A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that only involve the positions of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds between atoms, with no change to the nuclei, can be described by a chemical equation. Nuclear chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that involves the chemical reactions of unstable and radioactive elements where both electronic and nuclear changes can occur; the substance involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants or reagents. Chemical reactions are characterized by a chemical change, they yield one or more products, which have properties different from the reactants. Reactions consist of a sequence of individual sub-steps, the so-called elementary reactions, the information on the precise course of action is part of the reaction mechanism. Chemical reactions are described with chemical equations, which symbolically present the starting materials, end products, sometimes intermediate products and reaction conditions.
Chemical reactions happen at a characteristic reaction rate at a given temperature and chemical concentration. Reaction rates increase with increasing temperature because there is more thermal energy available to reach the activation energy necessary for breaking bonds between atoms. Reactions may proceed in the forward or reverse direction until they go to completion or reach equilibrium. Reactions that proceed in the forward direction to approach equilibrium are described as spontaneous, requiring no input of free energy to go forward. Non-spontaneous reactions require input of free energy to go forward. Different chemical reactions are used in combinations during chemical synthesis in order to obtain a desired product. In biochemistry, a consecutive series of chemical reactions form metabolic pathways; these reactions are catalyzed by protein enzymes. Enzymes increase the rates of biochemical reactions, so that metabolic syntheses and decompositions impossible under ordinary conditions can occur at the temperatures and concentrations present within a cell.
The general concept of a chemical reaction has been extended to reactions between entities smaller than atoms, including nuclear reactions, radioactive decays, reactions between elementary particles, as described by quantum field theory. Chemical reactions such as combustion in fire and the reduction of ores to metals were known since antiquity. Initial theories of transformation of materials were developed by Greek philosophers, such as the Four-Element Theory of Empedocles stating that any substance is composed of the four basic elements – fire, water and earth. In the Middle Ages, chemical transformations were studied by Alchemists, they attempted, in particular, to convert lead into gold, for which purpose they used reactions of lead and lead-copper alloys with sulfur. The production of chemical substances that do not occur in nature has long been tried, such as the synthesis of sulfuric and nitric acids attributed to the controversial alchemist Jābir ibn Hayyān; the process involved heating of sulfate and nitrate minerals such as copper sulfate and saltpeter.
In the 17th century, Johann Rudolph Glauber produced hydrochloric acid and sodium sulfate by reacting sulfuric acid and sodium chloride. With the development of the lead chamber process in 1746 and the Leblanc process, allowing large-scale production of sulfuric acid and sodium carbonate chemical reactions became implemented into the industry. Further optimization of sulfuric acid technology resulted in the contact process in the 1880s, the Haber process was developed in 1909–1910 for ammonia synthesis. From the 16th century, researchers including Jan Baptist van Helmont, Robert Boyle, Isaac Newton tried to establish theories of the experimentally observed chemical transformations; the phlogiston theory was proposed in 1667 by Johann Joachim Becher. It postulated the existence of a fire-like element called "phlogiston", contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion; this proved to be false in 1785 by Antoine Lavoisier who found the correct explanation of the combustion as reaction with oxygen from the air.
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac recognized in 1808 that gases always react in a certain relationship with each other. Based on this idea and the atomic theory of John Dalton, Joseph Proust had developed the law of definite proportions, which resulted in the concepts of stoichiometry and chemical equations. Regarding the organic chemistry, it was long believed that compounds obtained from living organisms were too complex to be obtained synthetically. According to the concept of vitalism, organic matter was endowed with a "vital force" and distinguished from inorganic materials; this separation was ended however by the synthesis of urea from inorganic precursors by Friedrich Wöhler in 1828. Other chemists who brought major contributions to organic chemistry include Alexander William Williamson with his synthesis of ethers and Christopher Kelk Ingold, among many discoveries, established the mechanisms of substitution reactions. Chemical equations are used to graphically illustrate chemical reactions, they consist of chemical or structural formulas of the reactants on the left and those of the products on the right.
They are separated by an arrow which indicates the type of the reaction.
Transformations is a chamber opera in two acts by the American composer Conrad Susa with a libretto of ten poems by Anne Sexton from her 1971 book Transformations, a collection of confessional poetry based on stories by the Brothers Grimm. Commissioned by Minnesota Opera, the work, described by its composer as "An Entertainment in 2 Acts", had its world premiere on 5 May 1973 at the Cedar Village Theater in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Anne Sexton, who had worked with Susa on the libretto, was in the audience, it went on to become one of the most performed operas by an American composer with its chamber opera format of eight singers and an instrumental ensemble of eight musicians making it popular with smaller opera companies and conservatories. The 2006 revival production of Transformations at the Wexford Opera Festival won the Irish Times Theatre Award for Best Opera Production. Transformations was commissioned from Conrad Susa in 1972 by Minnesota Opera, a company specializing in new works by American composers.
