Owney, was a Border terrier adopted as the first unofficial postal mascot by the Albany, New York, post office about 1888. The Albany mail professionals recommended the dog to their Railway Mail Service colleagues, he became a nationwide mascot for nine years, he traveled throughout the 48 contiguous United States and voyaged around the world traveling over 140,000 miles in his lifetime as a mascot of the Railway Post Office and the United States Postal Service. He is best known for being the subject of commemorative activities, including a 2011 U. S. postage stamp. Owney belonged to a clerk at the Albany post office who would come with him to work. Owney would sleep on the bags; the clerk quit the Albany post office but knew that Owney was happier at the post office with the mail bags. Owney slept on the mail bags and when they were moved, Owney went with them, he was considered to be good luck by postal railway clerks, since no train he rode on was in a wreck. He was a welcome addition in any railway post office.
This was an important duty and Owney was well-situated for it, as the Albany train station was a key division point on the New York Central railroad system, one of the two largest railroads in the U. S. at that time. Mail trains from Albany rolled eastward to Boston, south to New York City, westward to Buffalo, Toledo and points further west; as a contemporary book recounted: "The terrier'Owney' travels from one end of the country to the other in the postal cars, tagged through, talked to, looked out for, as a brother, almost. But sometimes, no matter what the attention, he departs for the south, the east, or the west, is not seen again for months." In 1893 he was feared dead after having disappeared, but it turned out he was involved in an accident in Canada. As Owney's trips grew longer, the postal clerks at Albany became concerned that the dog be identified, and, if necessary returned to them, they bought a dog collar with a metal tag that read: "Owney, Post Office, New York". To this collar, the various railway post offices.
The collar and tags made the mixed-breed terrier the unofficial mascot of the U. S. Railway Mail Service, as shown by the 2011 postage stamp issued in his honor, his identifications became an essential element of his identity. Owney received tags everywhere he went, as he moved they jingled like sleigh bells, he received from Winnona Kilbridge of the Los Angeles Kennel Club a medal for "Best Traveled Dog" of 1893. Owney received in 1894 from a Mr. William Winter Wagner of Chicago a "Globe Trotter" medal, his collection of tags grew so large that United States Postmaster General John Wanamaker gave him a coat to display them all. Wanamaker announced that Owney was the Official Mascot of the Rail Mail Service, it is said to be impossible to know how many medals Owney received. Despite the jacket, the mass became impossible for the small dog to carry. Clerks would remove tags and forward them to Albany or Washington D. C. for safekeeping. One source suggests that tokens were bestowed upon the mascot.
Some of these tags did not survive. Other Owney tokens and medals are in the NPM collection and are displayed there. One of Owney's services "Above and Beyond the Call of Duty" reported is when he stayed behind to protect a mail pouch that had accidentally fallen out of a wagon during a delivery route he was on; when the clerks returned to the main Post Office after the deliveries, not only was a bag of mail missing but so was Owney. They backtracked their steps and found Owney lying on top of the mailbag. Owney guarded the mail pouch until someone from the Post Office showed up. One of his more famous trips was to Montreal, Canada. There the postmaster kept him in a kennel. A demand was sent to Albany, New York for payment for the $2.50, incurred in feeding him. The sum was collected, Owney was sent back home; the Universal Postal Union was created by treaty in 1874 to standardize the shipping and handling of international mail. In 1895, the terrier enjoyed an around-the-world trip, riding with mail bags aboard trains and steamships.
