Piloting or pilotage is navigating, using fixed points of reference on the sea or on land with reference to a nautical chart or aeronautical chart to obtain a fix of the position of the vessel or aircraft with respect to a desired course or location. Horizontal fixes of position from known reference points may be obtained by radar. Vertical position may be obtained by depth sounder to determine depth of the water body below a vessel or by altimeter to determine an aircraft's altitude, from which its distance above the ground can be deduced. Piloting a vessel is practiced close to shore or on inland waterways. Pilotage of an aircraft is practiced under visual meteorological conditions for flight. Land navigation is a related discipline, using a topographic map when applied over trackless terrain. Divers use related techniques for underwater navigation. Depending on whether one is navigating on a water course, in the air or on land, a different chart applies for the navigator: Nautical charts – show coastal regions and depict depths of water and land features, natural features of the seabed, details of the coastline, navigational hazards, locations of natural and human-made aids to navigation, human-made structures such as harbours and bridges.
Aeronautical charts – for visual meteorological conditions depict terrain, geographic features, navigational aids and other aids to navigation. They vary in scale from 1:1,000,000 for world aeronautical charts to 1:250,000. Topographic maps – show landforms and terrain and rivers, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas and railways, other man-made features. Cartography showing man-made and natural features that can be used as points of reference appropriate to the type of navigation. Coastal mariners use reference manuals, called "pilots" for navigating coastal waters. In addition to providing descriptions of shipping channels and coastal profiles, they discuss weather and other topics of interest to mariners. Notable guides include a worldwide series of "Sailing Directions" by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office that includes, most notably, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. Another series worldwide series of Sailing Directions is by the US National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, which has planning guide and enroute portions.
The "United States Coast Pilot", by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Coast Survey, covers the coastal and intracoastal waters and the Great Lakes of the United States. Common types of visual reference point used for piloting and pilotage include: Natural features: Mountains, lakes and coastal features such as cliffs and beaches Navigational aids: sea marks and landmarks Other structures: Airports, dams and radio antennas Lighted navigational aids: Lighthouses and lighted sea marks Lighted structures: Airports, illuminated towers and buildings Depth, measured with a depth sounder or lead line, can be used to identify a bathymetric contour or crossing point. Elevation can be used to confirm a geographic contour or crossing point. Measurement of depth and altitude allow vessels and aircraft navigators to confirm clear passage over obstructions. On shipboard, navigators may use a pelorus to obtain bearings, relative to the vessel, from charted objects. A hand bearing compass provides magnetic bearings.
On land a hand compass provides bearings to landmarks. Mariners use position-fixing navigation, to obtain a "position fix" or "fix" by measuring the bearing of the navigator's current position from known points of reference. A visual fix of position can be made by using any sighting device with a bearing indicator to obtain position lines from the navigator's current position to each point of reference. Two or more objects of known position are sighted as points of reference, the bearings recorded. Bearing lines or transits are plotted on a chart through the locations of the sighted items; the intersection of these lines is the current position of the navigator. A fix is where two or more position lines intersect at any given time. If three position lines can be obtained, the resulting "cocked hat", where the 3 lines do not intersect at the same point, but create a triangle where the vessel is inside, gives the navigator an indication of the accuracy in the three separate position lines. If two geographic features are visually aligned, the extension of the line joining the features is called a "transit".
A transit is not affected by compass accuracy, is used to check a compass for errors. The most accurate fixes occur. Flying at low altitudes and with sufficient visibility, aircraft pilots use nearby rivers, railroad tracks and other visual references to establish their position; the line connecting fixes is the track over the sea bottom. The navigator compares the ground track with the navigational course for that leg of the intended route, in order to make a correction in "heading", the direction in which the craft is pointed to maintain its course in compensation for cross-currents of wind or water that may carry the craft off course. Where a channel is narrow, as in some harbor entrances and on some rivers, a system of beacons allows mariners to align pairs of daymarks, called "range markers", to form a "leading line" or "range axis", along which to navigate safely; when lighted, these markers are called "leading lights" (British E
The Ford Transit is a range of light commercial vehicles produced by Ford since 1965. Sold as a cargo van, the Transit is built as a passenger van, cutaway van chassis, as a pickup truck. Over 8,000,000 Transit vans have been sold, making it the third best-selling van of all time and have been produced across four basic platform generations, with various "facelift" versions of each; the first product of the merged Ford of Europe, the Transit was marketed through Western Europe and Australia. The Transit has been the best-selling light commercial vehicle in Europe for forty years, in some countries the term "Transit" has passed into common usage as a generic trademark applying to any light commercial van in the Transit's size bracket. While designed for the European market, the Ford Transit is now produced in Asia, North America, Europe for worldwide buyers. Upon production in North America, the Transit won second place in Motor Trend's 2015'Truck of the Year' award, behind the newly introduced mid-size Chevrolet Colorado pickup and ahead of the new Ford F-150.
