This article may be in need of reorganization to comply with Wikipedia's layout guidelines. (October 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Part of a series on|
|Health care and medicine|
|Society and culture|
|Theory and concepts|
Persons assigned male at birth generally do not have the anatomy needed for natural embryonic and fetal development. Today, there are no successful cases regarding uterus transplant concerning a transgender woman or a cisgender male. The theoretical issue of ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the uterine cavity) by implantation in persons assigned male at birth has been addressed by experts in the field of fertility medicine, who stress that the concept of ectopic implantation, while theoretically plausible, has never been attempted and would be difficult to justify – even for biological females lacking a uterus – owing to the extreme health risks to both the parent and child.
Robert Winston, a pioneer of in-vitro fertilization, told London's Sunday Times that "male pregnancy would certainly be possible" by having an embryo implanted in a man's abdomen – with the placenta attached to an internal organ such as the bowel – and later delivered by Caesarean section. Ectopic implantation of the embryo along the abdominal wall, and resulting placenta growth would, however, be very dangerous and potentially fatal for the host, and is therefore unlikely to be studied in humans.
Some transgender men can become pregnant. This is possible for trans men who retain functioning ovaries and a uterus even after having otherwise physically transitioned to male. Regardless of prior hormone replacement therapy treatments, the progression of pregnancy and birthing procedures are typically the same as those who identify as cisgender females. However, trans men who partake in gestation are often subjected to a variety of negative social, emotional, and medical experiences, as pregnancy is traditionally regarded as an exclusively feminine or female activity. According to the study "Transgender Men Who Experienced Pregnancy After Female-to-Male Gender Transitioning" by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, there is a lack of awareness, services, and medical assistance available to pregnant men. Inaccessibility to these services may lead to difficulty in finding comfortable and supportive services concerning prenatal care, as well as an increased risk for unsafe or unhealthy practices. Additionally, the study also exposed that some individuals reported having gender dysphoria and feelings of isolation due to the drastic changes in appearance occur during pregnancy, such as enlarged breasts, and due to changes in public reception of their gender identity. Terms used to describe the role of men during pregnancy were reported to be Dad, Carrier, and Gestational Parent which aim to affirm the ability of pregnancy to also be a masculine experience.
Matt Rice, a transgender man, bore a son named Blake in October 1999 following random sperm donations from three cisgender male friends during a relationship with transgender writer Patrick Califia.
Thomas Beatie, another transgender man, has borne three children. He chose to become pregnant because his wife Nancy was infertile, doing so with cryogenic donated sperm and a syringe, at home. Thomas wrote an article about the experience in The Advocate. The Washington Post further broadened the story on March 25 when blogger Emil Steiner called Beatie the first "legally" pregnant man on record, in reference to certain states' and federal legal recognition of Beatie as male. In 2010, Guinness World Records recognized Beatie as the world's "First Married Man to Give Birth." Beatie gave birth to a girl named Susan Juliette Beatie on June 29, 2008. Barbara Walters announced Beatie's second pregnancy on The View, and Beatie gave birth to a boy named Austin Alexander Beatie on June 9, 2009. Beatie gave birth to his third child, a boy named Jensen James Beatie, on July 25, 2010.
Yuval Topper, an Israeli transgender man, gave birth to a child on December 28, 2011.
- "Male pregnancy". ScienceDirect. 2003-10-14.
- William Leith (2008-04-10). "Pregnant men: hard to stomach?". London: Telegraph.
- Dick Teresi (1994-11-27). "How To Get A Man Pregnant". The New York Times.
- "Babies borne by men 'possible'". The Independent. 1999-02-22.
- Meryl Rothstein (2005-07-31). "Male Pregnancy: A Dangerous Proposition". Popular Science. Archived from the original on 2008-04-02.
- "Men can have babies; Study still in infancy though: Expert". Indian Express Newspapers. February 22, 1999. Archived from the original on 2009-03-09.
- "A Womb Of His Own". Snopes.com. 2008-05-09.
- FTM Transgender. - FAMILY/Hormone guide for FTM, "Question 2" (geocities) last accessed 2008-07-02
- Labor of Love website.
- Thomas Beatie, "Labor of Love: Is society ready for this pregnant husband?", The Advocate, April 8, 2008, p. 24.
- Light, Alexis D.; Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Sevelius, Jae M.; Kerns, Jennifer L. (1 December 2014). "Transgender men who experienced pregnancy after female-to-male gender transitioning". Obstet Gynecol. 124 (6): 1120–1127. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000540. PMID 25415163 – via PubMed.
- NNDB Pat Califia http://www.nndb.com/people/573/000118219/
- Califia-Rice, Patrick (2000-06-20). "Two Dads With a Difference — Neither of Us Was Born Male". The Village Voice. Retrieved 2008-03-22.
- Thomas Beatie: The First Man to Give Birth? The Washington Post.com OFF/beat blog March 25, 2008
- "First Married Man to GIve Birth", Guinness World Records 2010 edition, page 110"
- The Pregnant Man Gives Birth people.com, Originally posted Thursday July 03, 2008 02:55 PM EDT
- 'Pregnant man' gives birth to baby girl named Susan Juliette Beatie at guardian.co.uk.
- "Pregnant man pregnant again". www.meeja.com.au. 2008-11-14. Retrieved 2008-10-11.
- "'Pregnant Man' Gives Birth Again". People Magazine. 2009-06-09.
- "First known transgender man to give birth delivers third child". perth now. 2010-08-03.
- "'Pregnant man' Thomas Beatie splits from wife".
- "Israeli man gives birth". Israel: Ynetnews.com. 2011-12-30.