Battle of Wood Lake
The Battle of Wood Lake was a battle in the Dakota War of 1862 in September. By that time in the Dakota War of 1862, the Sioux offensive had slowed considerably, Sibley attempted to negotiate a settlement with Chief Little Crow in early September, thinking that the Indians were growing weary of the war. Little Crow returned with an explanation of why the Indians started the war, Sibley responded by refusing to negotiate and demanding Little Crows surrender. Little Crow refused to surrender, and the conditions were set for another battle, Sibleys initial expedition from Fort Snelling, which included 1400 troops, took nearly nine days to reach Fort Ridgely. At Fort Ridgely, Sibley delayed still further, to the frustration of settlers and others who wanted swift action against the Indian uprising. Jane Grey Swisshelm, a St. Cloud newspaper editor, the delay was caused, in part, by the lack of experience of the new recruits and the shortage of supplies, such as guns and horses. These supplies finally reached Sibleys forces between September 11 and September 14, on September 19, the troops finally began their march up the Minnesota River valley.
The troops camped east of Lone Tree or Battle Lake, a lake drained by a creek running northeast to the Minnesota River, about five miles north of what is now Echo. Sibleys guide thought the lake was Wood Lake, which was three and a half miles to the west, so the battle is actually misnamed. The Third Minnesota camped along the crest south of the creek, the Seventh Minnesota was at the right rear behind the creek’s ravine. All units and the train and artillery were partially enclosed by trenches. Little Crow planned to ambush the soldiers the next morning when they were marching, strung out along the road when the troops would be in a long, poorly defended column. In the morning, a few soldiers from the Third Minnesota regiment in several wagons left camp early in search of food from the Upper Sioux Agency near present-day Rock Valle Church. Some of the wagons were not on the road, and were headed straight at some of Little Crows men as lay in the grass thus compelling them to rise up. This brought on the fight, and veteran troops from the Third Regiment recently returned from fighting Confederates in the south, ran to assist their comrades and they advanced about a half mile from the camp until both flanks were threatened.
Sibley ordered Lt. Colonel William R. Marshall with six companies, on the left end of the line, Major Robert N. McLaren led his men around the lake to defeat an attempted flanking attack. The battle lasted two hours, during which Chief Mankato was killed by a cannonball. The battle was a victory for the United States, with heavy casualties inflicted on the Sioux
The Union blockade in the American Civil War was a naval strategy by the United States to prevent the Confederacy from trading. Those blockade runners fast enough to evade the Union Navy could only carry a fraction of the supplies needed. They were operated largely by British citizens, making use of ports such as Havana, Nassau. The Union commissioned around 500 ships, which destroyed or captured about 1,500 blockade runners over the course of the war, for this purpose a competent force will be posted so as to prevent entrance and exit of vessels from the ports aforesaid. In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, done at the City of Washington, this nineteenth day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, and of the Independence of the United States the eighty-fifth. The British proclamation formally gave Britain the diplomatic right to discuss openly which side, if any, to support. A joint Union military-navy commission, known as the Blockade Strategy Board, was formed to make plans for seizing major Southern ports to utilize as Union bases of operations to expand the blockade.
It first met in June 1861 in Washington, D. C. under the leadership of Captain Samuel F, in the initial phase of the blockade, Union forces concentrated on the Atlantic Coast. The November 1861 capture of Port Royal in South Carolina provided the Federals with an ocean port and repair. It became a base of operations for further expansion of the blockade along the Atlantic coastline. Apalachicola, received Confederate goods traveling down the Chattahoochee River from Columbus, another early prize was Ship Island, which gave the Navy a base from which to patrol the entrances to both the Mississippi River and Mobile Bay. The Navy gradually extended its reach throughout the Gulf of Mexico to the Texas coastline, including Galveston, with 3,500 miles of Confederate coastline and 180 possible ports of entry to patrol, the blockade would be the largest such effort ever attempted. The United States Navy had 42 ships in service, and another 48 laid up. At the time of the declaration of the blockade, the Union only had three ships suitable for blockade duty, the Navy Department, under the leadership of Navy Secretary Gideon Welles, quickly moved to expand the fleet.
