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Transfer of sovereignty over Macau

The transfer of sovereignty of Macau from Portugal to the People's Republic of China occurred on 20 December 1999. Macau was settled by Portuguese merchants in 1535, during the Ming Dynasty and was subsequently under various degrees of Portuguese rule until 1999. Portugal's involvement in the region was formally recognised by the Qing in 1749; the Portuguese governor João Maria Ferreira do Amaral, emboldened by the First Opium War and the Treaty of Nanking, attempted to annex the territory, expelling Qing authorities in 1846, but was assassinated. After the Second Opium War, the Portuguese government, along with a British representative, signed the Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking that gave Portugal sovereignty over Macau, on the condition that Portugal would cooperate in efforts to end the smuggling of opium. After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the transfer of China's seat to the PRC at the United Nations in 1971, foreign minister Huang Hua appealed to the UN Special Committee on Decolonization to remove Macau from its list of colonies, preferring bilateral negotiations ending in a return of the territory, rather than the independence of the territory as was implied by its inclusion on the list.

The Carnation Revolution of 1974 saw Portugal‘s right-wing regime replaced by a centre-left administration which implemented an agenda centred on the decolonisation of Portugal’s remaining possessions outside Europe. Within one year, the government of Portugal withdrew its troops from Macau, withdrew recognition of the Republic of China in favour of the People's Republic, began negotiations for the return of Macau. Four conferences from June 1986 to March 1987 resulted in a Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration on 13 April 1987 and the transfer of sovereignty on 20 December 1999. Macau is granted a high level of autonomy and the retention of its legal system by the Macau Basic Law; the history of Macau is traced back to the Qin Dynasty, when the region now called Macau came under the jurisdiction of Panyu county, in Nanhai prefecture. The Portuguese arrived in the 16th century and wished to obtain rights to anchor ships in Macau's harbours and to carry out trading activities. Around 1552–1553, they obtained temporary permission to erect storage sheds onshore, in order to dry out goods drenched by sea water.

In 1557, the Portuguese established a permanent settlement in Macau, paying an annual rent of 500 taels of silver as an annual lease. Because of the activities of Portuguese settlers and Japanese Wokou, the Ming Dynasty tightened its control over Macau between 1608 and 1614. In 1623, the Portuguese government appointed D. Francisco Mascarenhas as the Governor of Macau. At first, the governor was only responsible for the defence of Macau, Fortaleza do Monte was constructed for this purpose. In 1749, the Qing government issued a complete set of guidelines for Portugal's administration of Macau and carved the Portuguese version on a stela in the Edifício do Leal Senado. However, the Governor of Macau, the representative of Portugal took over the power of the Senado; when the Treaty of Nanking was signed in 1842 between Britain and China, the Portuguese government requested the Qing government to exempt them from the ground rent. The Qing authorities refused the request, but retained the preferentials that were given to Portugal.

However, on 20 November 1845, Maria II of Portugal unilaterally declared Macau a free port implying the abolition of Portugal‘s duty to pay ground rent to the Qing government and unilaterally bestowing upon the merchant vessels of other countries the right to dock and trade in Macau. After the new Governor of Macau, João Ferreira do Amaral, arrived in 1846, a series of colonial policies were enforced in Macau. In May 1846, Amaral demanded that all Chinese residents in Macau pay ground rent, poll tax and property tax, which broadened Portuguese rule in Macau over the Chinese residents; the Qing authorities in Macau protested against Amaral's action and attempted to negotiate. However, beginning in 1849, Amaral expelled all Qing officials from Macau, destroyed the Qing Customs office and stopped paying ground rent to the Qing government. Amaral's actions enraged the Chinese residents further, he was assassinated on 22 August 1849. In 1862, the Portuguese and Qing governments signed the draft of the Sino-Portuguese Peaceful Trade Pact.

