Susan Sutherland Isaacs
Susan Sutherland Isaacs, CBE was a Lancashire-born educational psychologist and psychoanalyst. She published studies on the intellectual and social development of children and promoted the nursery school movement. For Isaacs, the best way for children to learn was by developing their independence, she believed that the most effective way to achieve this was through play, that the role of adults and early educators was to guide children's play. Isaacs was born in 1885 in Turton, the daughter of William Fairhurst, a journalist and Methodist lay preacher, his wife, Miriam Sutherland, her mother died. Shortly afterwards she became alienated from her father after he married the nurse who had attended her mother during her illness. Aged 15, she was removed from Bolton Secondary School by her father because she had converted to atheistic socialism, she stayed at home with her stepmother until she was 22. She was first apprenticed to a photographer and she began her teaching career as a governess for an English family.
In 1907, Isaacs enrolled to train as a teacher of young children at the University of Manchester. Isaacs transferred to a degree course and graduated in 1912 with a first class degree in Philosophy, she was awarded a scholarship at the Psychological Laboratory in Newnham College and gained a master's degree in 1913. Isaacs trained and practised as a psychoanalyst after analysis by the psychoanalyst John Carl Flugel, she became an associate member of the newly formed British Psychoanalytical Society in 1921, becoming a full member in 1923. She began her own practice that same year, she underwent brief analysis with Otto Rank and in 1927 she submitted herself to further analysis with Joan Riviere, to get personal experience and understanding of Melanie Klein's new ideas on infancy. Isaacs helped popularise the works of Klein, as well as the theories of Jean Piaget and Sigmund Freud, she was enthusiastic for Jean Piaget's theories on the intellectual development of young children, though she criticised his schemas for stages of cognitive development, which were not based on the observation of the child in their natural environment, unlike her own observations at Malting House School.
Between 1924 and 1927, she was the head of Malting House School in Cambridge, an experimental school founded by Geoffrey Pyke. The school fostered the individual development of children. Children were supported rather than punished; the teachers were seen as observers of the children. Her work had a great influence on early education and made play a central part of a child's education. Isaacs believed that play was the child's work. Between 1929 and 1940, she was an'agony aunt' under the pseudonym of Ursula Wise, replying to readers' problems in several child care journals, notably The Nursery World and Home and School. In 1933, she became the first Head of the Child Development Department at the Institute of Education, University of London, where she established an advanced course in child development for teachers of young children, her department had a great influence on the teaching profession and encouraged the profession to consider psychodynamic theory with developmental psychology. Isaacs argued that it is important to develop children's skills to think and exercise independent judgement.
Developing a child's independence is beneficial to their development as an individual. Parents were viewed as the main educators of their children with institutionalised care for children before the age 7 being potential damaging. Children learned best through their own play. For Isaacs, play involves a perpetual form of experiment..."at any moment, a new line of inquiry or argumemt might flash out, a new step in understanding be taken". Thus play should be viewed as children's work, social interaction is an important part of play and learning; the emotional needs of children are very important and symbolic and fantasy play could be a release for a child's feelings. "What imaginative play does, in the first place is to create practical situations which may then be pursued for their own sake, this leads on to actual discovery or to verbal judgment and reasoning". The role of the adults is to guide children's play, but on the whole they should have freedom to explore, her book Intellectual Growth in Young Children explains her perspective.
However, Isaacs was not in favour of uncontrolled self-expression: rather, she stressed the importance in child development of the internalisation of what she called the “good-strict” parent – one able to control the child's instincts, prevent their unrestrained force from harming self or other. She was one of the first to review and challenge Jean Piaget's stages of child development. During the Controversial discussions of the British Psychoanalytical Society, Isaacs presented an influential position paper of 1943 setting out the Kleinian view of phantasy. There she maintained that “Unconscious phantasies exert a continuous influence throughout life, both in normal and neurotic people”, adding that in the analytic situation “the patient's relation to his analyst is entirely one of unconscious phantasy”, her statement has however been criticised as a kind of'pan-instinctualism', over-simplifying the full range and scope of phantasy to a purely instinctual aim". Isaacs embarked upon a series of lectures in infant school education at Darlington Training College.
