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Transcription factor

In molecular biology, a transcription factor is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence. The function of TFs is to regulate—turn on and off—genes in order to make sure that they are expressed in the right cell at the right time and in the right amount throughout the life of the cell and the organism. Groups of TFs function in a coordinated fashion to direct cell division, cell growth, cell death throughout life. There are up to 1600 TFs in the human genome. TFs work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting, or blocking the recruitment of RNA polymerase to specific genes. A defining feature of TFs is that they contain at least one DNA-binding domain, which attaches to a specific sequence of DNA adjacent to the genes that they regulate. TFs are grouped into classes based on their DBDs. Other proteins such as coactivators, chromatin remodelers, histone acetyltransferases, histone deacetylases and methylases are essential to gene regulation, but lack DNA-binding domains, therefore are not TFs.

TFs are of interest in medicine because TF mutations can cause specific diseases, medications can be targeted toward them. Transcription factors are essential for the regulation of gene expression and are, as a consequence, found in all living organisms; the number of transcription factors found within an organism increases with genome size, larger genomes tend to have more transcription factors per gene. There are 2800 proteins in the human genome that contain DNA-binding domains, 1600 of these are presumed to function as transcription factors, though other studies indicate it to be a smaller number; therefore 10% of genes in the genome code for transcription factors, which makes this family the single largest family of human proteins. Furthermore, genes are flanked by several binding sites for distinct transcription factors, efficient expression of each of these genes requires the cooperative action of several different transcription factors. Hence, the combinatorial use of a subset of the 2000 human transcription factors accounts for the unique regulation of each gene in the human genome during development.

Transcription factors bind to either enhancer or promoter regions of DNA adjacent to the genes that they regulate. Depending on the transcription factor, the transcription of the adjacent gene is either up- or down-regulated. Transcription factors use a variety of mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression; these mechanisms include: stabilize or block the binding of RNA polymerase to DNA catalyze the acetylation or deacetylation of histone proteins. The transcription factor can either do this directly or recruit other proteins with this catalytic activity. Many transcription factors use one or the other of two opposing mechanisms to regulate transcription:histone acetyltransferase activity – acetylates histone proteins, which weakens the association of DNA with histones, which make the DNA more accessible to transcription, thereby up-regulating transcription histone deacetylase activity – deacetylates histone proteins, which strengthens the association of DNA with histones, which make the DNA less accessible to transcription, thereby down-regulating transcription recruit coactivator or corepressor proteins to the transcription factor DNA complex Transcription factors are one of the groups of proteins that read and interpret the genetic "blueprint" in the DNA.

They bind to the help initiate a program of increased or decreased gene transcription. As such, they are vital for many important cellular processes. Below are some of the important functions and biological roles transcription factors are involved in: In eukaryotes, an important class of transcription factors called general transcription factors are necessary for transcription to occur. Many of these GTFs do not bind DNA, but rather are part of the large transcription preinitiation complex that interacts with RNA polymerase directly; the most common GTFs are TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF, TFIIH. The preinitiation complex binds to promoter regions of DNA upstream to the gene. Other transcription factors differentially regulate the expression of various genes by binding to enhancer regions of DNA adjacent to regulated genes; these transcription factors are critical to making sure that genes are expressed in the right cell at the right time and in the right amount, depending on the changing requirements of the organism.

Many transcription factors in multicellular organisms are involved in development. Responding to stimuli, these transcription factors turn on/off the transcription of the appropriate genes, which, in turn, allows for changes in cell morphology or activities needed for cell fate determination and cellular differentiation; the Hox transcription factor family, for example, is important for proper body pattern formation in organisms as diverse as fruit flies to humans. Another example is the transcription factor encoded by the Sex-determining Region Y gene, which plays a major role in determining sex in humans. Cells can communicate with each other by releasing molecules that produce signaling cascades within another receptive cell. If the signal requires upregulation or downregulation of genes in the recipient cell t