However, the Portuguese had the intention of annexing Macau with this pact. The intention was discovered and negotiations were stopped; the topic was not brought up again until 1886, when the Portuguese representative, along with the British representative, opened negotiations with the Qing government once again. Promising that they would cooperate on the anti-smuggling of opium, the Qing and Portuguese governments signed the Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking and the Sino-Portuguese Peaceful Trade Relation Pact; these treaties stated that, "Agreed by China, Portugal will remain in Macau and administer its land the same way Portugal administers other places". However, to avoid the total loss of sovereignty, the Qing government reserved the right to prevent Portugal from transferring Macau to another country. If Portugal were going to transfer Macau to another country, they would require the permission of the Chinese government; when the government of the People's Republic of China obtained its seat in the United Nations as a result of the UN General Assembly Resolution 2758 in 1971, it began to take diplomatic action to re-establish Chinese sovereignty over Hong Kong and Macau.

Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai was concerned with the issue. In March 1972, the Chinese UN representative

Arthur Segal (painter)

Arthur Segal was a Romanian artist and author. Segal was born to Jewish parents in Iaşi, studied at the Berlin Academy from 1892, he studied with Schmid-Reutte and Hölzel in Munich in 1896, studied in Paris and Italy in the early 1900s. After studying in Paris and Italy, he moved to Berlin in 1904 where he exhibited his work with Die Brucke and Der Blaue Reiter, two leading German expression groups. In 1910 he co-founded the Neue Sezession, a group of artists whose work was rejected by the Berliner Sezession. On the outbreak of war in 1914 he moved to Ascona, Switzerland with his family, remained there until 1920. During the war, Switzerland became a refuge for many artists like Segal, whilst he was there he exhibited some of his work with Arp and Dada in the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich. In 1920, he returned to Berlin, where he founded his own art school in Novembergruppe, he was offered a teaching job at the Bauhaus in Dessau. Because of his Jewish background he was prevented from exhibiting his work in Germany, so in 1933 he moved to Palma and London, where he set up another school with his daughter Marianne.

He died in London. Segal was firstly a painter, his early work was influenced by impressionism and neo-impressionism. From around 1910 he began a more expressionism and dadaism style, around 1916 found his own modern style; as well as painting, he produced woodcuts from 1910, many of which were anti-war themed. Segal was the author of many books and gave lectures, his son was the architect Walter Segal. "McLean Arts & Books - Browsing Artists". Archived from the original on April 21, 2008. Retrieved 2007-11-21. "Guide to the Papers of Arthur Segal 1903-1987, AR 7105". Retrieved 2013-10-06. Immatriculation at Munich Art Academy Imogen Wiltshire: Painting as Psychotherapy: Arthur Segal’s Painting School for Professionals and Non-Professionals. University of Birmingham, 2013 Paintings by Arthur Segal at the Jewish Museum Berlin Paintings by Arthur Segal at Romanian National Art Museum 35 paintings by or after Arthur Segal at the Art UK site ArtNet: More works by Segal. Arthur Segal at Find a Grave Guide to the Papers of Arthur Segal at the Leo Baeck Institute, New York

Timeline of Tirana

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Tirana, Albania. 1572 - Tirana mentioned as "Borgo di Tirana" - Tirana-burgh. 1614 - Sulejman Bargjini built a hammam and mosque, transforming the settlement into a commercial center of the area. 1780 - Saint Procopius Church of Tirana established. 1822 - Et'hem Bey Mosque and Clock Tower of Tirana built. 1865 Municipal Council created. St. Mary's Catholic Church built. 1912 - 26 November: The Albanian flag is raised, two days before the Albanian Declaration of Independence in Valona. 1913 - Zyber Hallulli becomes mayor. 1917 - 28 November: "Streha Vorfnore", the first public orphanage in Albania was established. 1918 - 19–20 December: Congress of Tirana took place, a preparatory for the Congress of Durrës. 1920 - 9 February: Tirana becomes provisional capital of Albania. 1921 - Albanian Vocational School founded. 1922 - National Library headquartered in Tirana. 1923 - Muslim Community of Albania headquartered in Tirana. 1925 Bektashi order moved its headquarters in Tirana.