In 1914, she married a botany lecturer. A
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness or of being aware of an external object or something within oneself. It has been defined variously in terms of sentience, qualia, the ability to experience or to feel, having a sense of selfhood or soul, the fact that there is something "that it is like" to "have" or "be" it, the executive control system of the mind. Despite the difficulty in definition, many philosophers believe that there is a broadly shared underlying intuition about what consciousness is; as Max Velmans and Susan Schneider wrote in The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness: "Anything that we are aware of at a given moment forms part of our consciousness, making conscious experience at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives."Western philosophers, since the time of Descartes and Locke, have struggled to comprehend the nature of consciousness and identify its essential properties. Issues of concern in the philosophy of consciousness include whether the concept is fundamentally coherent.
Thanks to developments in technology over the past few decades, consciousness has become a significant topic of interdisciplinary research in cognitive science, with significant contributions from fields such as psychology, anthropology and neuroscience. The primary focus is on understanding what it means biologically and psychologically for information to be present in consciousness—that is, on determining the neural and psychological correlates of consciousness; the majority of experimental studies assess consciousness in humans by asking subjects for a verbal report of their experiences. Issues of interest include phenomena such as subliminal perception, denial of impairment, altered states of consciousness produced by alcohol and other drugs, or spiritual or meditative techniques. In medicine, consciousness is assessed by observing a patient's arousal and responsiveness, can be seen as a continuum of states ranging from full alertness and comprehension, through disorientation, loss of meaningful communication, loss of movement in response to painful stimuli.
Issues of practical concern include how the presence of consciousness can be assessed in ill, comatose, or anesthetized people, how to treat conditions in which consciousness is impaired or disrupted. The degree of consciousness is measured by standardized behavior observation scales such as the Glasgow Coma Scale; the origin of the modern concept of consciousness is attributed to John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding, published in 1690. Locke defined consciousness as "the perception of what passes in a man's own mind", his essay influenced the 18th-century view of consciousness, his definition appeared in Samuel Johnson's celebrated Dictionary. "Consciousness" is defined in the 1753 volume of Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie, as "the opinion or internal feeling that we ourselves have from what we do." The earliest English language uses of "conscious" and "consciousness" date back, however, to the 1500s. The English word "conscious" derived from the Latin conscius, but the Latin word did not have the same meaning as our word—it meant "knowing with", in other words "having joint or common knowledge with another".
There were, many occurrences in Latin writings of the phrase conscius sibi, which translates as "knowing with oneself", or in other words "sharing knowledge with oneself about something". This phrase had the figurative meaning of "knowing that one knows", as the modern English word "conscious" does. In its earliest uses in the 1500s, the English word "conscious" retained the meaning of the Latin conscius. For example, Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan wrote: "Where two, or more men, know of one and the same fact, they are said to be Conscious of it one to another." The Latin phrase conscius sibi, whose meaning was more related to the current concept of consciousness, was rendered in English as "conscious to oneself" or "conscious unto oneself". For example, Archbishop Ussher wrote in 1613 of "being so conscious unto myself of my great weakness". Locke's definition from 1690 illustrates. A related word was conscientia, which means moral conscience. In the literal sense, "conscientia" means knowledge-with, that is, shared knowledge.
The word first appears in Latin juridical texts by writers such as Cicero. Here, conscientia is the knowledge. René Descartes is taken to be the first philosopher to use conscientia in a way that does not fit this traditional meaning. Descartes used conscientia the way modern speakers would use "conscience". In Search after Truth he says "conscience or internal testimony"; the dictionary meanings of the word consciousness extend through several centuries and several associated related meanings. These have ranged from formal definitions to definitions attempting to capture the less captured and more debated meanings and usage of the wor
In Freudian psychology, psychosexual development is a central element of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theory, that human beings, from birth, possess an instinctual libido that develops in five stages. Each stage – the oral, the anal, the phallic, the latent, the genital – is characterized by the erogenous zone, the source of the libidinal drive. Sigmund Freud proposed that if the child experienced sexual frustration in relation to any psychosexual developmental stage, he or she would experience anxiety that would persist into adulthood as a neurosis, a functional mental disorder. Sigmund Freud observed that during the predictable stages of early childhood development, the child's behavior is oriented towards certain parts of his or her body, e.g. the mouth during breast-feeding, the anus during toilet-training. He argued that adult neurosis is rooted in childhood sexuality, suggested that neurotic adult behaviors are manifestations of childhood sexual fantasy and desire; that is because human beings are born "polymorphous perverse", infants can derive sexual pleasure from any part of their bodies, that socialization directs the instinctual libidinal drives into adult heterosexuality.