That year, Susa approached the American poet Anne Sexton with the idea of using her 1971 book, Transformations, a poetic re-telling of sixteen stories by the Brothers Grimm, as the basis for the libretto. Delighted with the idea of hearing her poetry as song, she cooperated with Susa in selecting and arranging the ten poems which would form the basis of the opera. Transformations premiered on 5 May 1973 at the Cedar Village Theater in Minnesota; the premiere production was conducted by Philip Brunelle and directed by H. Wesley Balk with set and costume design by Robert Israel and lighting design by Bruce Miller. Sexton herself was in the audience that night, she subsequently returned to Minneapolis for further performances and made a tape-recording of the opera which she listened to and played for her friends and family. In August 1978, the opera received its US television premiere when it was broadcast on the PBS network in a shortened version performed by Minnesota Opera and co-produced by WNET and KTCA.
Anne Sexton did not live to see the broadcast. Throughout her life she had suffered from mental illness with repeated suicide attempts followed by stays in psychiatric hospitals. On 4 October 1974, dressed in her mother's old fur coat, she killed herself at her home in Weston, Massachusetts. Transformations went on to become one of the most performed operas by an American composer, its chamber opera format has made it popular with smaller opera companies and conservatories. Notable US revivals include those at the Spoleto Festival USA, Aspen Music Festival with Renée Fleming as Anne Sexton, New York Opera Repertory Theater in New York City, Center for Contemporary Opera in New York City, Opera Theatre of St. Louis, Peabody Institute, San Francisco Opera's Merola Program with the composer in the audience, University of Maryland Opera Studio, the Juilliard School. Although it has remained unknown in Europe, Transformations had its UK premiere in 1978 performed by the English Music Theatre Company and was one of the featured operas of the 2006 Wexford Opera Festival in Ireland.
The Wexford production, directed by Michael Barker-Caven, won the 2006 Irish Times Theatre Award for Best Opera Production. The continental European premiere, directed by Elsa Rooke, was given at the Lausanne Opera in June 2006; the original Minnesota Opera production was set in a mental hospital, a setting used in most of its revivals. However, the 2006 San Francisco production was set in an outdoor party in 1970s American suburbia, while the 2007 University of Maryland production was set in a 1970s nightclub and modelled on Studio 54; the opera was given a pop-art treatment, inspired by Klaus Oldenburg and Andy Warhol, when it was performed in 1980 at San Francisco's Palace of Fine Arts by San Francisco Spring Opera in a production designed by Thomas Munn and directed by Richard C. Hudson. Described by its composer as "An Entertainment in 2 Acts", the opera has a running time of two hours and is scored for eight singers and an ensemble of eight to nine musicians. Voices: two sopranos, one mezzo-soprano, three tenors, one high baritone, one bass-baritone.
Instrumentation: clarinet, trumpet, contrabass, electric harpsichord, electric piano, electric celeste, electric organ, percussion. The musical style is eclectic with multiple references to American popular music, dance rhythms, artists of the 1940s and 1950s; each of the singers in Transformations is referenced by a number on a casting grid and takes multiple roles, with one of the sopranos playing Anne Sexton as well as several other characters. The Division of roles is as follows The opera is set in a mental hospital, with the patients acting out the tales, although some subsequent revivals have altered the setting; the first scene, The Gold Key, is not one of the Grimms' fairy tales, although the title is an allusion to their story, The Golden Key. In both Sexton's original book and the opera, this poem introduces the sequence of re-told fairy tales to follow; as in the original book, each of the subsequent tales has its own introduction and coda in which the poet comments to the audience on her perception of the significance of the story.
Sexton and Susa selected nine of the original sixteen re-told tales for the opera. They are presented in the order; the first and last tales in the book remain the last tales in the opera. According to Susa, "the poems are arranged with the author's approval to e
Nona Hendryx, is an American vocalist, record producer, musician and actress. Hendryx is known for her work as a solo artist as well as for being one-third of the trio Labelle, who had a hit with "Lady Marmalade." Her music has ranged from soul, R&B to hard rock, new wave, new-age. She stated in an interview that her family's last name was spelled with an'i' and that she is a distant cousin of American music legend Jimi Hendrix. Hendryx was born in Trenton, New Jersey in 1944 where she met fellow New Jersey native Sarah Dash and met Philadelphia-born singer Patricia Holte. After a short-lived tenure as a member of the Del-Capris and Dash formed a singing group with Holte. In 1961, Cindy Birdsong, from Camden, New Jersey, became the fourth member of the group, who became the'Bluebelles' and signed their first deal with Newtown Records. After the release of their debut hit, 1962's "I Sold My Heart to the Junkman", their name altered again to Patti LaBelle and the Bluebelles. Hendryx's husky alto differed from Dash's sharp soprano, LaBelle's mezzo-soprano and Birdsong's second soprano.