Türkmendemirýollary Agency is a state-owned operator of railways in Turkmenistan. The company operates over 345 railway stations throughout the country; the company belongs to Construction Operation of Turkmenistan. It is headquartered in Ashgabat. In September 1880, the first section of the railway was built from the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea to the Mollagara. In October 1881, the railway was built to the village of Kyzyl-Arvat. In the years 1885-1886 was continued the construction of the second section of the railway to the large settlements of Turkmenistan: Geok-Tepe, Tejen, Chardzhou, which ended at the Amu Darya river. At the end of 1887, a wooden bridge with a length of more than 2 km was built across the Amu Darya, which allowed the construction of the third section of the road to begin. In 1901, a wooden bridge was destroyed by flood waters. In its place, at the same time, a new metal bridge was built on stone supports. In 1888, the railway continued in 1898 brought to Tashkent. In 1894-1895, the Krasnovodsk section of the railroad was built.

Thus, the Trans-Caspian Railway, which played an important role in the development of the economy of Central Asia, including pre-revolutionary Turkmenistan, begins from the harbor of the Caspian Sea - the Krasnovodsk Bay. The route from Krasnovodsk to Tashkent was called the Central Asian Railway. In 1922, on the instructions of Vladimir Lenin, work began on the design of Soviet diesel locomotives for operation on waterless sections of Central Asia. In 1931, the Krasnovodsk-Chardzhou railway was switched to diesel traction. In 1955, all railway traffic in the Turkmen SSR was transferred to diesel traction. A important role was played by rail during the Second World War. During the battles near Stalingrad and the Caucasus, the Krasnovodsk port and Ashgabat railway station became the only transport arteries connecting Baku and the Black Sea with the whole country, they ensured the transfer of the army, a huge flow of military equipment and equipment to the North Caucasian and Transcaucasian fronts.

For the selfless work of the railway of the Turkmen SSR, the passing Red Banner of the People's Commissariat of Railways of the USSR was awarded. In the post-war period, the improvement of the technical equipment of the railway network of Turkmen SSR, its carrying capacity and capacity continued. At all stations and crossings, comfortable passenger buildings and canopies were equipped. Air conditioning wagons were commissioned, creating favorable microclimatic conditions for passengers. Turkmen railways became one of the first in the USSR, on which the main diesel traction was introduced. In the early 1980s, the Mary-Kushka line was brought to the Afghan village of Torghundi; the Türkmendemirýollary formed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, is one of the inheritors of the Soviet Railways. The railway's most important station is Ashgabat railway station, the central station of the capital. After the collapse of the USSR, the construction of new lines again intensified, caused by the fact that the previous routes were broken by sections that became part of the Uzbek railways.

During the period after the collapse of the USSR, a number of new trunk lines were opened in Turkmenistan: Takhiatash -Kunya-Urgench-Saparmurat Turkmenbashi, Turkmenabad-Atamyrat-Kerkiçi, Tejen-Sarakhs, Ashgabat-Daşoguz, which made it possible to connect disparate sections of the railway network into a single whole. In October 2013, the new building of the Ministry of Railway Transport of Turkmenistan was opened on Archabil Avenue. Since February 7, 2020 Türkmendemirýollary Agency is in the department of new Ministry of Industry and Construction Operations of Turkmenistan; the main activities of Turkmen Railways involve passenger traffic. Agency annually serves 6 million passengers; the passenger department employs 5,000 specialists. The locomotive fleet consists of diesel locomotives of the 2TE10L, 2TE10U, 2M62U series, there are several locomotives of Chinese production CKD9A and Kazakh production TE33A. Shunting work is performed by diesel locomotives TEM2, TEM2U, ChME3. In 1996, Mashhad–Sarakhs extension connected Iran to Turkmenistan,as part of the Silk Road railway to link to the landlocked Central Asian Countries.