In 1861, nearly 80 steamers and 60 sailing ships were added to the fleet, some 52 more warships were under construction by the end of the year. By November 1862, there were 282 steamers and 102 sailing ships, by the end of the war, the Union Navy had grown to a size of 671 ships, making it the largest navy in the world. By the end of 1861, the Navy had grown to 24,000 officers and enlisted men, four squadrons of ships were deployed, two in the Atlantic and two in the Gulf of Mexico. Blockade service was attractive to Federal seamen and landsmen alike, Blockade station service was considered the most boring job in the war but the most attractive in terms of potential financial gain
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Samuel Ryan Curtis was an American military officer, and one of the first Republicans elected to Congress. Born near Champlain, New York, Curtis graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1831 and he entered the Engineer Corps and was stationed at Fort Gibson in present-day Oklahoma before resigning from the Army in 1832. He moved to Ohio, where he was a lawyer and took several civilian jobs. During the Mexican-American War, he was appointed a colonel and served as governor of several occupied cities. After the war, he moved to Iowa, and became the mayor of Keokuk in 1856, in 1856 he was elected as a Republican to represent Iowas 1st congressional district in the United States House of Representatives. Curtis and Timothy Davis were the first Iowa Republicans elected to serve in the U. S. House, Curtis was re-elected in 1858 and 1860. He was a supporter of eventual President Abraham Lincoln, and was considered for a position in the Lincoln administration. However, after the Civil War broke out, Curtis was appointed colonel of the 2nd Iowa Infantry on June 1,1861 and he was subsequently promoted to brigadier general, with the promotion backdated to May 17,1861.
After organizing the chaos in St. Louis, Curtis was given command of the Army of the Southwest on December 25,1861, by Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck. The Army originally consisted of three divisions, the 1st commanded by Brig. Gen. Franz Sigel, the 2nd by Brig. Gen. Alexander Asboth, and the 3rd by Col. Jefferson C. However, Sigel, a native German who held significant influence amongst the many German immigrants in the army, Curtis subsequently gave him overall command of the first two divisions, consisting mainly of German immigrants, while creating a 4th Division commanded by Col. Eugene A. Carr. Curtis moved his headquarters south to Rolla, Missouri, to solidify Union control in Arkansas, in March 1862, his army won the Battle of Pea Ridge in northwest Arkansas. His success made him rather than triumphant. A few days after the battle he wrote, The scene is silent, the vulture and the wolf now have the dominion and the dead friends and foes sleep in the same lonely graves. He was promoted to general for his success, effective March 21,1862.
On the same day in late March that he heard about his promotion, after Pea Ridge, Curtis small army moved east and invaded northeast Arkansas, capturing the city of Helena, Arkansas in July. In September, Curtis was given command of the District of Missouri and he was reassigned to command the Department of Kansas & Indian Territory. In October 1863, his son Major Henry Zarah Curtis, adjutant to Brig. Gen. James G. Blunt, was killed by Quantrills Raiders, in this surprise attack at the Battle of Baxter Springs, Quantrills men wore Federal uniforms and gave no quarter
Battle of Killdeer Mountain
The Battle of Killdeer Mountain took place during Brig. Gen. Alfred Sully’s expedition against the Sioux Indians in Dakota Territory July 28–29,1864. The location of the battleground is in modern Dunn County, North Dakota, with a total of more than 4,000 soldiers involved, Sully’s expedition was the largest ever carried out by the U. S. army against Indians. In the aftermath of the Dakota War of 1862, the U. S. government punished the Sioux, four whites were killed by Sioux raiders in the spring of 1864. An important impetus to another campaign against the Sioux was the desire to protect lines of communication with recently discovered goldfields in Montana. The lifeline for the American gold miners were steamboats plying the Missouri River through the heart of Sioux territory, Sully’s First Brigade, consisting of up to 1,700 men, followed the Missouri River from its starting point at Sioux City, Iowa. The Second Brigade with about 1,550 men would march overland from Fort Ridgely in Minnesota, on the march up the Missouri, the Sioux killed one soldier and wounded another.