Given the predictable timeline of childhood behavior, he proposed "libido development" as a model of normal childhood sexual development, wherein the child progresses through five psychosexual stages – the oral. Sexual infantilism: in pursuing and satisfying his or her libido, the child might experience failure and thus might associate anxiety with the given erogenous zone. To avoid anxiety, the child becomes fixated, preoccupied with the psychologic themes related to the erogenous zone in question, which persist into adulthood, underlie the personality and psychopathology of the man or woman, as neurosis, personality disorders, et cetera; the first stage of psychosexual development is the oral stage, spanning from birth until the age of one year, wherein the infant's mouth is the focus of libidinal gratification derived from the pleasure of feeding at the mother's breast, from the oral exploration of his or her environment, i.e. the tendency to place objects in the mouth. The id dominates, because neither the ego nor the super ego is yet developed, since the infant has no personality, every action is based upon the pleasure principle.
Nonetheless, the infantile ego is forming during the oral stage. Weaning is the key experience in the infant's oral stage of psychosexual development, his or her first feeling of loss consequent to losing the physical intimacy of feeding at mother's breast. Yet, weaning increases the infant's self-awareness that he or she does not control the environment, thus learns of delayed gratification, which leads to the formation of the capacities for independence and trust. Yet, thwarting of the oral-stage — too much or too little gratification of desire — might lead to an oral-stage fixation, characterised by passivity, immaturity, unrealistic optimism, manifested in a manipulative personality consequent to ego malformation. In the case of too much gratification, the child does not learn that he or she does not control the environment, that gratification is not always immediate, thereby forming an immature personality. In the case of too little gratification, the infant might become passive upon learning that gratification is not forthcoming, despite having produced the gratifying behavior.
The second stage of psychosexual development is the anal stage, spanning from the age of eighteen months to three years, wherein the infant's erogenous zone changes from the mouth to the anus, while the ego formation continues. Toilet training is the child's key anal-stage experience, occurring at about the age of two years, results in conflict between the id and the ego in eliminating bodily wastes, handling related activities; the style of parenting influences the resolution of the id–ego conflict, which can be either gradual and psychologically uneventful, or which can be sudden and psychologically traumatic. The ideal resolution of the id–ego conflict is in the child's adjusting to moderate parental demands that teach the value and importance of physical cleanliness and environmental order, thus producing a self-controlled adult. Yet, if the parents make immoderate demands of the child, by over-emphasizing toilet training, it might lead to the development of a compulsive personality, a person too concerned with neatness and order.
If the child obeys the id, the parents yield, he or she might develop a self-indulgent personality characterized by personal slovenliness and environmental disorder. If the parents respond to that, the child must comply, but might develop a weak sense of self, because it was the parents' will, not the child's ego, which controlled the toilet training; the third stage of psychosexual development is the phallic stage, spanning the ages of three to six years, wherein the
Anna Freud was an Austrian-British psychoanalyst. She was born in the sixth and youngest child of Sigmund Freud and Martha Bernays, she contributed to the field of psychoanalysis. Alongside Melanie Klein, she may be considered the founder of psychoanalytic child psychology. Compared to her father, her work emphasized the importance of the ego and its normal "developmental lines" as well as incorporating a distinctive emphasis on collaborative work across a range of analytical and observational contexts. After the Freud family were forced to leave Vienna in 1938, with the advent of the Nazi regime in Austria, she resumed her psychoanalytic practice and her pioneering work in child psychology in London, establishing the Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic in 1952 as a centre for therapy and research work. Anna Freud was born in Vienna, Austria-Hungary on 3 December 1895, she was the youngest daughter of Martha Bernays. She grew up in "comfortable bourgeois circumstances." Anna Freud appears to have had a comparatively unhappy childhood, in which she "never made a close or pleasurable relationship with her mother, was instead nurtured by their Catholic nurse Josephine."