Starting from Tacoma, Washington, on August 19, he traveled for four months throughout Asia and across Europe, before returning to New York City on December 23 and from thence to Albany. Upon his return during Christmas week, the Los Angeles Times reported that he visited Asia, North Africa, the Middle East. Another report claimed the Emperor of Japan awarded the dog two passports and several medals bearing the Japanese coat of arms. Owney's triumphant return to American shores was covered by newspapers nationwide. Owney became world famous after the trip though he broke no speed records in doing it; as Owney aged, Post Office management came to believe. Mail clerk J. M. Elben, of St. Louis, agreed to take him in, the influential Chicago manager of the Railway Mail Service, using insulting language to refer to the "mongrel cur", asked his employees not to allow him to ride on future mail trains. Owney had by this time traveled more than 143,000 miles in his lifetime. Unnamed St. Louis letter carriers appear to have passively-aggressively resisted this executive guidance, in summer 1897 Owney boarded a mail t
Railway post office
In the United States, a railway post office abbreviated as RPO, was a railroad car, operated in passenger service as a means to sort mail en route, in order to speed delivery. The RPO was staffed by trained Railway Mail Service postal clerks, was off-limits to the passengers on the train. In the UK and Ireland, the equivalent term was Travelling Post Office. From the middle of the 19th century, many American railroads earned substantial revenues through contracts with the U. S. Post Office Department to carry mail aboard high-speed passenger trains. In fact, a number of companies maintained passenger routes where the financial losses from moving people were more than offset by transporting the mail; the world's first official carriage of mail by rail was by the United Kingdom's General Post Office in November 1830, using adapted railway carriages on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Sorting of mail en route first occurred in the United Kingdom with the introduction of the Travelling Post Office in 1838 on the Grand Junction Railway following the introduction of the Railways Act 1838.
In the United States, some references suggest that the first shipment of mail carried on a train occurred in 1831 on the South Carolina Rail Road. Other sources state that the first official contract to carry mail on a train was made with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in either 1834 or 1835; the United States Congress designated all railroads as official postal routes on July 7, 1838. Similar services were introduced on Canadian railroads in 1859; the Railway post office was introduced in the United States on July 28, 1862, using converted baggage cars on the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad. Purpose-built Railway Post Office cars entered service on this line a few weeks after the service was initiated, their purpose was to separate mail for connection with a westbound stagecoach departing soon after the train's arrival at St. Joseph; this service lasted one year. The first permanent Railway Post Office route was established on August 28, 1864, between Chicago and Clinton, Iowa; this service is distinguished from the 1862 operation because mail was sorted to and received from each post office along the route, as well as major post offices beyond the route's end-points.
George B. Armstrong, assistant postmaster at Chicago came up with the idea of having mail processed and distributed while the mail was on board, en route in mail cars. With the assistance of Schuyler Colfax, Speaker of the House at the time, A. N. Zevely, Third Assistant Postmaster General, he was duly authorized to test his ideas. In 1869, the Railway Mail Service, headed by George B. Armstrong, was inaugurated to handle the transportation and sorting of mail aboard trains. Armstrong was promoted from a supervisory position in the Chicago post office following his experiments in 1864 with a converted route agent's car on runs between Chicago and Clinton, Iowa. RPO car interiors, which at first consisted of solid wood furniture and fixtures, would soon be redesigned. In 1879, an RMS employee named Charles R. Harrison developed a new set of fixtures that soon gained widespread use. Harrison's design consisted of hinged, cast-iron fixtures that could be unfolded and set up in a number of configurations to hold mail pouches, racks and a sorting table as needed for specific routes.
The fixtures were designed so they could be folded away to provide a wholly open space to carry general baggage and express shipments as needed by the railroads. Harrison followed through with manufacturing his design at a factory he opened in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin in 1881; the July 1, 1862, Pacific Railroad Act signed by President Lincoln established government funding for the construction of a railroad from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean with the express idea of opening a main line mail route across the western frontier. The act was entitled "AN ACT to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific Ocean, to secure to the government the use of the same for postal and other purposes," The Act opened the door to government funded railroad mail routes across the American continent. By the 1880s, railway post office routes were operating on the vast majority of passenger trains in the United States. A complex network of interconnected routes allowed mail to be transported and delivered in a remarkably short time.
