SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Transclusion

In computer science, transclusion is the inclusion of part or all of an electronic document into one or more other documents by hypertext reference. Transclusion is performed when the referencing document is displayed, is automatic and transparent to the end user; the result of transclusion is a single integrated document made of parts assembled dynamically from separate sources stored on different computers in disparate places. Transclusion facilitates modular design: a resource is stored once and distributed for reuse in multiple documents. Updates or corrections to a resource are reflected in any referencing documents. Ted Nelson coined the term for his 1980 nonlinear book Literary Machines, but the idea of master copy and occurrences was applied 17 years before, in Sketchpad. Transclusion works better when transcluded sections of text are self-contained, so that the meaning and validity of the text is independent of context. For example, formulations like "as explained in the previous section" are problematic, because the transcluded section may appear in a different context, causing confusion.

What constitutes "context neutral" text varies, but includes things like company information or boilerplate. Under some circumstances, in some technical contexts, transcluded sections of text may not require strict adherence to the "context neutrality" principle, because the transcluded sections are capable of parameterization. Parameterization implies the ability to modify certain portions or subsections of a transcluded text depending on exogenous variables that can be changed independently; this is customarily done by supplying a transcluded text with one or more substitution placeholders. These placeholders are replaced with the corresponding variable values prior to rendering the final transcluded output in context; the concept of reusing file content began with computer programming languages: COBOL in 1960, followed by BCPL, PL/I, C, by the 1990's FORTRAN. An include directive allows common source code to be reused while avoiding the pitfalls of Copy-and-paste-programming and hard coding of constants.

As with many innovations, a problem developed. Multiple include directives may provide the same content as another include directive, inadvertently causing repetitions of the same source code into the final result, resulting in a error. Include guards help solve this by, after a single inclusion of content, thereafter omit the duplicate content; the idea of a single, source for information lead to concepts like: Don't repeat yourself and the abstraction principle. A further use was found to make programs more portable. Portable source code uses an include directive to specify a standard library, which contains system specific source code that varies with each computer environment. Ted Nelson, who originated the words "hypertext" and "hypermedia", coined the term "transclusion" in his 1980 book Literary Machines. Part of his proposal was the idea that micropayments could be automatically exacted from the reader for all the text, no matter how many snippets of content are taken from various places.

However, according to Nelson, the concept of transclusion had formed part of his 1965 description of hypertext. Nelson defines transclusion as, "...the same content knowably in more than one place," setting it apart from more special cases, such as the inclusion of content from a different location or an explicit quotation that remains connected to its origins. Some hypertext systems, including Ted Nelson's own Xanadu Project, support transclusion. Nelson has delivered a demonstration of the Little Transquoter, it creates a new format built on portion addresses from Web pages. HTTP, as a transmission protocol, has rudimentary support for transclusion via byte serving: specifying a byte range in an HTTP request message. Transclusion can occur either after transmission. For example: An HTML document may be pre-composed by the server before delivery to the client using Server-Side Includes or another server-side application. XML Entities or HTML Objects may be parsed by the client, which requests the corresponding resources separately from the main document.

A web browser may cache elements using its own algorithms, which can operate without explicit directives in the document's markup. AngularJS employs transclusion for nested directive operation. Publishers of web content may object to the transclusion of material from their own web sites into other web sites, or they may require an agreement to do so. Critics of the practice may refer to various forms of inline leeching. Other publishers may seek to have their materials transcluded into other web sites, as in the form of web advertising, or as widgets like a hit counter or web bug. Mashups make use of transclusion to assemble resources or data into a new application, as by placing geo-tagged photos on an interactive map, or by displaying business metrics in an interactive dashboard. HTML defines elements for client-side transclusion of images, stylesheets, other documents, other types of media. HTML has relied on client-side transclusion from the earliest days of the Web, rather than embedding the raw data for such objects inline into a web page's markup.

Through techniques such as Ajax, scripts associated with an HTML document can instruct a web browser to modify the document in-place, as opposed to the earlier techn

Viper (Six Flags Great Adventure)

Viper was a roller coaster located at Six Flags Great Adventure in Jackson Township, New Jersey. Manufactured by TOGO, the ride opened to the public in June 1995; the roller coaster closed at the end of the 2004 season and was demolished the following year for various reasons. It was replaced with El Toro. Viper reached a top speed of 48 mph, it had two inversions. The ride ran three trains with four cars per train. Riders were seated two across and each train seated a total of 16 passengers; the trains were colored light green and orange. In 1990, Six Flags Great Adventure had 5 roller coasters, but due to ride rotation programs and the purchase of Batman the Ride, the park was down to only three by the end of 1992. Batman's opening brought the park back up to four coasters in 1993. At that point a decision was made to buy a new coaster for the park; because Ultra Twister, the ride that occupied the site chosen for Viper, was gaining in popularity at its new home park, Six Flags Astroworld, TOGO was hired to design and build a similar coaster to occupy the site that Ultra Twister once stood on.