As of 2016, the Transit is the best-selling van of any type in the United States, minivan sales included. The Transit drives Ford's 57 percent share of the full-size van market in the USA. Unlike the British-built Transit "family", the first production Ford to wear the "Transit" badge was a van built in Ford's Köln plant in Germany, it was introduced in 1953 as FK 1000 with a 1.3-litre inline-four engine from the contemporary Taunus. In 1955 the engine capacity was enlarged to 1.5 litres. From 1961, this vehicle was called the Ford Taunus Transit. Production of this model ceased in 1965; the German vehicle was not exported, the "Mark 1" tag has been applied, retrospectively, to the 1965 to 1978 British model. Whilst there have only been four basic platforms since 1965, the various facelifts and upgrades over the years have been referred to using a conflicting range of "Mark" numbers, with some sources counting a facelift as a new "Mark", some not. Ford's own historical look back at Transit production, published for the launch of the 1994 model, avoids the issue by referring to generations of Transit by years produced.
This article attempts to make mention of all the common naming systems. The first generation Transit, or the Transit Mark I in the United Kingdom, was introduced in October 1965, taking over directly from the Thames 400E; this generation had the longest production run of any Transit to date, staying unaltered for 12 years until the major facelift of 1978, with overall production lasting for over 20 years before being replaced by the all-new VE6 platform in 1986. The van was produced at Ford's Langley facility in Berkshire, but demand outstripped the capability of the plant, production was moved to Southampton until closure in 2013 in favour of the Turkish factory. Transits were produced in Ford's Genk factory in Belgium and Turkey. Transits were produced in Amsterdam for the local market from the mid-1970s until the end of 1981; this factory had ample capacity. Although the Transit sold well in the Netherlands, it was not enough to save the factory, which closed in December 1981; the Transit was introduced to replace the Ford Thames 400E, a small mid-engined forward control van noted for its narrow track, in competition with similar-looking but larger vehicles from the BMC J4 and J2 vans and Rootes Group's Commer PB ranges.
In a UK market segment dominated by the Bedford CA, Ford's Thames competitor, because of its restricted load area, failed to attract fleet users in sufficient numbers. Ford switched to a front-engined configuration, as did the 1950s by Bedford with their well-regarded CA series vans. Henry Ford II's revolutionary step was to combine the engineering efforts of Ford of Britain and Ford of Germany to create a prototype for the Ford of Europe of today—previously the two subsidiaries had avoided competing in one another's domestic markets but had been direct competitors in other European markets; the Transit was a departure from the European commercial vehicles of the day with its American-inspired styling—its broad track gave it a huge advantage in carrying capacity over comparable vehicles of the day. Most of the Transit's mechanical components were adapted from Ford's car range of the time. Another key to the Transit's success was the sheer number of different body styles: panel vans in long and short wheelbase forms, pick-up truck, crew-cabs to name but a few.
The engines used in the UK were the Essex V4 for the petrol-engined version in 1.7 L and 2.0 L capacities. By using short V-4 engines Ford were able to minimise the additional length necessitated to place the engine ahead of the driver. Another popular development under the bonnet was the equipping of the van with an alternator at time when the UK market competitors expected buyers to be content with a dynamo. A 43 bhp diesel engine sourced from Perkins was offered; as this engine was too long to fit under the Transit's stubby nose, the diesel version featured a longer bonnet - which became nicknamed as the "pig snout". The underpowered Perkins proved unpopular, was replaced by Ford's own York unit in 1972. For mainland Europe the Transit had the German Ford Taunus V4 engine in Cologne 1.3, 1.5, an
Sic transit gloria mundi
Sic transit gloria mundi is a Latin phrase that means "Thus passes the glory of the world". The phrase was used in the ritual of papal coronation ceremonies between 1409 and 1963; as the newly chosen pope proceeded from the sacristy of St. Peter's Basilica in his sedia gestatoria, the procession stopped three times. On each occasion a papal master of ceremonies would fall to his knees before the pope, holding a silver or brass reed, bearing a tow of smoldering flax. For three times in succession, as the cloth burned away, he would say in a loud and mournful voice, "Pater Sancte, sic transit gloria mundi!" These words, thus addressed to the pope, served as a reminder of the transitory nature of life and earthly honors. The stafflike instrument used in the aforementioned ceremony is known as a "sic transit gloria mundi", named for the master of ceremonies' words. A form of the phrase appeared in Thomas à Kempis's 1418 work The Imitation of Christ: "O quam cito transit gloria mundi". After the end of the War of 1812, a reader named "Albion" submitted a letter to the British Naval Chronicle.