Railway mail clerks were subjected to stringent training and ongoing testing of details regarding their handling of the mail. On a given RPO route, each clerk was expected to know not only the post offices and rail junctions along the route, but specific local delivery details within each of the larger cities served by the route. Periodic testing demanded both accuracy and speed in sorting mail, a clerk scoring only 96% accuracy would receive a warning from the Railway Mail Service division superintendent. Interurban and Streetcar systems were known to operate RPOs; the Boston Elevated Railway car being noted as making circuits of the city to pick up mail. In the United States, RPO cars were equipped and staffed to handle most back-end postal processing functions. First class mail and newspapers were all sorted, cancelled when necessary, dispatched to post offices in towns along the route. Registered mail was handled, the foreman in charge was required to carry a regulation pistol
Memphis Union Station
Memphis Union Station was a passenger terminal in Memphis, serving the Missouri Pacific Railroad, St. Louis Southwestern Railway and Nashville Railroad, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway and Southern Railway; the terminal, completed in 1912, was built in the Beaux-Arts style and was located on Calhoun Street, between south Second Street and Rayburn Boulevard. It was demolished in 1969; this location in south Memphis was two blocks east of the other major Memphis railroad terminal, Memphis Grand Central Station. Memphis Union Station Company was chartered in Tennessee on September 25, 1909, for the purpose of operating Union Station. Construction of the facility began in April 1910, the new station opened for service on April 1, 1912; the station was designed by architect J. A. Galvin, with Walter F. Schultz serving as engineer of construction; the architectural design of the station was a source of pride for Memphis, the main building was the largest stone structure in the city. Memphis Union Station's purpose was to unite the passenger and express operations of the major railway lines that terminated in or travelled through Memphis, principally between east and west.
Traffic between the north and the south was carried by the Illinois Central Railroad, whose operations at Memphis were large enough to justify a separate Central Station two blocks to the west of Union Station. The terminal tracks were of a stub-end design, meaning that all trains had to back into the station from the main line tracks via a wye to reach the station's platforms; the station had additional tracks for storage and servicing of passenger cars as well as a roundhouse and turntable, allowing locomotives to be serviced on site. This configuration served the primary objective of the "western lines," such as the Cotton Belt, the Rock Island, Missouri Pacific were occupied serving all of the above named gateways. So Memphis held little interest to them as a source of long-distance passenger revenue; as passenger train traffic declined after World War II, studies were done on consolidating all Memphis train operations in either Union Station or Central Station. However, the various railroads could never agree on consolidation arrangements, Memphis Union Station continued in operation into the early 1960s.
Several named. Louisville and Nashville: Humming Bird to Cincinnati, Ohio Pan-American to Cincinnati Missouri Pacific: Texas Eagle Southern Railway: Tennessean St. Louis and Southwestern: Lone Star Morning Star St. Louis Southwestern Railway discontinued passenger service to Memphis in October 1952, Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway merged into Louisville and Nashville Railroad in 1957 reducing the number of tenants in Memphis Union Station from five to three. In early 1964, Missouri Pacific Railroad served notice that their last passenger train serving Memphis would be moved from Union Station into a former freight station on west Calhoun Street; the Missouri Pacific benefitted from being a foreign corporation in Tennessee, once its petition before the Interstate Commerce Commission was heard, to cease operation of passenger service to Memphis, it could rely upon legal precedent to void its joint agreement to support the operation of Memphis Union Station. The remaining two tenant railroads in Memphis Union Station were unwilling to assume the full burden for maintenance and operation of the station, as the remaining passenger and express freight revenues of these carriers into Memphis brought in far less revenue than the continued operation of the station required.
Louisville and Nashville Railroad made arrangements to become a tenant at Memphis Central Station, Southern Railway returned to their ancient freight station on Lauderdale Street. Memphis Union Station was closed on April 1, 1964, fifty-two years to the day from the time the station had opened with great fanfare. A prolonged court battle ensued, with the City of Memphis claiming that Union Station had been abandoned without the approval of the Tennessee Public Service Commission. After appeals courts ruled against the railroads, both L&N and Southern were forced to re-open part of Union Station on December 1, 1966. Missouri Pacific had discontinued their last Memphis passenger service, a Memphis to Little Rock connecting train, in August 1965, was thus not affected by the order to re-open Memphis Union Station. Passenger traffic into Memphis on both the L&N and Southern was negligible, the added expense of reopening Union Station caused both roads to initiate train discontinuance proceedings.