In September 1994 construction of Viper began. Construction ended in April 1995. In May 1995, Viper shortly closed due to technical difficulties, it ran by June. In 1996, due to its uncomfortable restraints, Viper's popularity began to fade and as a result, the lines shortened. In 1997, the ride did not operate for a majority of the season due to Six Flags having difficulty procuring replacement parts as TOGO experienced financial issues due to problems with Windjammer Surf Racers; the ride was scheduled to reopen on Labor Day of 1998. In 2001, Viper stood shut down throughout the season, being considered "Standing but not operating". Following the closure, Viper was withdrawn from the official website, the park guides, map. Six Flags planned to remove Viper that year, but it was canceled because Six Flags had failed to find a replacement attraction to fit the land occupied by Viper. In 2002, after some modifications on the restraints and track, Viper reopened; the ride continued to be rough and the coaster experienced mechanical issues.

In 2004, Viper operated with one train during normal operations. On Labor Day, Six Flags experienced failed attempts of fixing to ride due to the issues, they decided to permanently shut down the ride. In 2005, demolition for Viper began in May. Multiple issues were found including frequent performance issues with the ride, mechanical issues, big amounts of down time. Nearby rides including Rodeo Stampede and Taz Twister were removed as well to make way for El Toro. In 2006, Six Flags utilized Viper's station for El Toro being the only part of Viper still in use

2019–20 coronavirus outbreak

The 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak is an ongoing public health emergency of international concern involving coronavirus disease 2019. It is caused by SARS coronavirus 2, first identified in China; as of 2 March 2020, more than 90,000 cases have been confirmed, of which 8,000 were classified as serious. More than 70 countries and territories have been affected with major outbreaks in central China, South Korea and Iran. More than 2,900 people have died in mainland China and about 175 have died in other countries. More than 45,000 people have recovered; the virus spreads between people via respiratory droplets produced during coughing or sneezing. The time between exposure and symptom onset is five days, but may range from two to fourteen days. Symptoms may include fever and shortness of breath. Complications may include acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, though research is ongoing. Efforts are aimed at supportive therapy. Recommended preventive measures include hand washing, maintaining distance from people who are sick, monitoring and self-isolation for fourteen days if an individual suspects being infected.

Public health responses in China and around the world have included travel restrictions and curfews. These have included various curfew measures in China; some airports and train stations have instituted screening methods such as temperature checks and health declaration forms. Several countries have issued advisories warning against travel to regions with ongoing community transmission. Wider concerns about consequences of the outbreak include economic instability, they have included xenophobia and racism against people of Chinese and East Asian descent, the spread of misinformation about the virus online. As of 2 March 2020, more than 90,000 cases have been confirmed worldwide. In late December 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown cause was reported by health authorities in Wuhan, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China; the initial cases had links to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market and the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin. The virus that caused the outbreak is known as SARS-CoV-2, a new virus, related to bat coronaviruses, pangolin coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-1.

The earliest reported symptoms occurred on 1 December 2019, in a person who had not had any exposure to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market or to the remaining 40 of the first cluster detected with the new virus. Of this first cluster, two-thirds were found to have a link with the market, which sold live animals; the WHO declared the outbreak to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January. The WHO's director, Tedros Adhanom, has maintained praise in China's response to the virus as of 24 February 2020, "to avoid a significant number of cases", despite the disease's potential to have sustained community transmission in other world regions. During the early stages, the number of cases doubled every seven and a half days. In early and mid-January 2020, the virus spread to other Chinese provinces, helped by the Chinese New Year migration, as Wuhan is a transport hub in China and the infected individuals spread throughout the country. On 20 January, China reported nearly 140 new patients in a day, including two people in Beijing and one in Shenzhen.

Official data shows that 6,174 COVID-19 virus-infected patients had developed symptoms by 20 January 2020. The virus spread to other regions. In no particular order, these were Thailand, Macau, South Korea, the United States, Hong Kong, France, Vietnam, Malaysia, Cambodia, Finland, Sri Lanka, the United Arab Emirates, Italy, the Philippines, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Belgium, Iran, Lebanon, Bahrain, Iraq, Algeria, Brazil, Switzerland, Pakistan, North Macedonia, Norway, Denmark, Northern Ireland, San Marino, the Netherlands, Belarus, New Zealand, Azerbaijan, Monaco, Ecuador, Ireland, the Dominican Republic, the Czech Republic, Indonesia, Portugal, Morocco and Jordan. On 26 February 2020, WHO reported that, as new cases reported dropped in China but increased in Italy and South Korea, the number of new cases outside China had exceeded the number of new cases in China for the first time on 25 February 2020; the time from development of symptoms of COVID-19 and death has been shown to range between 6 and 41 days, with a median of 14 days.

As of 2 March 2020, more than 3,086 deaths have been attributed to COVID-19. According to China's NHC, most of those who died were older patients – about 80% of deaths recorded were from those over the age of 60, 75% had pre-existing health conditions including cardiovascular diseases and diabetes; the first confirmed. The first death outside China occurred in the Philippines, the first death outside Asia was in Paris; as of 28 February 2020, outside of mainland China, more than a dozen deaths have been recorded in each of Iran, South Korea, Italy. Deaths have been reported in North America and Australia; those infected may either be asymptomatic or develop symptoms such as fever, fatigue, shortness of breath, or muscle pain. A WHO review of 55,924 laboratory-confirmed cases in China indicated the following typical signs