During this tenure, the group became known for their emotional live performances and their renditions of classic standards such as "You'll Never Walk Alone", "Over The Rainbow", "Danny Boy". The group found themselves competing against girl groups such as The Chantels and The Supremes. In 1967, Hendryx, LaBelle, Dash were shocked to discover that Birdsong had secretly joined the Supremes after Florence Ballard was ousted from the group by Motown. Different members of the group were in touch with Birdsong over the years. Birdsong's relationships with the Bluebelles healed and they came together again for the ceremony when the group won an R&B Foundation Lifetime Achievement Award in 1999. For the next three years, the group struggled to compete against the changing musical landscape for which their girl group sound had fallen out of favor with popular audiences. In 1971, they moved to England, where they had a cult fan base, on the advice of Vicki Wickham, changed their name to Labelle and ditched the dresses and bouffant wigs for jeans and Afros.
Releasing transitional albums including 1971's Labelle and 1972's Moon Shadow, the group recorded material that included sexual and political subject matter – unheard of for an all-female black group. The transition was hard for lead singer LaBelle, a fan of the group's early-era ballads, but she gave in. Member Dash remained neutral throughout the tenure of the group. Shortly after releasing Labelle, the group became the opening act for The Who, whose producer Kit Lambert had produced the group's Warner debut, they opened for Laura Nyro during that same time and sang backup on her album, Gonna Take a Miracle. After the release of Moon Shadow, Hendryx became the chief songwriter for most of the group's records while LaBelle and Dash wrote their own material. After opening for The Rolling Stones during the group's American tour in 1973, the group released Pressure Cookin', where they once again adopted a new look as "glam rock, space-age divas"; as a songwriter Hendryx subsequently wrote powerful ballads, a wealth of more uptempo numbers.
Her themes were unconventional and experimental. Her composition "A Man In A Trenchcoat" from Chameleon marked Hendryx's first time singing lead vocal on an album. In 1974, the group hit gold with the release of Nightbirds following the release of the smash hit, "Lady Marmalade". In her memoir Don't Block The Blessings, Labelle frontwoman Patti LaBelle attributed the band's 1976 breakup to musical and personal tensions within the group. Labelle and Hendryx all embarked on solo careers. In 1977, Hendryx released a self-titled collection. A blend of soul and hard rock, it contained notable tracks such as "Winning" and the ballad "Leaving Here Today", it disappeared from the shelves, Hendryx was dropped from Epic. Subsequently, she recorded four singles for Arista, which escaped chart success, she did find success doing session work during this period, most notably providing background vocals for Talking Heads and touring with them, appearing first at the major Heatwave festival in August 1980. She contributed the song "Checkmate" on Dusty Springfield's album It Begins Again in 1978.
In the early 1980s, Hendryx fronted her own progressive art rock group, Zero Cool, which included guitarist Naux, bassist Michael Allison, guitarist Kevin Fullen and drummer Jimmy Allington. She sang with experimental funk group Material, achieving a giant club hit with "Busting Out." She had two other major club hits soon after: a dance remake of The Supremes' "Love Is Like An Itching In My Heart," and, in a lead vocal guest spot for the Cage, "Do What You Wanna Do." Material produced her second album, Nona, in 1983. The hip, contemporary dance sound of this album proved to be more charts-compatible, with the disco music times, the single "Keep It Confidential" becoming a modest R&B hit written by Ellie Greenwich, Jeff Kent, Ellen Foley, a remix of "B-boys" finding major success on the dance charts. "Transformation" became a Hendryx staple, was covered by Fierce Ruling Diva. A
The Marble Faun
The Marble Faun: Or, The Romance of Monte Beni known by the British title Transformation, was the last of the four major romances by Nathaniel Hawthorne, was published in 1860. The Marble Faun, written on the eve of the American Civil War, is set in a fantastical Italy; the romance mixes elements of a fable, gothic novel, travel guide. This romance focuses on four main characters: Miriam, Hilda and Donatello. Miriam is a beautiful painter with an unknown past. Throughout the novel, she is compared to many other women including Eve, Beatrice Cenci and Cleopatra. Miriam is pursued by a mysterious, threatening man, her “evil genius” through life. Hilda is an innocent copyist, she is compared to the white dove. Her simple, unbendable moral principles can make her severe in spite of her tender heart. Miriam and Hilda are contrasted. Kenyon is a sculptor, he cherishes a romantic affection towards Hilda. Donatello, the Count of Monte Beni, is compared to Adam and is in love with Miriam. Donatello amazingly resembles the marble Faun of Praxiteles, the novel plays with the characters’ belief that the Count may be a descendant of the antique Faun.