These efforts were successful, Union Station was again closed for a second and final time on March 30, 1968, following the departure of the last Southern Railway passenger train from Memphis. The Memphis Union Station property was sold to the United States Postal Service for construction of a new mail sorting facility, the station was demolished by February 1969. Central Station Humming Bird Lone Star Morning Star Tennessean Texas Eagle Condren, Mike. "Memphis Union Station," Memphis Historical Railroad Pages
Terminal Railway Post Office
Terminal railway post offices were sorting facilities which were established by the Railway Mail Service to speed the distribution of parcel post. These offices were located in or near railroad stations in major cities or junction points. Terminal railway post offices operated from 1913-1914 into the mid-1960s, before their function was absorbed by post office sectional centers. On January 1, 1913, the United States Post Office began handling parcel post, in addition to letters and more conventional mail; this service, in direct competition with the owned express companies, was embraced by the general public, over two million packages were mailed in the first week after parcel post service began. Terminal Railway Post Offices were started in nearly 100 cities in late 1913 and 1914 to help handle the increase in volume of parcel post, overwhelming the main transportation system; these terminals came to distribute transit parcel post, circulars and papers - mail, considered less urgent than first class letters.
Letter cases were used at many terminals to take care of advance work or unworked letters from Railway Post Office routes, while a few terminals handled parcel post exclusively. The largest terminal railway post office was the Penn Terminal in the G. P. O. Building in New York City, New York—in 1951, it had over 1,100 clerks. Penn Terminal handled advance work for many of the railway post office routes leaving New York City. By comparison, the West Side Terminal, located along the New York Central line near the Hudson River piers, handled parcel post exclusively; because parcel post transportation was by rail, most terminal RPOs were housed in or adjacent to the railroad station. Where mails for more than one state were distributed, the "state rights" of the assignments were prorated. If one-fourth of the mail distributed at the Pittsburgh, Terminal was Ohio mail, clerks with "Ohio rights" were entitled to one-fourth of the assignments; the number of Terminal railway post offices peaked with nearly 100 offices.
In 1915, that number declined to 88, with a further decline to 71 offices by 1942, as many smaller offices were closed and their duties returned to RPO routes. All the mail originating in the cities where Terminals were located was distributed by the city post offices. In many cases, this duplication of distribution was in the same building. Local postmasters had no jurisdiction over terminal RPO operations until the 1950s, when all the terminals were put under the supervision of the postmasters of the city in which they were located; the filling of assignments in the terminal was limited to the roster from the civil service examination of the city post office. As railway post office routes declined in number, the volume of parcel post transported by this mode decreased, allowing the closure of smaller terminals. Development of the U. S. Postal Service sectional centers duplicated many of the functions of the terminal RPO, the terminals were phased out by the 1960s. First class mail worked by terminal RPOs received a Terminal RPO postmark.
Like the cancellations from RPO cars themselves, terminal RPO postmarks are collected by those who specialize in this aspect of postal history. This is a preliminary list of some of the 100 terminal railway post office facilities which existed between 1913 and the early 1960s. Alabama: Birmingham Arkansas: Fort Smith, Little Rock, Texarkana California: Los Angeles, Sacramento Colorado: Denver, Pueblo Connecticut: New London District of Columbia: Washington Florida: Jacksonville Georgia: Atlanta, Macon Illinois: Chicago Iowa: Council Bluffs, Sioux City Indiana: Indianapolis Kansas: Wichita Louisiana: Shreveport Maine: Portland Massachusetts: Boston, Springfield Michigan: Detroit Missouri: Kansas City, Springfield, St. Joseph, St. Louis Minnesota: Minneapolis, St. Paul Nebraska: Lincoln, Omaha New Jersey: Atlantic City, Hoboken, Jersey City, Weehawken New York: Albany, Buffalo, New York City, Utica North Carolina: Greensboro North Dakota: Fargo Oklahoma: El Reno, Tulsa Ohio: Cincinnati, Columbus Pennsylvania: Harrisburg, Pittsburgh Rhode Island: Providence Tennessee: Chattanooga, Nashville Texas: Fort Worth, Houston Utah: Ogden Vermont: Rutland, White River Junction Washington: Spokane Wisconsin: Milwaukee Wyoming: Cheyenne Mobile Post Office Society..