The three Sioux perpetrators were caught and decapitated, additional soldiers and civilians with 15 steamboats chugged up the Missouri River to support the army on the ground. Sully’s two columns of soldiers united on June 29 and on July 7 he established Fort Rice on the Missouri River in North Dakota as a base, supplied by steamboat, for his military expedition. His scouts and friendly Sioux and mixed-bloods, informed him of an encampment of Sioux 130 miles northwest near the Little Missouri River. On July 19, he and his men departed Fort Rice to search for the Sioux encampment, Sully was encumbered by a wagon train of 200 miners and their families headed for the goldfields who he reluctantly agreed to protect and escort. Sully’s scouts reported 1,500 to 1,800 tipis in the Sioux encampment, Sully believed he would be faced by 5,000 to 6,000 warriors. The Sioux claimed they had 1,600 warriors in the battle – likely closer to the truth with a calculation of one to two adult males per tipi. The Sioux in the encampment consisted mostly of Lakota from the Hunkpapa, Sihasapa and Sans Arc bands plus Yanktonais, the Sioux were mostly armed only with bows and arrows and a few short-range muskets and shotguns.
Many of the Sioux, especially the Tetons, had not been hostile to the U. S. before this encounter, after leaving men at Fort Rice and to guard the emigrants, had 2,200 men for the attack. He had two batteries with eight howitzers. On July 26, Sully’s Indian scouts skirmished with 30 Sioux warriors near present-day Richardton, North Dakota, with the Sioux now aware of his presence, Sully advanced rapidly but carefully. On the morning of July 28, scout Frank LaFramboise, a mixed blood Santee, Killdeer Mountain was at the edge of the Dakota badlands, cut up by “deep, impassable ravines” and “high rugged hills. Realizing that a charge would be difficult in the broken terrain Sully dismounted his soldiers and formed them in a hollow square, one mile
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th President of the United States. As Commanding General, Grant worked closely with President Abraham Lincoln to lead the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy in the American Civil War and he implemented Congressional Reconstruction, often at odds with President Andrew Johnson. His presidency has often criticized for tolerating corruption and for the severe economic depression in his second term. Grant graduated in 1843 from the United States Military Academy at West Point, after the war he married Julia Boggs Dent in 1848, their marriage producing four children. Grant initially retired from the Army in 1854 and he struggled financially in civilian life. When the Civil War began in 1861, he rejoined the U. S. Army, in 1862, Grant took control of Kentucky and most of Tennessee, and led Union forces to victory in the Battle of Shiloh, earning a reputation as an aggressive commander. He incorporated displaced African American slaves into the Union war effort, in July 1863, after a series of coordinated battles, Grant defeated Confederate armies and seized Vicksburg, giving the Union control of the Mississippi River and dividing the Confederacy in two.
After his victories in the Chattanooga Campaign, Lincoln promoted him to lieutenant general, Grant confronted Robert E. Lee in a series of bloody battles, trapping Lees army in their defense of Richmond. Grant coordinated a series of devastating campaigns in other theaters, as well, in April 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, effectively ending the war. Historians have hailed Grants military genius, and his strategies are featured in history textbooks. After the Civil War, Grant led the armys supervision of Reconstruction in the former Confederate states and he used the army to build the Republican Party in the South. After the disenfranchisement of some former Confederates, Republicans gained majorities, in his second term, the Republican coalitions in the South splintered and were defeated one by one as redeemers regained control using coercion and violence. In May 1875, Grant authorized his Secretary of Treasury Benjamin Bristow to shut down and his peace policy with the Indians initially reduced frontier violence, but is best known for the Great Sioux War of 1876.
Grant responded to charges of corruption in executive offices more than any other 19th Century president and he appointed the first Civil Service Commission and signed legislation ending the corrupt moiety system. In foreign policy, Grant sought to trade and influence while remaining at peace with the world. His administration successfully resolved the Alabama claims by the Treaty of Washington with Great Britain, Grant avoided war with Spain over the Virginius Affair, but Congress rejected his attempted annexation of the Dominican Republic. His administration implemented a standard and sought to strengthen the dollar. Grant left office in 1877 and embarked on a two-year diplomatic world tour that captured the nations attention, in 1880, Grant was unsuccessful in obtaining the Republican presidential nomination for a third term
The Rio Grande is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico. The Rio Grande begins in south-central Colorado in the United States, along the way, it forms part of the Mexico–United States border. According to the International Boundary and Water Commission, its length was 1,896 miles in the late 1980s. Depending on how it is measured, the Rio Grande is the fourth- or fifth-longest river system in North America. The river serves as part of the border between the U. S. state of Texas and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León. A very short stretch of the river serves as part of the boundary between the U. S. states of Texas and New Mexico. Since the mid–20th century, heavy consumption of farms and cities along with many large diversion dams on the river has left only 20% of its natural discharge to flow to the Gulf. Near the rivers mouth, the heavily irrigated lower Rio Grande Valley is an important agricultural region, the Rio Grande is one of 19 Great Waters recognized by Americas Great Waters Coalition.