Referring to the United States, he declared "the rising greatness of this distant empire astonish the nations who have looked on with wonder, seen the mightiest efforts of Britain, at the era of her greatest power, so parried, so foiled." At the end of his letter he pens "Sic transit Gloria mundi" as a final acknowledgment of downward trend of British naval superiority and the rise of American power at sea. Emily Dickinson used the line in a whimsical valentine written to William Howland in 1852 and subsequently published in the Springfield Daily Republican, it parodied her education by its use of stock morals. The science fiction novel A Canticle for Leibowitz by Walter M. Miller Jr. ends with the world being destroyed in nuclear war. A Catholic monk, boarding a starship escaping Earth at the last moment, murmurs Sic transit mundus. In the vintage computer game Super Star Trek, "Sic transit Gloria mundi" is printed out when you fail to rematerialize at the nearest starbase after calling for help, thus lose the game.
There are countless sayings in various languages expressing the same sentiment. Within Buddhism, the corresponding doctrine is impermanence. In East Asian Buddhism, the analogous saying is the four-character idiom 盛者必衰, from a passage in the Humane King Sutra, 「盛者必衰、実者必虚」, which translates as "The prosperous decline, the full empty". In Japan this is well-known due to its use in the opening line of The Tale of the Heike, whose latter half reads "the color of the sāla flowers reveals the truth that the prosperous must decline.". Memento mori This too shall pass Vanitas In ictu oculi, the companion painting to Finis gloriae mundi
Transit (Aaronovitch novel)
Transit is an original novel written by Ben Aaronovitch and based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. It features the Seventh Doctor and the first appearance of Kadiatu Lethbridge-Stewart. A prelude to the novel penned by Aaronovitch, appeared in Doctor Who Magazine #195. Human engineers are preparing to open a new section of the Sol Transit System, a mass transit system that uses transmat technology to send trains between planets, from the solar system to Arcturus; the system begins to experience power drains, which the technicians, known as "Floozies", cannot determine the cause. At Lunarversity on the moon, Kadiatu Lethbridge-Stewart is experiencing financial difficulty and agrees to deliver a batch of drugs to Old Sam, one of the Floozies, for a local dealer. Old Sam is a veteran of the Ten-thousand Day War against the Martians and now cannot survive without combat drugs given to him by the army. Having made the drop off and collected a moneypin in payment, Kadiatu joins the Floozies for a wild night out across the Solar System and sleeps with one named Blondie.
The following morning, she wakes up in Beijing, without the moneypin she needs to get home and pay her debts. During the opening ceremony of the Arcturus extension, an unknown force blasts through the tunnel, killing everything in its path. Dodging a ticket inspector, Kadiatu makes her way to King's Cross station as the TARDIS materialises; as the Doctor and Bernice exit the TARDIS, the blast wave hits the station—Bernice and the TARDIS are caught in the blast and disappear, but the Doctor pulls Kadiatu to safety. With the main line shut down till the damage can be repaired, the Doctor cannot retrieve the TARDIS or Benny, remains with Kadiatu; the pair visit Francine, at her bar on Mars. She agrees to use her underworld contacts to find Blondie, tells Kadiatu that her new friend has two hearts, confirming her suspicions. Long ago, her father told her stories about his grandfather and the mysterious time traveller known as the Doctor; the two go to a cafe in Paris, where the Doctor gets drunk and passes out celebrating the universe's 13500020012th birthday.
Benny arrives at Lowell depot a rundown slum on Pluto and meets two prostitutes and Roberta. Unknown to Benny, Roberta is a childhood lover of Blondie. Roberta has Kadiatu's moneypin. Behiaving strangely, Benny demands to be taken to a local gang leader, whom she encourages to take over the slum. Violence spreads across the slum, killing many including Roberta and leading to military intervention and evacuation of the survivors; the Doctor awakens in Kadiatu's room at the Lunarversity and, looking through her belongings, realises she has been researching his visits to Earth and that she was genetically engineered. He discovers that she is close to developing a time machine. Unsure how to act, the Doctor first solves Kadiatu's problem with the drug dealers and searches for Benny, stowing away on a maintenance train heading to the relief zone on Pluto. A mysterious train-shaped object begins moving through the tunnels, swallowing passengers and pirate free-surfers, its victims are re-engineered into mutant soldiers to serve the intelligence that has invaded the tunnels.