Wilking, Clarence. The Railway Mail Service, Railway Mail Service Library, Virginia. Available as an MS Word file at http://www.railwaymailservicelibrary.org/articles/THE_RMS. DOC
Railway Mail Service
The United States Postal Service's Railway Mail Service was a significant mail transportation service in the US from the mid-19th century until the mid-20th century. The RMS, or its successor the Postal Transportation Service, carried the vast majority of letters and packages mailed in the United States from the 1890s until the 1960s. George B. Armstrong, manager of the Chicago Post Office, is credited with being the founder of the concept of en route mail sorting aboard trains which became the Railway Mail Service. Mail had been carried in locked pouches aboard trains prior to Armstrong's involvement with the system, but there had been no organized system of sorting mail en route, to have mail prepared for delivery when the mail pouches reached their destination city. In response to Armstrong's request to experiment with the concept, the first railway post office began operating on the Chicago and North Western Railway between Chicago and Clinton, Iowa, on August 28, 1864; the concept was successful, was expanded to other railroads operating from Chicago, including the Chicago and Quincy, Chicago and Rock Island and the Erie.
By 1869 when the Railway Mail Service was inaugurated, the system had expanded to all of the major railroads of the United States, the country was divided into six operating divisions. A superintendent was over each division, all under the direction of George B. Armstrong, summoned from Chicago to Washington, D. C. to become general superintendent of the postal railway service. Armstrong served only two years as general superintendent before resigning because of failing health, he died in Chicago on May 1871, two days after his resignation. Armstrong's successor in Chicago, George Bangs, was appointed as the second general superintendent of the postal railway service. Bangs encouraged the use of fast mail trains, trains made up of mail cars, traveling on expedited schedules designed to accommodate the needs of the Post Office rather than the needs of the traveling public. In 1890, 5,800 postal railway clerks provided service over 154,800 miles of railroad. By 1907, over 14,000 clerks were providing service over 203,000 miles of railroad.
When the post office began handling parcel post in 1913, terminal Railway Post Office operations were established in major cities by the RMS to handle the large increase in mail volume. The Railway Mail Service reached its peak in the 1920s began a gradual decline with the discontinuance of RPO service on branchlines and secondary routes. After 1942, Highway Post Office service was utilized to continue en route sorting after discontinuance of some railway post office operations; as highway mail transportation became more prevalent, the Railway Mail Service was redesignated as the Postal Transportation Service. Abandonment of routes accelerated in the late 1950s and early 1960s, many of the remaining lines were discontinued in 1967. On June 30, 1974, the Cleveland and Cincinnati highway post office, the last HPO route, was discontinued; the last railway post office operated between New York and Washington, D. C. on June 30, 1977. A large bust and monument to Armstrong is displayed in the north side of Chicago's Loop Station Post Office.
A restored RPO car is displayed as part of the Pioneer Zephyr at the Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry. The restored 1927 AT&SF Railway #74 RPO car is displayed at the Pacific Southwest Railway Museum in Campo, CA. First Division: Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Massachusetts. Headquarters: Boston, Massachusetts. Second Division: New York, New Jersey. Headquarters: New York City. Third Division: District of Columbia, West Virginia, North Carolina. Headquarters: Washington, D. C. Fourth Division: Tennessee, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida. Headquarters: Atlanta. Fifth Division: Kentucky, Ohio. Headquarters: Cincinnati. Sixth Division: Illinois, Iowa. Headquarters: Chicago. Seventh Division: Missouri, Kansas. Headquarters: St. Louis, Missouri. Eighth Division: California, Utah, Arizona. Headquarters: San Francisco. Ninth Division: Michigan lines of New York Central Railroad between New York City and Chicago. Headquarters: Cleveland. Tenth Division: North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Michigan peninsula.