The Rio Grandes watershed covers 182,200 square miles, many endorheic basins are situated within, or adjacent to, the Rio Grandes basin, and these are sometimes included in the river basins total area, increasing its size to about 336,000 square miles. The Rio Grande rises in the part of the Rio Grande National Forest in the U. S. state of Colorado. The river is formed by the joining of several streams at the base of Canby Mountain in the San Juan Mountains and it continues on a southerly route through the desert cities of Albuquerque, and Las Cruces to El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. In the Albuquerque area, the river flows past a number of historic Pueblo villages, including Sandia Pueblo, below El Paso, it serves as part of the border between the United States and Mexico. The official river border measurement ranges from 889 miles to 1,248 miles, a major tributary, the Rio Conchos, enters at Ojinaga, below El Paso, and supplies most of the water in the border segment. Other well-known tributaries include the Pecos and the smaller Devils, which join the Rio Grande on the site of Amistad Dam.
Despite its name and length, the Rio Grande is not navigable by ocean-going ships, in New Mexico, the river flows through the Rio Grande rift from one sediment-filled basin to another, cutting canyons between the basins and supporting a fragile bosque ecosystem on its flood plain. From El Paso eastward, the flows through desert. Although irrigated agriculture exists throughout most of its stretch, it is extensive in the subtropical Lower Rio Grande Valley. The river ends in a small, sandy delta at the Gulf of Mexico, during portions of 2001 and 2002, the mouth of the Rio Grande was blocked by a sandbar
Lawrence is the sixth largest city in the state of Kansas and the county seat of Douglas County, Kansas. It is in northeastern Kansas next to Interstate 70, along the banks of the Kansas, as of the 2010 census, the citys population was 87,643. Lawrence is a town and the home to the University of Kansas. Lawrence was founded by the New England Emigrant Aid Company and was named for Amos Adams Lawrence who offered financial aid, Lawrence was central to the Bleeding Kansas era and was the site of the Wakarusa War, the sacking of Lawrence, and the Lawrence Massacre. Lawrence began as a center of Kansas politics, prior to Kansas Territory being opened to settlement in May 1854, most of Douglas County was part of the Shawnee Indian Reservation. The Oregon Trail followed the Kansas River through what would become Lawrence and Mount Oread was used as a landmark, dr. Charles Robinson and Charles Branscomb were sent by the New England Emigrant Aid Company to scout for a location for a city. They arrived in the vicinity of Lawrence in July 1854 and noted the beauty of the area, the original “pioneer party” left Massachusetts on July 17,1854 and consisted of 29 men.
They arrived at the site Robinson and Branscomb selected on August 1, the second party arrived in Lawrence on September 9 after leaving near the end of August. The town was officially named Lawrence City on October 6, the main street of the town was named Massachusetts to commemorate the origins of the pioneer party. The first post office in Lawrence was established in January 1855, in March 1857, the Quincy School was started in the Emigrant Aid office before moving to the basement of the Unitarian Church in April. The Plymouth Congregational Church was started in September 1854 by Reverend S. Y, lum, a missionary sent to Kansas. Shortly after Lawrence’s founding, two newspapers were started, The Kansas Pioneer and the Herald of Freedom, both touted the Free State mission which caused problems from the people of Lecompton, the pro-slavery headquarters, about ten miles northwest of Lawrence, and land squatters from Missouri. The Kansas Free State began in early January 1855, on November 21,1855, Charles Dow was shot and killed by Franklin Coleman in Hickory Point about fourteen miles south of Lawrence.