Francine contacts Old Sam about Blondie, but he convinces them that he knows nothing about the moneypin. Using the tunnel surveillance system, they locate the Doctor heading for Pluto. Old Sam and Blondie set off intending to rescue Kadiatu; the Doctor finds the TARDIS embedded in a concrete wall at the end of the line. While the Doctor tries to work out a way to free it, the pair are attacked by Benny; the intelligence has possessed her. Kadiatu realises that her instinctive response to danger is to kill, that her punches are capable of causing fatal injuries. Old Sam and Blondie arrive and Benny escapes, joining Zamina on a refugee train heading for Mars. Zamina realises. Flashbacks reveal that Kadiatu's father, Yembe, is a descendant of Alistair Lethbridge-Stewart and an African woman with whom he had a brief relationship during his service in Africa. Years Yembe Lethbridge-Stewart had been a soldier in the war against the Martians, where he met Francine. After the war, Francine learnt from a mysterious hacker that a facility outside Leipzig was being used to genetically engineer super-soldiers.
Yembe spared a single baby whom he and Francine adopted. The Doctor and Blondie return the Doctor's house on Allen Road in Kent. While Kadiatu and Blondie make love, the Doctor constructs a device for hacking into the tunnel network; the Doctor deduces that the intelligence invading the tunnels is from another dimension and operates to a computer virus using a neural computer system. He learns that the STS system has become self-aware, communicates with it via a hologram of television anchorman, Yak Harris; the hologram confirms the Doctor's theory, which they report to the STS executives in London. At the same time, the Floozies identify an energy build up, indicating that the hole between dimensions is about to open again. On Mars, Benny has gained access to the STS system, but the controlling influence weakens as she gets further from the tunnels, she recovers enough to send Zamina to the Doctor for help. The Doctor and Kadiatu arrive on Mars, in time to see Benny fleeing from the human colony, killing anyone in her way
In astronomy, a transit is a phenomenon when a celestial body passes directly between a larger body and the observer. As viewed from a particular vantage point, the transiting body appears to move across the face of the larger body, covering a small portion of it; the word "transit" refers to cases where the nearer object appears smaller than the more distant object. Cases where the nearer object appears larger and hides the more distant object are known as occultations. However, the probability of a seeing a transiting planet is low because it is dependent on the alignment of the three objects in a nearly straight line. Many parameters can be determined by about a planet and its host star based on the transit One example of a transit involves the motion of a planet between a terrestrial observer and the Sun; this can happen only with inferior planets, namely Venus. However, because a transit is dependent on the point of observation, the Earth itself transits the Sun if observed from Mars. In the solar transit of the Moon captured during calibration of the STEREO B spacecraft's ultraviolet imaging, the Moon appears much smaller than it does when seen from Earth, because the spacecraft–Moon separation was several times greater than the Earth–Moon distance.
The term can be used to describe the motion of a satellite across its parent planet, for instance one of the Galilean satellites across Jupiter, as seen from Earth. Although rare, cases where four bodies are lined up do happen. One of these events occurred on 27 June 1586, when Mercury transited the Sun as seen from Venus at the same time as a transit of Mercury from Saturn and a transit of Venus from Saturn. No missions were planned to coincide with the transit of Earth visible from Mars on 11 May 1984 and the Viking missions had been terminated a year previously; the next opportunity to observe such an alignment will be in 2084. On December 21, 2012, the Cassini–Huygens probe, in orbit around Saturn, observed the planet Venus transiting the Sun. On 3 June 2014, the Mars rover Curiosity observed the planet Mercury transiting the Sun, marking the first time a planetary transit has been observed from a celestial body besides Earth. In rare cases, one planet can pass in front of another. If the nearer planet appears smaller than the more distant one, the event is called a mutual planetary transit.