Headquarters: St. Paul, Minnesota. Eleventh Division: New Mexico, Oklahoma. Headquarters: Fort Worth. Twelfth Division: Arkansas, Mississippi. Headquarters: New Orleans. Thirteenth Division: Montana, Oregon, Washington. Headquarters: Seattle. Fourteenth Division: Colorado, Nebraska. Headquarters: Omaha. Fifteenth Division: Pennsylvania, Delaware lines of Pennsylvania Railroad west of Pittsburgh. Headquarters: Pittsburgh. Owney, railway service mascot Railway Mail Service Library Washington Park and Zoo Railway Mobile Post Office Society History of the United States Postal Service 1775-1993: Railway Mail Service National Postal Museum - Railway Post Office Bergman, Edwin B. 29 Years to Oblivion, The Last Years of Railway Mail Service in the United States, Mobile Post Office Society, Nebraska. Wilking, Clarence; the Railway Mail Service, Railway Mail Service Library, Virginia. Available as an MS Word file at http://www.railwaymailservicelibrary.org/articles/THE_RMS. DOC U. S. Post Office Department. MEN AND MAIL IN TRANSIT, Railway Mail Service Library, Virginia.
Portion available as a video clip at http://www.railwaymailservicelibrary.org/videos/m&mit01. MPG National Postal Transport Association. MAIL IN MOTION, Railway Mail Service Library, Virginia. Portion available as a video clip at http://www.railwaymailservicelibrary.org/videos/MI
Memphis Central Station
Memphis Central Station, referred to as Grand Central Station prior to 1944, is a passenger terminal in Memphis, Tennessee. Located along Main Street and G. E. Patterson Boulevard in Downtown Memphis, it serves Amtrak's City of New Orleans route and the MATA Trolley system; the building was opened in 1914. Central Station was built on the site of a former station known as Calhoun Street Station. Both stations were owned by its predecessors. Construction of Memphis Central Station began in September 1912, the station was opened for service on October 4, 1914; the track design included five stub-end tracks, five through tracks. The station was used by Yazoo and Mississippi Valley Railroad, St. Louis-San Francisco Railway, Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway. Between April 1, 1964, November 30, 1966, the Louisville and Nashville Railroad was a tenant, during the time that Memphis Union Station was closed. Lavender v. Kurn, 327 U. S. 645 was a case decided by the Supreme Court of the United States dealing with a negligent wrongful death case against a railroad employer under the station.
The relatives of the switchtender sued for negligence under the Federal Employers Liability Act and the Supreme Court upheld the claim. Like other large stations across America, the rapid decline of the passenger train network in the 1960s made Memphis Central Station an aging, nearly deserted monument to an earlier era. Rock Island passenger train service to Memphis ended in November 1967, Frisco train service ended a month leaving Illinois Central as the sole occupant of the station. On May 1, 1971, Amtrak took over nearly all passenger trains in the United States. Amtrak cut back service to a single train, the City of New Orleans, large sections of Central Station were closed off and abandoned. Illinois Central offices were moved from the station, it appeared that the station would be razed, facing the same fate as Union Station. After falling into disrepair, Memphis Central Station gained a reputation as one of the worst stations on the Amtrak system; the property was acquired by Memphis Area Transit Authority, a massive renovation project was undertaken.
Much of the former waiting room area of the station would become a public meeting area, the Illinois Central office space on upper floors was converted to condominiums, Amtrak retained a smaller presence in the former midway area of the station. The station renovation, completed in November 1999, helped to speed the renovation and redevelopment of this once deserted area of downtown Memphis. Presently, this is one of only two Amtrak stations in the other being the Newbern Depot. In anticipation of the landfall of Hurricane Gustav, the city of New Orleans began evacuating residents without the means to leave the city, starting on August 30, 2008. One thousand twenty-four evacuees arrived in Memphis via Amtrak. A partial list of named trains in the pre-Amtrak period that served Central Station: Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway Choctaw Rocket Cherokee Hot Springs Special Memphis Californian Southwest Express Illinois Central Railroad Panama Limited City of New Orleans Louisiane Louisville and Nashville Railroad Pan-American Southern Railway Tennessean St. Louis-San Francisco Railway Memphian Kansas City-Florida Special Sunnyland Yazoo and Mississippi Valley Railroad Delta Express Planter Union Station Media related to Central Station at Wikimedia Commons Condren, Mike.