Shortly after, an army of Missourians led by Douglas County Sheriff Samuel L. Jones entered Kansas to attack Lawrence. John Brown and James Lane had hustled Lawrence citizens into an army and erected barricades, a treaty was signed and the Missouri army reluctantly left. Harassment by Sheriff Jones and other Southern sympathizers continued unabated, the Herald of Freedom, the Kansas Free State and the Free State Hotel were indicted as “nuisances. ”On April 23,1856 Sheriff Jones was shot while trying to arrest free-state settlers. On May 21, Sheriff Jones and a posse of 800 Southern sympathizers converged on Lawrence, dr. Robinson’s house on Mount Oread was taken by the federal marshal as headquarters and the newspaper printing presses were damaged and thrown in the river. The Free State Hotel was destroyed, despite the constant presence of impending war, Lawrence continued to grow
Western Theater of the American Civil War
The Western Theater served as an avenue of military operations by Union armies directly into the agricultural heartland of the South via the major rivers of the region. The Confederacy was forced to defend an area with limited resources. Union operations began with securing Kentucky in Union hands in September 1861, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Chattanooga served as the launching point for Maj. Gen. William T. The Western Theater was an area defined by geography and the sequence of campaigning. It originally represented the area east of the Mississippi River and west of the Appalachian Mountains, Operations west of the Mississippi River were in the Trans-Mississippi Theater. The West was by some measures the most important theater of the war, capture of the Mississippi River has been one of the key tenets of Union General-in-Chief Winfield Scotts Anaconda Plan. Union generals consistently outclassed most of their Confederate opponents, with the exception of cavalry commander Nathan Bedford Forrest. Lacking the proximity to the capitals and population centers of the East, the astounding Confederate victories.
McClellan, and Stonewall Jackson, the Western theater received considerably less attention than the Eastern, the near-steady progress that Union forces made in defeating Confederate armies in the West and overtaking Confederate territory went nearly unnoticed. The campaign classification established by the United States National Park Service is more fine-grained than the one used in this article, some minor NPS campaigns have been omitted and some have been combined into larger categories. Only a few of the 117 battles the NPS classifies for this theater are described, boxed text in the right margin show the NPS campaigns associated with each section. The focus early in the war was on two states and Kentucky. The loss of either would have been a blow to the Union cause. Primarily because of the successes of Captain Nathaniel Lyon and his victory at Boonville in June, the state of Kentucky, with a pro-Confederate governor and a pro-Union legislature, had declared neutrality between the opposing sides.
This neutrality was first violated on September 3, when Confederate Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk occupied Columbus, two days Union Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, displaying the personal initiative that would characterize his career, seized Paducah. On the Confederate side, General Albert Sidney Johnston commanded all forces from Arkansas to the Cumberland Gap, Johnston gained political support from secessionists in central and western counties of Kentucky via a new Confederate capital at Bowling Green, set up by the Russellville Convention. The alternative government was recognized by the Confederate government, which admitted Kentucky into the Confederacy in December 1861, using the rail system resources of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, Polk was able to quickly fortify and equip the Confederate base at Columbus. By January 1862, this disunity of command was apparent because no strategy for operations in the Western theater could be agreed upon, James A. Garfield and Mill Springs under Brig. Gen. George H.
Oklahoma is a state located in the South Central United States. Oklahoma is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the 50 United States, the states name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning red people. The name was settled upon statehood, Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged, on November 16,1907, Oklahoma became the 46th state to enter the union. Its residents are known as Oklahomans, or informally Okies, and its capital, a major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, and biotechnology. In 2007, it had one of the economies in the United States, ranking among the top states in per capita income growth. Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahomas primary economic anchors, with nearly two-thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With small mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, interior Highlands—a region especially prone to severe weather.
The name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma, literally meaning red people, equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language used to describe Native American people as a whole. Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, and it was approved in 1890. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,898 square miles and it is one of six states on the Frontier Strip and lies partly in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, much of its border with Texas lies along the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen, a failed continental rift. The geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River, the Oklahoma panhandles Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border. The Oklahoma/New Mexico border is actually 2.1 to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line, the border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd Meridian, in the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd Meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, and the actual 103rd Meridian was approximately 2.2 miles to the east and it was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error. The placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd Meridian, cimarron County in Oklahomas panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states, New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle. The states lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
Dakota War of 1862
It began on August 17,1862, along the Minnesota River in southwest Minnesota. It ended with an execution of 38 Dakota men on December 26,1862, in Mankato. Throughout the late 1850s, treaty violations by the United States and late or unfair annuity payments by Indian agents caused increasing hunger, traders with the Dakota previously had demanded that the government give the annuity payments directly to them. In mid-1862, the Dakota demanded the annuities directly from their agent, the traders refused to provide any more supplies on credit under those conditions, and negotiations reached an impasse. On August 17,1862, one young Dakota with a party of three others killed five settlers while on a hunting expedition. That night a council of Dakota decided to attack throughout the Minnesota River valley to try to drive whites out of the area. There has never been a report on the number of settlers killed, although in Abraham Lincolns second annual address, he noted that not less than 800 men, women.