Former states of the Soviet Union have railways using a 1,520 mm Russian gauge,thus the Iranian Railways maintain break-of-gauge services at borders to Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan,and beyond brief wide-track rail segments to the border crossing. Türkmendemirýollary is engaging on a major railroad project to link China and Southeast Asia to Europe for a length of 3,900 kilometres. Is run the railway through Turkmenistan to Iran. Iran is linked to Europe's standard gauge system. In May 2013, a new rail link opened between Serhetyaka, crossing the border at Bolashak; the railway is cost 65bn tenge. The railway is Russian gauge. In December 2014, a rail line from Iran opened to Kazakhstan; the opening of the line marks the first direct rail link between Iran,Kazakhstan and China and upon completion of the Marmaray rail project direct rail transport between China and Europewill be possible. A 10-kilometer long line extends from Serhetabat in Turkmenistan to the town of Torghundi in Afghanistan. An upgrade of this Soviet-built line dating back to the 1960s, using Russian gauge, began in 2007.

In April 2016, an agreement was reached for a techn

Middleware analyst

Middleware analysts are computer software engineers with a specialization in products that connect two different computer systems together. These products can be proprietary; as the term implies, the software and technologies used by Middleware analysts sit "in-the-middle", between two or more systems. Middleware analysts look at the system of systems, they solve technical problems which involve large scale inter-disciplinary objectives with multiple, distributed systems that are embedded in networks at multiple levels. Middleware analysts maintain proficiency in middleware technologies. Middleware is computer software that connects software applications. A central theme in most middleware analyst roles is being able to articulate why Service Oriented Architecture is important to the business. Middleware best practices promote usability and maintainability among the systems served. A few examples of best practices are included here to provide some insight as to how middleware addresses key principles of standards-based computing.

One common problem for middleware is the manner in which user-defined applications are configured so that queue references bypass queue alias definitions referring directly to the queue local or queue remote definition. Such a bypass of queue alias deviates best practices and should be corrected when the administrator and/or programmer can correct it within time and scope parameters. All references from user-defined applications should point to queue aliases; the queue aliases should point to the defined queue local or queue remote. Queue aliases allow flexibility for middleware administrators to resolve or relieve production problems quickly. By using queue aliases, middleware administrators can redirect message flow, in the event of a service problem, without changes to the user-defined application. For example, if a queue local were overflowing, a middleware admin could change the queue alias to point to a temporary queue local, thereby allowing the user-defined application to continue its processing without interruption while the underlying root cause is corrected.

By pointing all user-defined application references to queue aliases, it preserves the flexibility that middleware admins would have to help with production issues that may occur. If the best practice of queue aliases were not followed, the ability of a middleware admin to help with a production outage would be hindered. Message queuing is a middleware technology that simplifies communication between the nodes of a system and between the nodes that connect systems together. Information system consultants use message queuing as their skill base. Upon this base, information system consultants add workflow management, message brokering, J2EE implementations using java virtual machines and Message Driven Beans. Arguably the most important skill a middleware analyst uses is not technical, it is cultural. SOA does require people to think of technology differently. Instead of thinking of technology first, middleware analysts must first think in terms of business functions, or services, it is expected that adoption of SOA will change business IT departments, creating service-oriented IT organizations.

Middleware analysts perform crucial evangelization of this concept. The enterprise service bus is a core element of any SOA. ESBs provide the "any to any" connectivity between services within a company, beyond that company to connect to the company's trading partners. Therefore, middleware analysts need to be skilled in SOA and enterprise service bus concepts first and foremost. Middleware analysts rely on an SOA reference architecture to lay out an SOA environment that meets the company's needs and priorities; the ESB is part of this reference architecture and provides the backbone of an SOA but is not considered an SOA by itself. Because middleware is a cross-platform tool, the sophistication of your middleware analysts are expected to be acute. People that are designing and implementing the middleware message flow need to understand how the security model on each target platform works; this may include Windows, Unix, z/OS or AS/400. Middleware protects data in transit through SSL technology.