31 December: Tirana becomes permanent capital of Albania. 1926 - 27 November: Italian-Albanian pact signed in Tirana. 1927 - 22 November: Italian-Albanian military pact signed in Tirana. 1929 - Orthodox Autocephalous Church of Albania headquartered in Tirana. 1930 - Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard laid out. 1938 - Radio Tirana begins broadcasting. 1939 Italian occupation begins. Kosovo cinema opens. 1941 - Communist Party of Albania headquartered in Tirana. 1942 - Zëri i Popullit newspaper begins publication. 1943 Italian occupation ends. Bashkimi newspaper begins publication. 1945 - State Professional Theatre active. 1946 - Teachers' college opens. 1949 - Durrës-Tirana railway begins operating. 1950 - Rinia Park created. 1951 - Higher Agricultural Institute established. 1953 - National Theatre of Opera and Ballet of Albania founded. 1954 - Gallery of Figurative Art opens. 1957 - State University of Tirana established. 1960 - Great Park created. 1963 - Palace of Culture of Tirana built. 1966 - High Institute of Arts founded.

1968 - Skanderbeg Monument erected in Skanderbeg Square. 1971 - University's Botanical Gardens of Tirana created. 1972 - Academy of Sciences of Albania headquartered in city. 1979 - Population: 189,000. 1981 - National Historical Museum opens. 1986 - Palace of Congresses built. 1988 International Center of Culture opens. Enver Hoxha statue erected. 1989 - Population: 238,057. 1990 - December: Student strike. 1991 Koha Jonë newspaper begins publication. Polytechnic University of Tirana active. Confederation of Trade Unions headquartered in Tirana. 1992 - Prefecture of Tirana created. 1997 - January: Albanian Rebellion of 1997 begins. 2000 - Design of Tirana Coat of Arms adopted. 2008 - 10 March: Centre of Albanological Studies established. 2001 St Paul's Cathedral built. Population: 343,078. 2011 January: 2011 Albanian opposition demonstrations. 8 May: Albanian local elections, 2011 held. Lulzim Basha becomes mayor. Population: 418,495. 2012 Resurrection Cathedral, Tirana built. TID Tower built. 2015 - Erion Veliaj becomes mayor.

Tirana history List of mayors of Tirana This article incorporates information from the Albanian Wikipedia and German Wikipedia

Butch (nickname)

Butch is a nickname which may refer to: Frederick Alan Aikman, Canadian World War II flying ace Butch Baird, American retired PGA and Senior PGA Tour golfer Butch Ballard, American jazz drummer Butch Beard, American basketball player William H. Blanchard, US Air Force four-star general Émile Bouchard, Canadian National Hockey League player and member of the Hockey Hall of Fame Butch Buchholz, American former tennis player Mark Butcher, English former Test cricketer Butch Cassidy ne Robert LeRoy Parker, American outlaw Butch Davis, American football coach Ronald DeFeo, Jr. American murderer Kevin DuBrow, American lead vocalist of the heavy metal band Quiet Riot Adrian S. Fisher, American lawyer and public servant Butch Goring, Canadian National Hockey League player William Edward Hanford, American chemist who developed the modern process for making polyurethane Butch Harmon, American golf instructor and former player Sir Arthur Harris, 1st Baronet, Marshal of the Royal Air Force during the Second World War Butch Hartman, American animator, director, producer and voice actor Butch Hartman, American stock car racing national champion Bob Heffner, American retired Major League Baseball pitcher Butch James, South African former rugby union player Butch Johnson, former National Football League wide receiver John J. Lenzini, Jr.

American Thoroughbred horse trainer Butch Levy, American football player and professional wrestler Butch Lindley, American NASCAR driver Butch Lochner, South African former international rugby union player Obert Logan, American National Football League player Graeme Macdougall, Australian former Rugby Union player Ed Mierkowicz, American former Major League Baseball player Butch Morris, American jazz cornetist and conductor Jonathan Norton, original drummer for the band Eels Edward O'Hare, American pilot during World War II Butch Otter and current Governor of Idaho Butch Reynolds, American former 400-meter sprinter Harry G. Robinson III, American architect and professor Roy Sanders, American Major League Baseball pitcher Clyde J. Tate II, American major general and army lawyer Butch Vig, American musician and producer, drummer for the band Garbage Roy Marlin Voris, American World War II flying ace and founder of the Blue Angels flight demonstration squadron Bill Walker, New Zealand former Australian rules footballer Butch Walker, American recording artist and record producer Ray Wilkins, English former football player Butch Wynegar, American major league baseball player