Hawthorne, withholds a definite statement in the novel’s concluding chapters and postscript. After writing The Blithedale Romance in 1852, approaching fifty, was granted a political appointment as American Consul in Liverpool, which he held from 1853 to 1857. In 1858, Hawthorne and his wife Sophia Peabody moved the family to Italy and became tourists for a year and a half. In early 1858, Hawthorne was inspired to write his romance when he saw the Faun of Praxiteles in the Palazzo Nuovo of the Capitoline Museum in Rome. Hawthorne began the manuscript and intended to complete it at home, The Wayside, in Concord, Massachusetts. Instead, he returned to England, where he would remain until July 1860, rewrote the book. On October 10, 1859, he wrote to his American publisher James Thomas Fields that his wife enjoyed what she had read thus far and "speaks of it rapturously. If she liked the author less, I should feel much encouraged by her liking the Romance so much. I admire it exceedingly, at intervals, but am liable to cold fits, during which I think it the most infernal nonsense."
Sophia wrote to her sister Elizabeth Peabody that her husband's reaction was typical: "As usual, he thinks the book good for nothing... He has despised each one of his books upon finishing it."Hawthorne struggled with a title for his new book. He considered several, including Monte Beni; the book was published in America and England in late 1860. The alternate title was used against Hawthorne's wishes. Both titles continue to be used today in the U. K. Encouraged to write a book long enough to fill three volumes, Hawthorne included extended descriptions that critics found distracting or boring. Complaints about the ambiguous ending led Hawthorne to add a postscript to the second edition. Ralph Waldo Emerson called the novel "mush" but James Russell Lowell was pleased with it and praised it as a Christian parable. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote that it was a "wonderful book" but that it had "the old, dull pain in it that runs through all of Hawthorne's writings". Reviews were favorable, though many were confused by the ending.
William Dean Howells wrote: "Everybody was reading it, more or less bewailing its indefinite close, but yielding him that full honor and praise which a writer can hope for but once in his life." Friend and critic Edwin Percy Whipple noted that if Hawthorne had written nothing else, The Marble Faun would qualify him as a master of English composition. John Lothrop Motley wrote a long private letter to Hawthorne full of effusive praise: The Marble Faun has been cited as an influence on H. P. Lovecraft's The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath. A Marble Faun is the title of a book of poetry published in 1924 by William Faulkner; the novel was adapted into an opera with music by Ellen Bender and a libretto by Jessica Treadway, completed in 1996. The Marble Faun — Volume 1 at Project Gutenberg The Marble Faun — Volume 2 at Project Gutenberg The Marble Faun public domain audiobook at LibriVox The Italian Tour: Hawthorne's The Marble Faun — A Noble Theme
Transformation (Don Preston album)
Transformation is an album by American keyboardist Don Preston, released in March 2001 on the Cryptogramophone label. The Allmusic review by Rick Anderson awarded the album 4½ stars out of 5, stating "as outside as he gets, he never departs from a jazz feel -- that's due to the texture of the piano trio, due, one suspects, to the fact that that's where his heart is; this is not, for the most part accessible music, but it will richly reward anyone who makes an effort to approach it". JazzTimes' Bill Shoemaker noted "the opportunity to hear him ruminate in a trio setting on Transformation, revisiting choice moments of past weirdness and glory, as well as dig into original works and unlikely standards, is not to be missed". All compositions by Don Preston except as indicated "The Eric Dolphy Memorial Barbeque" - 6:08 "Walking Batteriewoman" - 7:39 "Inner Blues" - 7:05 "I Love You" - 10:50 "The Lind Sonata"- 10:16 "Ode to the Flower Maiden" - 7:51 "The Donkey" - 4:17 "Transformation" - 6:00 "The Prehistoric Eons" - 8:34 Don Preston – piano, voice Joel Hamilton - bass Alex Cline - drums
Transformation (Tal Wilkenfeld album)
Transformation is the first studio album by bassist Tal Wilkenfeld, released independently on 14 May 2007. The album was recorded when she was 20 years old, having moved to the United States from her native Australia. All music composed by Tal Wilkenfeld. Tal Wilkenfeld – bass, production Wayne Krantz – guitar Geoffrey Keezer – keyboard, piano Keith Carlock – drums Samuel Torres – percussion Oteil Burbridge - bass melody Seamus Blake - saxophone Malcolm Pollack – engineering Roy Hendrickson – engineering Bryan Pugh – engineering assistance Joe Ferla – mixing Bernie Grundman – mastering Tal Wilkenfeld: Serendipity at jazz.com
Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation. Metamorphosis is iodothyronine-induced and an ancestral feature of all chordates; some insects, amphibians, crustaceans, cnidarians and tunicates undergo metamorphosis, accompanied by a change of nutrition source or behavior. Animals that go through metamorphosis are called metamorphoses. Animals can be divided into species that undergo complete metamorphosis, incomplete metamorphosis, or no metamorphosis. Scientific usage of the term is technically precise, it is not applied to general aspects of cell growth, including rapid growth spurts. References to "metamorphosis" in mammals are imprecise and only colloquial, but idealist ideas of transformation and monadology, as in Goethe's Metamorphosis of Plants, have influenced the development of ideas of evolution; the word metamorphosis derives from Greek μεταμόρφωσις, "transformation, transforming", from μετα-, "after" and μορφή, "form".