Security certificates are procured from a certification authority and deployed and updated on servers. This protects data while it is in transit as it leaves one Server and arrives on the next server in the chain, it does not protect data. Supplemental transmission security can augment the primary SSL measures; these are SSL client authentication, DN filtering, CRL check by LDAP, cryptographic hardware. This type of security is called "border-level security" because it only protects the data from when it leaves your borders until it gets to your trading partner's borders, it does not protect data. IPSEC is the least costly protection method. SSL is the middle ground, with a balance between flexibility, resource consumption, transmission time; when data is at rest in queues, it is not protected by MQ. That is, data is in "plain text". Therefore, if the data contained in messages is sensitive it is essential that application-level data encryption be used. Examples of data which could be protected by this strategy include banking data Application-level transaction security is the most secure form of protection but the most costly in terms of CPU and I/O bandwidth consumption of both the sending and receiving servers.

It is the least efficient. Middleware data

Berwick Football Club

The Berwick Football Club is an Australian rules football club which plays in the Outer East FL. The club used to play in the Mornington Peninsula Nepean Football League but left at the end of 2014; the club is based at the Edwin Flack Reserve in Victoria. The club is most notable for its five-year stint in the Victorian Football Association second division during the 1980s. A football match was recorded having been played in 1879 by the'Berwick' club with Dandenong. Two weeks another match was played by a'combined team from Berwick and Pakenham'. In 1880 a team is recorded as the'Berwick and Harkaway United club'; the club recorded as Berwick from 1881, is shown to have played annual matches against Dandenong through the 1880s. Its first known premiership success came in the Berwick District Football Association in 1910, it won one more premiership in its time in that competition, in 1925; the club competed in the Dandenong District Football Association. It joined the South-West Gippsland Football League in 1954, winning the premiership in its first season.

It became one of the SWGFL's most powerful clubs during the 1970s, by 1982 it had contested eleven consecutive finals series and won two more premierships – back-to-back in 1977 and 1978. On 19 November 1982 Berwick was admitted to the Victorian Football Association's second division for the 1983 season, as part of the VFA's restructuring and expansion in the early 1980s; the SWGFL did not want to lose Berwick, it refused to endorse clearances for its players to the VFA. The club spent five seasons in the VFA, without achieving any significant success; the club elected to leave the VFA after the 1987 season, returned to the SWGFL in 1988. Since 1995, the club has competed in the Casey-Cardinia Division of the Mornington Peninsula Nepean Football League, which absorbed the SWGFL that season; the club won one premiership in that competition, in 1999. In 2015 Berwick along with eight other clubs in the Casey-Cardinia Division left to found the South East FL; the club won the new league's inaugural senior premiership in 2015, won the premiership in all four football grades.

In 2019 Berwick became one of the founding clubs of the AFL Outer East as a result of the merger of the South East FNL and AFL Yarra Ranges. The club wears a navy blue guernsey with a white monogram, is known by the nickname'Wickers. While in the VFA, the club reversed its design to a white guernsey with navy blue monogram, a white guernsey with navy blue hoops near the waist and gold trimmings, due to a VFA requirement that its clubs not wear the same guernseys as Victorian Football League clubs; until 1984, the club played its games at the Arch Brown Reserve in Buchanan Rd. After a fire destroyed the pavilion in December 1984, the club moved to the newer Edwin Flack Reserve in Manuka Rd, where it remains today. 1910, 1925, 1954, 1977, 1978, 1999, 2015, 2017 Berwick Football Club website


WKNL is a radio station licensed to serve New London, Connecticut. The station is owned by Hall Communications, Inc. which owns a number of stations in medium-sized markets along the eastern seaboard from Vermont to Florida. It airs a classic hits music format. WKNL signed on January 1, 1970 as WTYD, a beautiful music station branded as "Tide 101." At the outset, the station was owned by Thames Broadcasting Corporation, which owned WNLC. Thames Broadcasting sold the stations to Mercury Broadcasting Corporation in 1976. In 1990, WTYD shifted to an adult contemporary format. Hall Communications purchased WTYD and WNLC in 1995. On March 10, 2000, Hall changed the station's format to oldies as "Kool 101," in response to WVVE dropping the format in December 1999; the oldies format was dropped at midnight on December 17, 2012, when it changed to hot adult contemporary, branded as "100.9 Roxy FM". The last song on "Kool 101" was "Last Dance" by Donna Summer with the first song on "100.9 Roxy FM" being "Some Nights" by Fun.