Over the next months, continued battles pitting the Dakota against settlers and later. By late December 1862, soldiers had taken more than a thousand Dakota. After trials and sentencing,38 Dakota were hanged on December 26,1862, in April 1863, the rest of the Dakota were expelled from Minnesota to Nebraska and South Dakota. The United States Congress abolished their reservations. S, in exchange for promises of money and goods. From that time on, the Dakota were to live on a 20-mile wide Indian reservation centered on a 150 mile stretch of the upper Minnesota River, the United States Senate deleted Article 3 of each treaty, which set out reservations, during the ratification process. Much of the promised compensation never arrived, was lost, or was effectively stolen due to corruption in the Bureau of Indian Affairs, annuity payments guaranteed to the Dakota often were provided directly to traders instead. When Minnesota became a state on May 11,1858, representatives of several Dakota bands led by Little Crow traveled to Washington, D. C. to negotiate about enforcing existing treaties.
The northern half of the reservation along the Minnesota River was lost and this was a major blow to the standing of Little Crow in the Dakota community. The land was divided into townships and plots for settlement and agriculture on these plots eliminated surrounding forests and prairies, which interrupted the Dakotas annual cycle of farming, hunting and gathering wild rice. Hunting by settlers dramatically reduced wild game, such as bison, whitetail deer, not only did this decrease the meat available for the Dakota in southern and western Minnesota, but it directly reduced their ability to sell furs to traders for additional supplies. Although payments were guaranteed, the US government was often behind or failed to pay because of Federal preoccupation with the American Civil War, most land in the river valley was not arable, and hunting could no longer support the Dakota community
El Paso, Texas
El Paso is the seat of El Paso County, United States. The city is situated in the far corner of the U. S. state of Texas. El Paso stands on the Rio Grande river across the Mexico–United States border from Ciudad Juárez, the region of over 2.9 million people constitutes the largest bilingual and binational work force in the Western Hemisphere. The city hosts the annual Sun Bowl college football post-season game, El Paso has a strong federal and military presence. William Beaumont Army Medical Center, Biggs Army Airfield, and Fort Bliss call the city home, Fort Bliss is one of the largest military complexes of the United States Army and the largest training area in the United States. Also headquartered in El Paso are the DEA domestic field division 7, El Paso Intelligence Center, Joint Task Force North, Border Patrol El Paso Sector, and U. S. In 2010, El Paso received an All-America City Award, El Paso has been ranked the safest large city in the U. S. for four consecutive years and has ranked in the top three since 1997.
As of July 1,2015, the estimate for the city from the U. S. Census was 681,124. Its U. S. metropolitan area covers all of El Paso and Hudspeth counties in Texas, the El Paso MSA forms part of the larger El Paso–Las Cruces CSA, with a population of 1,053,267. The El Paso region has had human settlement for thousands of years, the evidence suggests 10,000 to 12,000 years of human habitation. The earliest known cultures in the region were maize farmers, when the Spanish arrived, the Manso and Jumano tribes populated the area. These were subsequently incorporated into the Mestizo culture, along with immigrants from central Mexico, captives from Comanchería, the Mescalero Apache were present. El Paso del Norte was founded on the bank of the Río Bravo del Norte. El Paso remained the largest settlement in New Mexico until its cession to the U. S. in 1848, the Texas Revolution was generally not felt in the region, as the American population was small, not being more than 10% of the population. However, the region was claimed by Texas as part of the treaty signed with Mexico, during this interregnum, 1836–1848, Americans nonetheless continued to settle the region.
The present Texas–New Mexico boundary placing El Paso on the Texas side was drawn in the Compromise of 1850, El Paso County was established in March 1850, with San Elizario as the first county seat. The United States Senate fixed a boundary between Texas and New Mexico at the 32nd parallel, thus largely ignoring history and topography, a military post called The Post opposite El Paso was established in 1854. Further west, a settlement on Coons Rancho called Franklin became the nucleus of the future El Paso, a year later, pioneer Anson Mills completed his plan of the town, calling it El Paso