She had difficulties getting along with her siblings with her sister Sophie Freud. Sophie, the more attractive child, represented a threat in the struggle for the affection of their father: "the two young Freuds developed their version of a common sisterly division of territories:'beauty' and'brains', their father once spoke of her'age-old jealousy of Sophie.'As well as this rivalry between the two sisters, Anna had other difficulties growing up –'a somewhat troubled youngster who complained to her father in candid letters how all sorts of unreasonable thoughts and feelings plagued her'. It seems that'in general, she was relentlessly competitive with her siblings...and was sent to health farms for thorough rest, salutary walks, some extra pounds to fill out her all too slender shape': she may have suffered from depression which caused eating disorders. The close relationship between Anna and her father was different from the rest of her family, she was a lively child with a reputation for mischief.
Freud wrote to his friend Wilhelm Fliess in 1899: "Anna has become downright beautiful through naughtiness." Freud is said to refer to her in his diaries more than others in the family. On Anna Freud would say that she didn't learn much in school; this was how she picked up Hebrew, English and Italian. At the age of 15, she started reading her father's work and discovered a dream she had'at the age of nineteen months... appeared in The Interpretation of Dreams. Commentators have noted how'in the dream of little Anna... little Anna only hallucinates forbidden objects'. Anna finished her education at the Cottage Lyceum in Vienna in 1912. Suffering from a depression and anorexia, she was insecure about what to do in the future. A visit to Britain in the autumn of 1914, which her father's colleague, Ernest Jones, became of concern to Freud when he learned of the latter's romantic intentions, his advice to Jones, in a letter of 22 July 1914, was that his daughter "... does not claim to be treated as a woman, being still far away from sexual longings and rather refusing man.
There is an outspoken understanding between me and her that she should not consider marriage or the preliminaries before she gets two or three years older". In 1914 she passed the test to work as a teaching apprentice at the Cottage Lyceum. From 1915 to 1917, she worked as a teaching apprentice for third and fifth graders. For the school year 1917-18, she began'her first venture as Klassenlehrerin for the second grade'. For her performance during the school years 1915-18 she was praised by her superior, Salka Goldman who'wrote... she showed "great zeal "for all her responsibilities, but she was appreciated for her "conscientious preparations" and for her "gift for teaching"... being such a success that she was invited to stay on with a regular four-year contract starting in the fall of 1918'. After experiencing multiple episodes of illness Anna Freud resigned her teaching post in 1920; this enabled her to pursue further her growing interest in her father's work and writings. From 1918 to 1921 and from 1924 to 1929 she was in analysis with her father.
In 1922 she presented her paper "Beating Fantasies and Daydreams" to the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society and became a member of the society. In 1923, she began her own psychoanalytical practice with children and by 1925 she was teaching at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Training Institute on the technique of child analysis. From 1925 until 1934, she was the Secretary of the International Psychoanalytical Association while she continued child analysis and contributed to seminars and conferences on the subject. In 1935, she became director of the Vienna Psychoanalytical Training Institute and the following year she published her influential study of the "ways and means by which the ego wards off depression and anxiety", The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence, it became a founding work of ego psychology and established Freud's reputation as a pioneering theoretician. Among the first children Anna Freud took into analysis. In 1925 Burlingham, heiress to the Tiffany luxury jewellery retailer, had arrived in Vienna from New York with her four children and entered analysis firstly with Theodore Reik and with a view to training in child analysis, with Freud himself.
Anna and Dorothy soon d
Josef Breuer was a distinguished physician who made key discoveries in neurophysiology, whose work in the 1880s with his patient Bertha Pappenheim, known as Anna O. developed the talking cure and laid the foundation to psychoanalysis as developed by his protégé Sigmund Freud. Born in Vienna, his father, Leopold Breuer, taught religion in Vienna's Jewish community. Breuer's mother died when he was quite young, he was raised by his maternal grandmother and educated by his father until the age of eight, he graduated from the Akademisches Gymnasium of Vienna in 1858 and studied at the university for one year before enrolling in the medical school of the University of Vienna. He passed his medical exams in 1867 and went to work as assistant to the internist Johann Oppolzer at the university. Breuer, working under Ewald Hering at the military medical school in Vienna, was the first to demonstrate the role of the vagus nerve in the reflex nature of respiration; this was a departure from previous physiological understanding, changed the way scientists viewed the relationship of the lungs to the nervous system.