On March 1, 2017, at 5PM, WKNL flipped back to classic hits, branded as "100.9 K-Hits". The airstaff from Roxy will remain on the station with the change. Official website Query the FCC's FM station database for WKNL Radio-Locator information on WKNL Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WKNL

Cristian Vogel

Cristian Vogel is an experimental electronic musician. Vogel first began working with electronic compositions in the late 1980s with the Cabbage Head Collective, where he worked with Si Begg, among others, he attended the University of Sussex under the tutorship of Martin Butler and Jonathan Harvey, graduating with a degree in 20th century music. He began to suffuse techno compositions with influences from musique concrète and other avant-garde styles. In the early 1990s, Vogel issued two EPs on Dave Clarke's Magnetic North Records label, the first of, the underground success, Infra. After further solo EPs and collaborations with emerging UK techno artists such as Neil Landstrumm and Dave Tarrida, Vogel released his debut full-length, Beginning to Understand, in 1994 on Mille Plateaux, subsequently became the first UK techno artist to be signed to Berlin's Tresor Records, he started the vinyl only label Mosquito with Si Begg, on which he released both his own music and other artists'. Vogel is considered to be one of the main founders of the No-Future collective, active in Brighton during the mid-nineties.

Alongside Jamie Lidell, he formed the group Super Collider, who released two albums before Jamie Lidell saw fame with his Warp Records album Multiply. Cristian Vogel sings and plays guitar in his band project Night of the Brain, whilst continuing to maintain a presence on the underground techno scene. From 2003 to 2010, he worked with the Swiss choreographer Gilles Jobin, composing electronic music scores for 6 of his contemporary dance pieces. Over a 20-year career, Vogel has worked as a remixer and album producer, having worked with artists such as Radiohead, Maxïmo Park, Chicks on Speed, Thom Yorke. 1994 - Beginning to Understand 1995 - Absolute Time 1996 - Specific Momentific 1996 - Body Mapping 1997 - All Music has come to an End 1999 - Busca Invisibles 2000 - Rescate 137 2000 - Sing Sweet Software 2002 - Dungeon Master 2005 - Station 55 2007 - Double Deux/Delicado 2007 - The Never Engine 2010 - Black Swan 2012 - The Inertials 2014 - Polyphonic Beings 1994 - Infra EP 1994 - Lambda EP 1994 - Intersync EP 1994 - Narco Synthesis EP 1995 - Conscious Arrays EP 1997 - Two fat Downloads 88 EP 1999 - Boom Busine EP 2009 - Crust Cloud Chunks EP 2009 - Endless Process EP 2010 - Time To Feed The Alien EP 1994 - We equate Machines with Funkiness 1994 - Tales from the Heart 1995 - Defunkt #1 1995 - Artists in Charge of Expert Systems 1996 - The Visit: Defunkt #2 1996 - Demolish Serious Culture 1998 - Defunkt Remixes 1998 - Syncopate to Generate 1999 - General Arrepientase 2000 - Whipaspank 2001 - Me and My Shadow 2005 - 1968.

Holes 2009 - Crust Cloud Chunks Remixes 2012 - I like it - Sounds like Spain 2003 - "2-0-0-3" with Clive Jenkins and Franz Treichler 2004 - "Delicado" / choreography Gilles Jobin 2005 - "Steakhouse" / choreography Gilles Jobin 2006 - "Double Deux" / choreography Gilles Jobin 2008 - "Text to Speech" / choreography Gilles Jobin 2009 - "Black Swan" / choreography Gilles Jobin NeverEngine Labs—official site. Cristian Vogel discography at Discogs