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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Transferase

A transferase is any one of a class of enzymes that enact the transfer of specific functional groups from one molecule to another. They are involved in hundreds of different biochemical pathways throughout biology, are integral to some of life's most important processes. Transferases are involved in myriad reactions in the cell. Three examples of these reactions are the activity of coenzyme A transferase, which transfers thiol esters, the action of N-acetyltransferase, part of the pathway that metabolizes tryptophan, the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, which converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA. Transferases are utilized during translation. In this case, an amino acid chain is the functional group transferred by a peptidyl transferase; the transfer involves the removal of the growing amino acid chain from the tRNA molecule in the A-site of the ribosome and its subsequent addition to the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the P-site. Mechanistically, an enzyme that catalyzed the following reaction would be a transferase: X g r o u p + Y → t r a n s f e r a s e X + Y g r o u p In the above reaction, X would be the donor, Y would be the acceptor.

"Group" would be the functional group transferred as a result of transferase activity. The donor is a coenzyme; some of the most important discoveries relating to transferases occurred as early as the 1930s. Earliest discoveries of transferase activity occurred in other classifications of enzymes, including Beta-galactosidase and acid/base phosphatase. Prior to the realization that individual enzymes were capable of such a task, it was believed that two or more enzymes enacted functional group transfers. Transamination, or the transfer of an amine group from an amino acid to a keto acid by an aminotransferase, was first noted in 1930 by D. M. Needham, after observing the disappearance of glutamic acid added to pigeon breast muscle; this observance was verified by the discovery of its reaction mechanism by Braunstein and Kritzmann in 1937. Their analysis showed; this assertion was validated by Rudolf Schoenheimer's work with radioisotopes as tracers in 1937. This in turn would pave the way for the possibility that similar transfers were a primary means of producing most amino acids via amino transfer.

Another such example of early transferase research and reclassification involved the discovery of uridyl transferase. In 1953, the enzyme UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was shown to be a transferase, when it was found that it could reversibly produce UTP and G1P from UDP-glucose and an organic pyrophosphate. Another example of historical significance relating to transferase is the discovery of the mechanism of catecholamine breakdown by catechol-O-methyltransferase; this discovery was a large part of the reason for Julius Axelrod’s 1970 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Classification of transferases continues with new ones being discovered frequently. An example of this is Pipe, a sulfotransferase involved in the dorsal-ventral patterning of Drosophilia; the exact mechanism of Pipe was unknown, due to a lack of information on its substrate. Research into Pipe's catalytic activity eliminated the likelihood of it being a heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan. Further research has shown. Pipe is classified as a Drosophilia heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase.

Systematic names of transferases are constructed in the form of "donor:acceptor grouptransferase." For example, methylamine:L-glutamate N-methyltransferase would be the standard naming convention for the transferase methylamine-glutamate N-methyltransferase, where methylamine is the donor, L-glutamate is the acceptor, methyltransferase is the EC category grouping. This same action by the transferase can be illustrated as follows: methylamine + L-glutamate ⇌ NH3 + N-methyl-L-glutamateHowever, other accepted names are more used for transferases, are formed as "acceptor grouptransferase" or "donor grouptransferase." For example, a DNA methyltransferase is a transferase that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group to a DNA acceptor. In practice, many molecules are not referred to using this terminology due to more prevalent common names. For example, RNA Polymerase is the modern common name for what was known as RNA nucleotidyltransferase, a kind of nucleotidyl transferase that transfers nucleotides to the 3’ end of a growing RNA strand.