The mechanism is now known as the Hering–Breuer reflex. Independent of each other in 1873, Breuer and the physicist and mathematician Ernst Mach discovered how the sense of balance functions: that it is managed by information the brain receives from the movement of a fluid in the semicircular canals of the inner ear; that the sense of balance depends on the three semicircular canals was discovered in 1870 by the physiologist Friedrich Goltz, but Goltz did not discover how the balance-sensing apparatus functions. Breuer is best known for his work in the 1880s with Anna O. a woman suffering from "paralysis of her limbs, anaesthesias, as well as disturbances of vision and speech." Breuer observed that her symptoms disappeared after she described them to him. Anna O. humorously called this procedure chimney sweeping. She coined the more serious appellation for this form of therapy, talking cure. Breuer referred to it as the “cathartic method”. Breuer was a mentor to the young Sigmund Freud, had helped set him up in medical practice.
Ernest Jones recalled, "Freud was interested in hearing of the case of Anna O, which... made a deep impression on him". Breuer, first made use of this procedure... Never before had anyone removed a hysterical symptom by such a method."Freud and Breuer documented their discussions of Anna O. and other case studies in their 1895 book, Studies in Hysteria. These discussions of Breuer's treatment of Anna O. became "a formative basis of psychoanalytic practice the importance of fantasies and the concept and method of catharsis which were Breuer's major contributions." Louis Breger has observed that in the Studies, "Freud is looking for a grand theory that will make him famous and, because of this, he is always fastening on what he thinks will be a single cause of hysteria, such as sexual conflict... Breuer, on the other hand, writes about the many factors that produce symptoms, including traumas of a variety of kinds, he gives others, such as Pierre Janet and argues for “eclecticism”. From a Freudian standpoint, "while Breuer, with his intelligent and amorous patient Anna O. had unwittingly laid the groundwork for psychoanalysis, it was Freud who drew the consequences from Breuer's case."
However, Breger notes that Breuer, while he valued Freud’s contributions, didn’t agree that sexual issues were the only cause of neurotic symptoms. Freud turned on Breuer, no longer giving him credit and helping spread a rumour that Breuer had not been able to handle erotic attention from Anna O. and had abandoned her case, though research indicates this never happened and Breuer remained involved with her case for several years while she remained unwell. In 1894 Breuer was elected a Corresponding Member of the Vienna Academy of Sciences. Breuer married Mathilde Altmann in 1868, they had five children, his daughter Dora committed suicide rather than be deported by the Nazis. Another one of his daughters, Margarete Schiff, perished in Theresienstadt on September 9, 1942. Breuer's granddaughter, Hanna Schiff, died. Zwei Fälle von Hydrophobie. In: Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift 18. Sp. 178 f. 210-213. Das Verhalten der Eigenwärme in Krankheiten. In: Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift 18. Sp. 982-985, 998-1002.
Die Selbststeuerung der Athmung durch. In: Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften Wien, math.-naturw. Kl. 58/2, S. 909-937. Bemerkungen zu Senator's „Beiträge zur Lehre von der Eigenwärme und dem Fieber“. In: Arch. path. Anat. Berlin 46, S. 391 f. Über Bogengänge des Labyrinths. In: Allg. Wien. med. Ztg. 18, S. 598, 606. Über die Function der Bogengänge des Ohrlabyrinthes. In: Med. Jb. Wien 1874. S. 72-124. Zur Lehre vom statischen Sinne. Vorläufige Mittheilung. In: Anz. Ges. Ärzte, Wien 1873. Nr. 9, S. 31-33. Beiträge zur Lehre vom statischen Sinne. Zweite Mittheilung. In: Med. Jb. Wien 1875. S. 87-156. Neue
Otto Rank was an Austrian psychoanalyst and teacher. Born in Vienna, he was one of Sigmund Freud's closest colleagues for 20 years, a prolific writer on psychoanalytic themes, the editor of two eminent analytic journals of the era, the managing director of Freud's publishing house, a creative theorist and therapist. In 1926, Rank left Vienna for Paris, for the remainder of his life, he led a successful career as a lecturer and therapist in France and the United States. In 1905, at the age of 21, Otto Rank presented Freud with a short manuscript on the artist, a study that so impressed Freud he invited Rank to become Secretary of the emerging Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. Rank thus became the first paid member of the psychoanalytic movement, Freud's "right-hand man" for 20 years. Freud considered Rank, with whom he was more intimate intellectually than his own sons, to be the most brilliant of his Viennese disciples. Encouraged and supported by Freud, Rank completed the "Gymnasium" or college-preparatory high school, attended the University of Vienna, was awarded his PhD in philosophy in 1912.