Exoplanet Detection The transit method can be used to discover exoplanets. As a planet eclipses/transits its host star it will block a portion of the light from the star. If the planet transits in-between the star and the observer the change in light can be measured to construct a light curve. Light curves are measured with a charged-coupled device; the light curve of a star can disclose several physical characteristics of the planet and star, such as, density. Multiple transit events must be measure to determine the characteristics which tend to occur at regular intervals if the others only one planet. Multiple planets orbiting the same host star can cause Transit Time Variations. TTV is cause by the gravitational forces of all orbiting bodies acting upon each other; the probability of seeing a transit from Earth is low, however. The probability is given by the following equation. P t r a n s i t = / a Where Rplanet is the radius of the star and planet, respectfully; the semi major axis length represented by a.
Because of low probability large selections of the sky must be observed in order to see a transit. Hot Jupiters are more to be seen because of their larger radius and short semi major. In order to find earth size planets red dwarf stars are observed because of their small radius. Though transiting has a low probability it has proven itself to be a good technique in discovering exoplanets. In recent years, the discovery of extrasolar planets has excited interest in the possibility of detecting their transits across their own stellar primaries. HD 209458b was the first such transiting planet; the transit of celestial objects is one of the few key phenomena used today for the study of exoplanetary systems. Today, transit photometry is the leading form of exoplanet discovery; as exoplanets move in front of its host stars there is a dimming in the luminosity of its host star that can be measured. Larger planets make the dip in easier to detect. Followup observations are done to ensure it is a planet through other methods of detecting exoplanets.
There are 2345 planets confirmed with Kepler light curves for stellar host. During a transit there are four "contacts", when the circumference of the small circle touches the circumference of the large circle at a single point. Measuring the precise time of each point of contact was one of the most accurate ways to determine the positions of astronomical bodies; the contacts happen in the following order: First contact: the smaller body is outside the larger body, moving inward Second contact: the smaller body is inside the larger body, moving further inward Third contact: the smaller body is inside the larger body, moving outward Fourth contact: the smaller body is outside the larger body, moving outward A fifth named point is that of greatest transit, when the apparent ce
Transit (2013 film)
Transit is a 2013 Filipino independent drama film written and directed by Hannah Espia. The film follows a story about a single father, forced to hide his children from immigration police in Israel after the Israeli government decides to deport children of immigrant workers, it is Espia's full-length debut film. It was shot in Israel; the film competed under the New Breed section of Cinemalaya 2013. The film won Best Film, directing and other technical awards. Espia said that the inspiration to do the film came after talking to an OFW, bringing home his child from Israel. In 2009, the Israeli government enacted a law that deports the children of migrant workers unless they fulfill a certain criterion. Both Israeli and migrant workers rallied against the law; the film will compete in the 18th Busan International Film Festival under the New Currents section. The film was selected as the Philippine entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 86th Academy Awards, but it was not nominated; the film begins and ends in an airport during a father and son’s transit ﬂight from Tel Aviv to Manila.
It tells the story of Moises, a Filipino single-dad working as a caregiver in Herzliya, who comes home to his apartment in Tel Aviv to celebrate his son Joshua ’s 4th birthday. It was on that day that Moises, together with their Filipino neighbors Janet, her daughter Yael, find out that the Israeli government is going to deport children of foreign workers. Afraid of the new law and Janet decide to hide their children from the immigration police by making them stay inside the house. Ping Medina as Moises Irma Adlawan as Janet Jasmine Curtis-Smith as Yael Marc Justine Alvarez as Joshua Mercedes Cabral as Tina Perla Bronstein as Rotem Omer Juran as Omri Toni Gonzaga as Joshua's Mother Menahem Godick as Israeli policeman 2013 Cinemalaya Film Festival Best Film Audience Award Best Director – Hannah Espia Best Actress – Irma Adlawan Best Supporting Actress – Jasmine Curtis-Smith Special Jury Citation for Best Acting Ensemble – Best Cinematography – Ber Cruz and Lyle Nemenzo Sacris Best Editing – Benjamin Tolentino and Hannah Espia Best Score – Mon Espia 2014 Gawad Urian Awards Best Director – Hannah Espia Transit on IMDb
Transit is a Canadian mobile app developed in Montreal, Quebec designed for aggregating and mapping real-time public transit data, functional in over 125 metropolitan areas around the world. It offers users schedules and alerts for multiple modes of transportation where available, including bus and rail, tracks some services using user locations through the app; the service is compatible with multiple bike share systems, as well as Uber and Car2Go. In April 2018, the app expanded to include scooter-sharing systems in four American cities. Transit is in direct competition with other transit mapping services such as Moovit and CityMapper, as well as general mapping services that provide transit data such as Google Maps, Bing Maps, Apple Maps