In the EC system of classification, the accepted name for RNA Polymerase is DNA-directed RNA polymerase. Described based on the type of biochemical group transferred, transferases can be divided into ten categories; these categories comprise over 450 different unique enzymes. In the EC numbering system, transferases have been given a classification of EC2. Hydrogen is not considered a functional group. EC 2.1 includes enzymes. This category consists of transfers of methyl, formyl

John Langston (MP)

John Langston was an English merchant banker and politician. He sat in the House of Commons of Great Britain and its successor the House of Commons of the United Kingdom for most of the years between 1784 and 1807. Langston was the oldest son of Sarsden House in Oxfordshire. In 1784 he married daughter of John Goddard of Woodford Hall, Essex, they had four daughters. Langston was educated at Eton, he had a generous inheritance from his father, who died in 1795. As well as being a wine merchant in London, James Langston was a deputy governor of the Bank of England and founder of the merchant bank of Langston and Amory. John inherited a partnership in the bank, shares in the British East India Company, the Sarsden and Churchill estates in Oxfordshire, £300,000. Langston was a director of the Sun Fire Office from 1794 until his death, he never found a safe seat. At the 1784 election he was returned after a contest as a Member of Parliament for Sudbury, an open borough with a reputation for venality where the government backed his candidacy.

At the next election, in 1790, he contested Bridgwater in the interest of the 4th Earl Poulett. The Earl of Egmont had funded his son Viscount Perceval to contest the seat, but Langston and Poulett's brother Vere won by a comfortable margin. Having joined the opposition, Langston was no longer acceptable to Poulett, so he turned instead to Minehead, where opposition was mounting to the "overbearing conduct" of the borough's patron John Fownes Luttrell, whose Dunster Castle-based family had dominated the borough for most of the period since its 16th-century enfranchisement. Langston bought some building land in Alcombe, within the borough, from a Quaker William Davis who had advertised for a wealthy challenger. There he built some houses to register voters, nominated himself and his wife's brother-in-law Admiral Charles Morice Pole. At the election in 1796 John Fownes Lutrell held his own seat, but Langston defeated his brother Thomas Fownes Luttrell. Luttrell rallied his support by the next election in 1802, defeated Langston, whose illegal treating of voters after the arrival of the writ, had not been enough to win.

An election petition was prepared, but after a period of negotiations, Langston sold all his Minehead interests to Fownes Luttrell. Out of Parliament, Langston was Sheriff of Oxfordshire in 1804–05, he was returned to the Commons in March 1806 for the Irish rotten borough of Portarlington, whose patron the 2nd Earl of Portarlington accommodated Langston as a favour to the Prince of Wales. At the general election in 1806, Langston returned to Bridgwater, where he won a contested election with Vere Poulett again returned as his running-mate. However, by 1807 the earl had disowned his brother's politics, Langston withdrew. Langston never returned to Parliament, died in 1811, aged about 54

Twin Rivers Unified School District

Twin Rivers Unified School District was created as a result of the November 2007 approval of Measure B, a proposal to merge the four North Sacramento area school districts: the North Sacramento School District, the Del Paso Heights School District, the Rio Linda Union School District, the Grant Joint Union High School District. Referred to as New North Area Unified School District after Measure B passed, the name Twin Rivers was selected from among 300 submitted by community members during a three-week naming contest. Twin Rivers USD has hosted a series of community forums to obtain feedback and input from parents, classified staff and community members; the district office is located at McClellan, California. Dr. Steve Martinez, Superintendent VACANT, Deputy Superintendent of Administrative Services Dr. Lori Grace, Associate Superintendent of Educational Services Gina Carreón, Associate Superintendent of Human Resources Dr. Kristin Coates, Associate Superintendent of School Leadership David Lugo, Chief of PoliceOn December 4, 2007, the trustees selected Frank Porter to serve as Twin Rivers USD Interim Superintendent.

Porter, the superintendent of the Rio Linda Union School District was selected for the job over Ramona Bishop, the superintendent of the Del Paso Heights Elementary School District. The new district assumed operational responsibility for the 37,000 students in the four merging districts on July 1, 2008. Frank Porter has announced his retirement as of June 30, 2012 after four and a half years as the district's superintendent. Rob Ball served about three months as acting superintendent and Joe Williams served 10 months as the interim superintendent. Effective July 1, 2013, Dr. Steven Martinez of Fresno Unified now serves as the district superintendent. Five of the district's assistant superintendents have become superintendents - Ed. D. became the superintendent at Woodland Joint Unified in July 2009 until her retirement in July 2014, Ramona Bishop, Ed. D.became the superintendent at Vallejo City Unified in April 2011, Gloria Hernandez-Goff, Ed. D. became the Superintendent of the Ravenswood School District in May 2013, Rusty Clark became the superintendent of the Pleasant Ridge School District near Grass Valley in June 2013.