His thesis, on the Lohengrin Saga, was published in 1911, the first Freudian doctoral dissertation to be published as a book. Rank was one of Freud's six collaborators brought together in a secret "committee" or "ring" to defend the psychoanalytic mainstream as disputes with Adler and Jung developed. Rank was the most prolific author in the "ring" besides Freud himself, extending psychoanalytic theory to the study of legend, myth and other works of creativity, he worked with Freud, contributing two chapters on myth and legend to The Interpretation of Dreams. Rank's name appeared underneath Freud's on the title page of Freud's greatest work from 1914 until 1930. Between 1915 and 1918, Rank served as Secretary of the International Psychoanalytical Association which Freud had founded in 1910. Everyone in the small psychoanalytic world understood how much Freud respected Rank and his prolific creativity in expanding psychoanalytic theory. Freud announced to the inner circle, full of jealous rivals, that Rank was "my heir".
In 1924, Rank published Das Trauma der Geburt, exploring how art, religion and therapy were illuminated by separation anxiety in the "phase before the development of the Oedipus complex". But there was no such phase in Freud's theories; the Oedipus complex, Freud explained, was the nucleus of the neurosis and the foundational source of all art, religion, therapy – indeed of all human culture and civilization. It was the first time that anyone in the inner circle had dared to suggest that the Oedipus complex might not be the supreme causal factor in psychoanalysis. Rank was the first to use the term "pre-Oedipal" in a public psychoanalytic forum in 1925. In a 1930 self-analysis of his own writings, Rank observes that "the pre-Oedipal super-ego has since been overemphasized by Melanie Klein, without any reference to me". After some hesitation, Freud distanced himself from The Trauma of Birth, signalling to other members of his inner circle that Rank was perilously close to anti-Oedipal heresy.
"I am boiling with rage," Freud told Sándor Ferenczi Rank's best friend. Confronted with Freud's decisive opposition, Rank resigned in protest from his positions as Vice-President of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, director of Freud's publishing house, co-editor of Imago and Zeitschrift. Ferenczi, with whom Rank had collaborated from 1920 through 1924 on new experiential, object-relational and "here-and-now" approaches to therapy, vacillated on the significance of Rank's pre-Oedipal theory but not on Rank's objections to classical analytic technique; the recommendation in Freud's technical papers for analysts to be emotionless, according to Ferenczi and Rank, had led to "an unnatural elimination of all human factors in the analysis", to "a theorizing of experience ": the feeling experience of the intersubjective relationship, two first-person experiences, within the analytic situation. "The characteristic of that time," remembers Sándor Radó, in analysis with Karl Abraham from 1922 to 1925, "was a neglect of a human being's emotional life."
Adds Rado: "Everybody was looking for oral and genital components in motivation. But that some people are happy, others unhappy, some afraid, or full of anger, some loving and affectionate – read the case histories to find how such differences between people were absent from the literature." All emotional experience by human beings was being reduced by analysis to a derivative, no matter how disguised, of libido. For Freud, emotion was always sexual, derived from a dangerous Id that must be surgically uprooted: "Where Id was," Freud said famously, "there ego shall be ". "Libido," according to Freud's 1921 work on Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego, "is an expression taken from the theory of the emotions." Emotion is the cause of neurotic disorder. Increases in emotion, according to Freud, are unpleasurable. Cure, for Freud, means analyzing, "working through" and uprooting the emotions of the patient, "like the draining of the Zuyder Zee"; the analyst makes the unconscious conscious by providing cognitive insight to the patient, thereby subduing the pressing drive for the irrational, for emotions – for the Id – to emerge from the patient's unconscious.
In a 1927 lecture, Rank observes that "surgical therapy is uprooting and isolat