"Memphis Central Station," Memphis Historical Railroad Pages Parker, Tom. "IC-Memphis Central Station," Illinois Central Net Memphis Amtrak Station Memphis, TN Memphis, TN – Amtrak
Boyce is a town in Clarke County, United States. The population was 589 at the 2010 census, up from 426 at the 2000 census. Boyce is located in western Clarke County at 39°5′35″N 78°3′33″W, along U. S. Route 340, it is 6 miles southwest of the county seat and 16 miles northeast of Front Royal. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.35 square miles, all of it land. The town is situated at the crossing of the Norfolk & Western Railway and the Winchester and Berry's Ferry Turnpike about 2 miles northwest of Millwood, of which it is the shipping point, it is built upon a ridge, which drains on the east into Page Brook and to the west into Roseville Run. It is well underlaid with water; as of the census of 2000, there were 426 people, 159 households, 114 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,179.9 people per square mile. There were 168 housing units at an average density of 465.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 86.38% White, 11.74% African American, 1.17% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.47% from two or more races.
There were 159 households out of which 27.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.2% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.3% were non-families. 25.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.19. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $48,333, the median income for a family was $52,000. Males had a median income of $35,179 versus $21,354 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,041. About 6.5% of families and 8.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.5% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over.
The town of Boyce was incorporated by the Circuit Court for the County of Clarke on the 28th day of November, 1910, with a recorded population of 312. The first election for mayor and four councilmen was held on the 20 December 1910, at which W. M. Gaunt was elected Mayor and George W. Garvin, M. O. Simpson, J. T. Sprint and Geo. B. Harrison were elected Councilmen. B. Harrison, Recorder; the Norfolk & Western Railway passes through the center of the business portion of the town, which at the time of the building of the railroad in 1881 was dense woods. The Norfolk & Western Railway erected a large station in the town in 1912; the Shenandoah Valley Railroad was constructed in Clarke County in 1879. It started in Hagerstown and went south to Roanoke, Virginia; the railroad opened from Hagerstown to Berryville on October 1, 1879. The town of Boyce, located 6 miles southwest of Berryville, began in 1881 with the arrival of the Shenandoah Valley Railroad. Located at the railroad crossing with the Millwood Turnpike, Boyce remains much as it was in the early 20th century.
The town was named after Colonel Upton L. Boyce, who lived at the nearby Tuleyries estate and, influential in persuading the railroad to pass through Clarke County. Previous to the current railroad station, there was a much smaller one located on the same side of the tracks but right along the Millwood Turnpike; the railroad was upgrading some of their railroad stations during the early 1910s and were going to replace the original station in Boyce. The new building was to be a small wooden one, sit along the west side of the tracks at its intersection with the Millwood Turnpike. According to local tradition and some historical accounts, the citizens of Boyce wanted a larger, more ornate building and wanted it to be located on the east side of the tracks, they raised money on their own and gave it to the Norfolk and Western to upgrade to a larger station. A December 11, 1912, article in The Clarke Courier entitled "New Depot for Boyce" states: "The public spirit of the citizens of Boyce has again scored a victory.
Some time ago the N & W Railway Company announced that it would erect a new passenger station at Boyce. "The plans submitted by the railway company did not suit the Boyce people, they at once started a movement to secure a better piece of ground in order that a more pretentious station might be erected. "The old buildings have been removed from the Page-Manning lot, work on a new and commodious passenger station, of concrete construction, will be started at once. "This is the spirit. "The Boyce people are quick to go down in their pockets and contribute to any and every cause which will advance their town...." The train station was completed in late 1913. A November 26, 1913, article in The Clarke Courier states: "The new N & W station, with fine concrete platforms, promenade, long train shed, electric-lighted throughout, with all modern conveniences for the comfort of patrons, is a great addition to the town." In a December 23, 1914, article in The Clarke Courier, entitled "The Hustling Town of Boyce," the railroad station is described: "...water is now piped to the ma