Metamorphosis is iodothyronine-induced and an ancestral feature of all chordates. In insects growth and metamorphosis are controlled by hormones synthesized by endocrine glands near the front of the body. Neurosecretory cells in an insect's brain secrete a hormone, the prothoracicotropic hormone that activates prothoracic glands, which secrete a second hormone ecdysone, that induces ecdysis. PTTH stimulates the corpora allata, a retrocerebral organ, to produce juvenile hormone, which prevents the development of adult characteristics during ecdysis. In holometabolous insects, molts between larval instars have a high level of juvenile hormone, the moult to the pupal stage has a low level of juvenile hormone, the final, or imaginal, molt has no juvenile hormone present at all. Experiments on firebugs have shown how juvenile hormone can affect the number of nymph instar stages in hemimetabolous insects. All three categories of metamorphosis can be found in the diversity of insects, including no metamorphosis, incomplete or partial metamorphosis, complete metamorphosis.
While ametabolous insects show little difference between larval and adult forms, both hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects have significant morphological and behavioral differences between larval and adult forms, the most significant being the inclusion, in holometabolus organisms, of a pupal or resting stage between the larval and adult forms. In hemimetabolous insects, immature stages are called nymphs. Development proceeds in repeated stages of growth and ecdysis; the juvenile forms resemble adults, but are smaller and lack adult features such as wings and genitalia. The size and morphological differences between nymphs in different instars are small just differences in body proportions and the number of segments. In holometabolous insects, immature stages differ markedly from adults. Insects which undergo holometabolism pass through a larval stage enter an inactive state called pupa, emerge as adults; the earliest insect forms showed direct development, the evolution of metamorphosis in insects is thought to have fuelled their dramatic radiation.
Some early ametabolous "true insects" are still present today, such as bristletails and silverfish. Hemimetabolous insects include cockroaches, grasshoppers and true bugs. Phylogenetically, all insects in the Pterygota undergo a marked change in form and physical appearance from immature stage to adult; these insects either have hemimetabolous development, undergo an incomplete or partial metamorphosis, or holometabolous development, which undergo a complete metamorphosis, including a pupal or resting stage between the larval and adult forms. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of holometaboly from hemimetaboly centering on whether or not the intermediate hemimetabolous forms are homologous to pupal form of holometabolous forms. More scientific attention has turned to characterizing the mechanistic basis of metamorphosis in terms of its hormonal control, by characterizing spatial and temporal patterns of hormone expression relative to metamorphosis in a wide range of insects.
According to research from 2008, adult Manduca sexta is able to retain behavior learned as a caterpillar. Another caterpillar, the ornate moth caterpillar, is able to carry toxins that it acquires from its diet through metamorphosis and into adulthood, where the toxins still serve for protection against predators. Many observations have indicated that programmed cell death plays a considerable role during physiological processes of multicellular organisms during embryogenesis and metamorphosis. Sequence illustrating complete metamorphosis in the cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae In typical amphibian development, eggs are laid in water and larvae are adapted to an aquatic lifestyle. Frogs and newts all hatch from the eggs as larvae with external gills but it will take some time for the amphibians to interact outside with pulmonary respiration. Afterwards, newt larvae start a predatory lifestyle, while tadpoles scrape food off surfaces with their horny tooth ridges. Metamorphosis in amphibians is regulated by thyroxin concentration in the blood, which stimulates metamorphosis, prolactin, which counteracts its effe