 4 furlongs and 6 yards, it is scheduled to take place each year in early June, it is the second-oldest of the five Classic races, after the St Leger. The Investec Oaks, it is popularly known as The Oaks, it is the third of Britain's five Classic races to be held during the season, the second of two restricted to fillies. It can serve as the middle leg of the Fillies' Triple Crown, preceded by the 1000 Guineas and followed by the St Leger, although the feat of winning all three is attempted; the event is named after The Oaks, an estate located to the east of Epsom, leased to the 12th Earl of Derby in the 18th century. He and his guests devised the race during a party at the estate in 1778, it was first run in one year before the introduction of the Derby Stakes. The inaugural winner, was owned by Lord Derby himself; the Oaks subsequently became one of Britain's leading events for three-year-olds.
By the mid-1860s, the five leading events for this age group were referred to as "Classics". The concept was adopted in many other countries. European variations of the Oaks include the Irish Oaks, the Preis der Diana, the Prix de Diane and the Oaks d'Italia. Other national equivalents include the New Zealand Oaks and the Yushun Himba. Since 1892, horses have each carried 9 stone in the race. Prior to this, there were several fluctuations, from an original 8 stone 4 pounds, down to 8 stone progressively upwards. During both World Wars the race was run at Newmarket under the title the New Oaks Stakes; the 2014 running incorporated the name of Sir Henry Cecil in its title. Cecil, who died in June 2013, trained eight Oaks winners between 1985 and 2007. A The race finished as a dead-heat in 1858. B Stony Ford finished first in 1918. C Aliysa was first in 1989, but she was disqualified after testing positive for a banned substance. Horse racing in Great Britain List of British flat horse races Trial races for the Epsom Oaks Paris-Turf: "1978".
"1979". "1980". "1981". "1982". "1983". "1984". "1985". "1986". "1987". Racing Post: 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 2018 Abelson, Edward; the Breedon Book of Horse Racing Records. Breedon Books. Pp. 58–64. ISBN 1-873626-15-0. Randall, John. Horse Racing: The Records. Guinness Superlatives Ltd. pp. 43–56. ISBN 0-85112-446-1; the Epsom Oaks The Oaks Stakes. Oaks Oaks Stakes – Epsom Downs Epsom Oaks Stakes