Dr. Shelly Holt, secondary curriculum director for the district when it first started is now in the Fontana Unified School District in Southern California. A portion of the City of Sacramento is served by Twin Rivers Schools. North Sacramento and Del Paso Heights are served by Grant Union High School and Trustees Rebecca Sandoval, Linda Fowler and Ramona Landeros. Norte Del Rio High School served this area until its closure in the 1980s. Three of Sacramento's westside suburbs are served by Twin Rivers Schools: Foothill Farms, CA - this area is served by Foothill High School and Trustee Michael Baker and Michelle Rivas North Highlands, CA - this area is served by Highlands High School and Trustee Michelle Rivas and Ramona Landeros Rio Linda, CA - this area is served by Rio Linda High School and Trustee Bob Bastian http://www.twinriversusd.org/About/School-Board/index.html Michelle Rivas, President of the Board Michael Baker, Vice President of the Board Basim Elkarra, Clerk of the Board Bob Bastian Rebecca Sandoval Ramona Landeros Linda Fowler There have been several students and staff members of the schools that are within the Twin Rivers USD.

Darren Oliver - Rio Linda High - Pitcher Anaheim Angels MLB Virginia Avila - Grant Union High School Teacher - California Teacher of the Year 2003 Sean Chambers - Highlands High School Class of 1983, - Alaska Aces star player Grantland Johnson - Grant Union High School graduate - Former California Secretary of Health and Human Services Scott Galbraith - Highlands High School, Class of 1985 - former professional American football tight end in the NFL for nine seasons - played in Super Bowl XXVIII with the champion Dallas Cowboys Dr. William H. Lee - Grant Union High School graduate - Owner/Publisher of The Sacramento Observer Rob Vernatchi - Twin Rivers Adult School NCOA Referee Graduate - NFL Official George Wright - Grant Union High School Graduate - Organist Rob Kerth - former Sacramento City councilmember and mayoral candidate Lloyd Connelly - Sacramento County Judge, former Assemblymember and Sacramento City Councilmember Allen Warren- Sacramento City CouncilmemberAlumni who came back to serve on the Board of Trustees Alecia Chasten 2008-2012 Michelle Rivas 2008-2012, 2014-Present Bob Bastian 2008-Present Rebecca Sandoval 2012–Present Michael Baker 2012–Present http://sacramento.cbslocal.com/2013/11/07/twin-rivers-trustee-taking-leave-while-facing-accusations-of-illegal-loans-falsifying-paternity-test/ http://sacramento.cbslocal.com/2012/06/28/grand-jury-report-blasts-twin-rivers-unified-school-district-administrators/ http://sacramento.cbslocal.com/2012/06/04/twin-rivers-looking-to-advertise-at-school-sites/ http://sacramento.cbslocal.com/2013/11/12/twin-rivers-unified-school-cafeteria-was-shut-down-after-failed-health-inspection/

Benjamin Munson (professor)

Benjamin Munson is a professor and chair of Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences University of Minnesota. His research relates to relationships among speech perception, speech production, vocabulary growth in children; the bulk of his research has examined how speech perception and word knowledge interact during development in developing children, in children with Speech Sound Disorder, in children with Developmental Language Disorder, in adult second-language learners, in adults with age-related hearing impairment. He has studied how people convey and perceive sexuality through phonetic variation. In research presented at the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2018, he revealed that the voices of boys and girls were identifiably different before puberty with the boys voices being lower and boys that were gender dysphoric showing traits more associated with women. Munson received his BA in Russian and Political Science from State University of New York at Buffalo, his MA in speech-language pathology from Ohio State University and his PhD in speech and hearing science from Ohio State.