List of conquistadors

The following is a list of conquistadors. Hernando de Alarcón Diego de Almagro Alonso de Alvarado Pedro de Alvarado Luis de Moscoso Alvarado Juan de Ampudia Pascual de Andagoya Pedro Arias de Ávila Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón Juan de Ayolas Vasco Núnez de Balboa Rodrigo de Bastidas Sebastián de Belalcázar Francisco de Bobadilla Álvar Núnez Cabeza de Vaca Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Alonso de Cáceres Bartolomé Camacho Zambrano Juan de la Cámara Francisco Cano Alonso de Cárdenas García López de Cárdenas Juan de Cárdenas Luis de Cárdenas Antonio Díaz de Cardoso Juan de Carvajal Juan de Céspedes Beltrán de Cetina Gregorio de Cetina Pedro Cieza de León Christopher Columbus Francisco Hernández de Córdoba Francisco Hernández de Córdoba Francisco Vázquez de Coronado Hernán Cortés Juan de la Cosa Bartolomé de Las Casas Bernal Díaz del Castillo Melchor Díaz Ambrosius Ehinger Luis Fajardo de Córdoba Nikolaus Federmann Martín Fernández de Enciso Pedro Fernández de Lugo Pedro Fernández de Valenzuela Juan Freyle Alejandro de la Fuente Aleixo Garcia Diego García de Paredes Martín de Goiti Estêvão Gomes Gil González Dávila Juan de Grijalva Nuño de Guzmán Pedro de Heredia Miguel Holguín y Figueroa Philipp von Hutten Domingo Martínez de Irala Luis Lanchero Miguel López de Legazpi Diego de Losada Gonzalo Macías Baltasar Maldonado Luis Marin Diego de Mazariegos Pedro de Mendoza Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Pedro Menéndez de Márquez Gutierre de Miranda Diego Miruelo Francisco de Montejo Diego de Montemayor Pánfilo de Narváez Diego de Nicuesa Alonso de Ojeda Cristóbal de Olid Diego de Ordaz Francisco de Orellana Juan de Oñate Rodrigo Orgóñez Alonso Álvarez de Pineda Francisco Pizarro Gonzalo Pizarro Juan Pizarro Hernándo Pizarro Juan Ponce de León Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada Hernán Pérez de Quesada Jorge Robledo Gaspar de Rodas Bartolomé Ruiz Juan de Salcedo Juan de Sanct Martín Francisco "Chamuscado" Sánchez Gonzalo de Sandoval Hernando de Soto Juan Díaz de Solís Georg von Speyer Gonzalo Suárez Rendón Francisco de Ulloa Martín de Ursúa Pedro de Ursúa Pedro de Valdivia Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Ortún Velázquez de Velasco Hernán Venegas Carrillo Conquistador List of explorers Spanish colonization of the Americas List of conquistadors in Colombia Encomienda

Humboldt Street Historic District

Humboldt Street Historic District, or Humboldt Island, is located west of Cheesman Park in Denver, Colorado on Humboldt Street between East Tenth and Twelfth Streets. It was the first residential district to be designated a historic district by the Denver Landmark Preservation Commission in 1972, is listed as a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places. There are 25 houses in the district built between 1895 and 1920, they were designed by prominent architectural firms, including Willison and Fallis and Norton, Barressen Brothers. There district contains houses of Renaissance Revival, Georgian Revival, Colonial Revival as well as simple Foursquare style architecture; some of Denver's most wealthy and influential people lived in the neighborhood. After Frederick G. Bonfils' mansion was torn down to make way for a fifteen-story apartment house, Denver passed an ordinated to protect Cheesman Park's mountain view from other high-rise buildings. Bonfils and Henry Hammen were owners of self-made millionaires.

Hammen had a Tuscan villa at 1061 Humboldt. Mining millionaires, the Stoibers had the district's showiest mansion, Stoiber-Reed-Humphreys Mansion, of Renaissance Revival-style architecture. Governor William Ellery Sweet lived in a Georgian Revival-style house at 1075 Humboldt. Frederick G. Bonfils Helen Bonfils Verner Zevola Reed May Bonfils Stanton Governor William Ellery Sweet Humboldt Street Historic District house, Denver Public Library Digital Collection