Prior to entering academia, he was a political activist. He was arrested at the 1992 Republican National Convention while protesting President George H. W. Bush with the group ACT-UP. Following this event, he served a brief sentence at the Harris County Jail. Https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Benjamin_Munson/2 https://www.c-span.org/video/?c4548554/aids

Mary Strong Clemens

Mary Strong Clemens was an American botanist and plant collector. A fanatical botanist, she collected plants assiduously throughout her long life, in the remote parts of the Philippines, China, New Guinea and Australia; the latter part of her life was spent in Australia, where she died in Queensland. Born in New York as Mary Knapp Strong, she married Joseph Clemens, a Methodist Episcopalian minister, in 1896, he joined the United States Army in 1902 as a chaplain, with the rank of Captain, served in the Philippines and France during the First World War, retiring in 1918. During the period spent in the Philippines in 1905–1907, she made extensive trips through Luzon and Mindanao. After her husband's retirement, he became her assistant and the couple worked as a team of professional, full-time botanical collectors. Clemens collected the plants while her husband dried them and prepared them for shipment. Between the First and Second World Wars the Clemenses visited Hebei and Shandong provinces in China as well as Indo-China, British North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore.

Notable are their visits to Mount Kinabalu in northern Borneo in 1915, again in 1931–1934, where they amassed the largest collections of plants made from that mountain. In August 1935 they went to the Mandated Territory of New Guinea where Joseph Clemens died in January 1936 of food poisoning from contaminated wild boar meat. Mary Clemens continued to work in New Guinea until December 1941 when she was compulsorily evacuated to Australia because of impending war. In Australia she was allocated some space at the Queensland Herbarium in Brisbane, in a shed behind the main building, which she used as a base from which she continued her botanical collecting. Although the provision of facilities at the Herbarium was intended to be temporary and occasional, she settled in for the next 20 years. Living in a hostel 5 km away, she would walk to the herbarium early in the morning, sometimes cook meals and sleep in her shed overnight, despite being ordered not to, her strong religious faith was expressed in such ways as writing quotations from the Bible daily in her field journal, frequent hymn-singing that brought complaints from co-residents and neighbours, payment for field-trip accommodation with scripture lessons and hymn-singing.

In life Clemens restricted her botanical work in Australia to the state of Queensland and made field trips to Charleville, the Jericho district, the Mackay area, the Maryborough district, to Ingham and Tully in North Queensland. A broken hip in 1950 marked the end of extended field trips but she continued to work at the Queensland Herbarium until the early 1960s, she died peacefully on 13 April 1968, at the age of 95. The following species of plants are named after her: Saurauia clementis Merr. Australian National Botanic Gardens Biography - entry on Mary Clemens Accessed 4 May 2007 New York Botanical Garden - Biography of Mary Strong Clemens Accessed 4 May 2007

Peru Highway 1

Peru Highway 1, most known as Carretera Panamericana, is the most important highway in Peru. This road is the Peruvian portion of the Pan-American Highway, it runs north-south through the whole length of the country and connects all major cities in the country's coastal area. The northern terminus of the highway is located in Aguas Verdes at the border with Ecuador. Starting in this point, the highway is known as Carretera Panamericana Norte until it reaches a point located in central Lima, the country's capital. Going south from this point, the highway is called Carretera Panamericana Sur, until it reaches the southern terminus, located in the Santa Rosa Border Post, in the Tacna Region at the border with Chile; the Carretera Panamericana crosses Peru from south to north over a distance of 4,146 km. Going north from the border with Chile, it passes through the Tacna Region, the Moquegua Region, the Arequipa Region, the Ica Region, the Lima Region, the Lima Province, the Ancash Region, the La Libertad Region, the Lambayeque Region, the Piura Region, the Tumbes Region at the Ecuadorian border